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<H1>GNU General Public License</H1><A 
href="http://www.gnu.org/graphics/philosophicalgnu.html"><IMG height=200 
alt=" [image of a Philosophical GNU] " 
src="GNU_license/philosophical-gnu-sm.jpg" 
width=160></A> <!-- Please keep this list alphabetical --><!-- tower, gpl.ja.html is Japanese translation of THIS PAGE, --><!-- NOT translation of GPL itself(gpl.ja.html contains the original --><!-- English version). So please do not remove the following. --><!-- Thanks -mhatta --><!-- The same for the Czech page. The entire text of GPL is not --><!-- translated on this page. Thanks Sisao -->[ 
<A href="http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl.cs.html">Czech</A> | <A 
href="http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html">English</A> | <A 
href="http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl.ja.html">Japanese</A> ] <!-- It is best to not enumerate the translations here in a menu bar, --><!-- It is best to have the users follow this link, so they have the FSF' --><!-- explanation about translations being unofficial, etc. -->
<P>
<UL>
  <LI><A href="http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl-violation.html"><EM>What to do if 
  you see a possible GPL violation</EM></A> 
  <LI><A href="http://www.gnu.org/licenses/translations.html"><EM>Translations 
  of the GPL</EM></A> 
  <LI><A href="http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl-faq.html"><EM>GPL Frequently 
  Asked Questions</EM></A> 
  <LI>The GNU General Public License (GPL) <A 
  href="http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl.txt">in plain text format</A> 
  <LI>The GNU General Public License (GPL) <A 
  href="http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl.texi">in Texinfo format</A> 
  <LI>The GNU General Public License (GPL) <A 
  href="http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl-2.0.tex">in LaTeX format</A> 
  <LI>The GNU General Public License (GPL) <A 
  href="http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl.dbk">as an appendix in DocBook 
  format</A> </LI></UL>
<P>
<HR>

<P>
<H2>Table of Contents</H2>
<UL>
  <LI><A href="http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/gpl.html#SEC1" name=TOC1>GNU GENERAL 
  PUBLIC LICENSE</A> 
  <UL>
    <LI><A href="http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/gpl.html#SEC2" 
    name=TOC2>Preamble</A> 
    <LI><A href="http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/gpl.html#SEC3" name=TOC3>TERMS AND 
    CONDITIONS FOR COPYING, DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION</A> 
    <LI><A href="http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/gpl.html#SEC4" name=TOC4>How to 
    Apply These Terms to Your New Programs</A> </LI></UL></LI></UL>
<P>
<HR>

<P>
<H2><A href="http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/gpl.html#TOC1" name=SEC1>GNU GENERAL 
PUBLIC LICENSE</A></H2>
<P>Version 2, June 1991 </P><PRE>Copyright (C) 1989, 1991 Free Software Foundation, Inc.  
51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA  02110-1301, USA

Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
</PRE>
<H2><A href="http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/gpl.html#TOC2" 
name=SEC2>Preamble</A></H2>
<P>The licenses for most software are designed to take away your freedom to 
share and change it. By contrast, the GNU General Public License is intended to 
guarantee your freedom to share and change free software--to make sure the 
software is free for all its users. This General Public License applies to most 
of the Free Software Foundation's software and to any other program whose 
authors commit to using it. (Some other Free Software Foundation software is 
covered by the GNU Lesser General Public License instead.) You can apply it to 
your programs, too. </P>
<P>When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom, not price. Our 
General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you have the freedom to 
distribute copies of free software (and charge for this service if you wish), 
that you receive source code or can get it if you want it, that you can change 
the software or use pieces of it in new free programs; and that you know you can 
do these things. </P>
<P>To protect your rights, we need to make restrictions that forbid anyone to 
deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights. These restrictions 
translate to certain responsibilities for you if you distribute copies of the 
software, or if you modify it. </P>
<P>For example, if you distribute copies of such a program, whether gratis or 
for a fee, you must give the recipients all the rights that you have. You must 
make sure that they, too, receive or can get the source code. And you must show 
them these terms so they know their rights. </P>
<P>We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software, and (2) 
offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy, distribute 
and/or modify the software. </P>
<P>Also, for each author's protection and ours, we want to make certain that 
everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free software. If the 
software is modified by someone else and passed on, we want its recipients to 
know that what they have is not the original, so that any problems introduced by 
others will not reflect on the original authors' reputations. </P>
<P>Finally, any free program is threatened constantly by software patents. We 
wish to avoid the danger that redistributors of a free program will individually 
obtain patent licenses, in effect making the program proprietary. To prevent 
this, we have made it clear that any patent must be licensed for everyone's free 
use or not licensed at all. </P>
<P>The precise terms and conditions for copying, distribution and modification 
follow. </P>
<H2><A href="http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/gpl.html#TOC3" name=SEC3>TERMS AND 
CONDITIONS FOR COPYING, DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION</A></H2>
<P><STRONG>0.</STRONG> This License applies to any program or other work which 
contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed 
under the terms of this General Public License. The "Program", below, refers to 
any such program or work, and a "work based on the Program" means either the 
Program or any derivative work under copyright law: that is to say, a work 
containing the Program or a portion of it, either verbatim or with modifications 
and/or translated into another language. (Hereinafter, translation is included 
without limitation in the term "modification".) Each licensee is addressed as 
"you". 
<P>Activities other than copying, distribution and modification are not covered 
by this License; they are outside its scope. The act of running the Program is 
not restricted, and the output from the Program is covered only if its contents 
constitute a work based on the Program (independent of having been made by 
running the Program). Whether that is true depends on what the Program does. 
<P><STRONG>1.</STRONG> You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the 
Program's source code as you receive it, in any medium, provided that you 
conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate copyright 
notice and disclaimer of warranty; keep intact all the notices that refer to 
this License and to the absence of any warranty; and give any other recipients 
of the Program a copy of this License along with the Program. 
<P>You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy, and you may 
at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a fee. 
<P><STRONG>2.</STRONG> You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any 
portion of it, thus forming a work based on the Program, and copy and distribute 
such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1 above, provided that you 
also meet all of these conditions: 
<P>
<DL>
  <DT>
  <DD><STRONG>a)</STRONG> You must cause the modified files to carry prominent 
  notices stating that you changed the files and the date of any change. 
</DD></DL>
<P>
<DL>
  <DT>
  <DD><STRONG>b)</STRONG> You must cause any work that you distribute or 
  publish, that in whole or in part contains or is derived from the Program or 
  any part thereof, to be licensed as a whole at no charge to all third parties 
  under the terms of this License. </DD></DL>
<P>
<DL>
  <DT>
  <DD><STRONG>c)</STRONG> If the modified program normally reads commands 
  interactively when run, you must cause it, when started running for such 
  interactive use in the most ordinary way, to print or display an announcement 
  including an appropriate copyright notice and a notice that there is no 
  warranty (or else, saying that you provide a warranty) and that users may 
  redistribute the program under these conditions, and telling the user how to 
  view a copy of this License. (Exception: if the Program itself is interactive 
  but does not normally print such an announcement, your work based on the 
  Program is not required to print an announcement.) </DD></DL>
<P>These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. If identifiable 
sections of that work are not derived from the Program, and can be reasonably 
considered independent and separate works in themselves, then this License, and 
its terms, do not apply to those sections when you distribute them as separate 
works. But when you distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a 
work based on the Program, the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of 
this License, whose permissions for other licensees extend to the entire whole, 
and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it. 
<P>Thus, it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest your 
rights to work written entirely by you; rather, the intent is to exercise the 
right to control the distribution of derivative or collective works based on the 
Program. 
<P>In addition, mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program with 
the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a volume of a storage or 
distribution medium does not bring the other work under the scope of this 
License. 
<P><STRONG>3.</STRONG> You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based 
on it, under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of 
Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following: <!-- we use this doubled UL to get the sub-sections indented, --><!-- while making the bullets as unobvious as possible. -->
<DL>
  <DT>
  <DD><STRONG>a)</STRONG> Accompany it with the complete corresponding 
  machine-readable source code, which must be distributed under the terms of 
  Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange; 
  or, </DD></DL>
<P>
<DL>
  <DT>
  <DD><STRONG>b)</STRONG> Accompany it with a written offer, valid for at least 
  three years, to give any third party, for a charge no more than your cost of 
  physically performing source distribution, a complete machine-readable copy of 
  the corresponding source code, to be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 
  and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange; or, 
</DD></DL>
<P>
<DL>
  <DT>
  <DD><STRONG>c)</STRONG> Accompany it with the information you received as to 
  the offer to distribute corresponding source code. (This alternative is 
  allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you received the 
  program in object code or executable form with such an offer, in accord with 
  Subsection b above.) </DD></DL>
<P>The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for making 
modifications to it. For an executable work, complete source code means all the 
source code for all modules it contains, plus any associated interface 
definition files, plus the scripts used to control compilation and installation 
of the executable. However, as a special exception, the source code distributed 
need not include anything that is normally distributed (in either source or 
binary form) with the major components (compiler, kernel, and so on) of the 
operating system on which the executable runs, unless that component itself 
accompanies the executable. 
<P>If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering access to 
copy from a designated place, then offering equivalent access to copy the source 
code from the same place counts as distribution of the source code, even though 
third parties are not compelled to copy the source along with the object code. 
<P><STRONG>4.</STRONG> You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the 
Program except as expressly provided under this License. Any attempt otherwise 
to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Program is void, and will 
automatically terminate your rights under this License. However, parties who 
have received copies, or rights, from you under this License will not have their 
licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance. 
<P><STRONG>5.</STRONG> You are not required to accept this License, since you 
have not signed it. However, nothing else grants you permission to modify or 
distribute the Program or its derivative works. These actions are prohibited by 
law if you do not accept this License. Therefore, by modifying or distributing 
the Program (or any work based on the Program), you indicate your acceptance of 
this License to do so, and all its terms and conditions for copying, 
distributing or modifying the Program or works based on it. 
<P><STRONG>6.</STRONG> Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based 
on the Program), the recipient automatically receives a license from the 
original licensor to copy, distribute or modify the Program subject to these 
terms and conditions. You may not impose any further restrictions on the 
recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein. You are not responsible for 
enforcing compliance by third parties to this License. 
<P><STRONG>7.</STRONG> If, as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of 
patent infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues), 
conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order, agreement or otherwise) 
that contradict the conditions of this License, they do not excuse you from the 
conditions of this License. If you cannot distribute so as to satisfy 
simultaneously your obligations under this License and any other pertinent 
obligations, then as a consequence you may not distribute the Program at all. 
For example, if a patent license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of 
the Program by all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you, 
then the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to refrain 
entirely from distribution of the Program. 
<P>If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under any 
particular circumstance, the balance of the section is intended to apply and the 
section as a whole is intended to apply in other circumstances. 
<P>It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any patents 
or other property right claims or to contest validity of any such claims; this 
section has the sole purpose of protecting the integrity of the free software 
distribution system, which is implemented by public license practices. Many 
people have made generous contributions to the wide range of software 
distributed through that system in reliance on consistent application of that 
system; it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing to 
distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot impose that 
choice. 
<P>This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to be a 
consequence of the rest of this License. 
<P><STRONG>8.</STRONG> If the distribution and/or use of the Program is 
restricted in certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces, 
the original copyright holder who places the Program under this License may add 
an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding those countries, so 
that distribution is permitted only in or among countries not thus excluded. In 
such case, this License incorporates the limitation as if written in the body of 
this License. 
<P><STRONG>9.</STRONG> The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or 
new versions of the General Public License from time to time. Such new versions 
will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to 
address new problems or concerns. 
<P>Each version is given a distinguishing version number. If the Program 
specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and "any later 
version", you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of 
that version or of any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. 
If the Program does not specify a version number of this License, you may choose 
any version ever published by the Free Software Foundation. 
<P><STRONG>10.</STRONG> If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into 
other free programs whose distribution conditions are different, write to the 
author to ask for permission. For software which is copyrighted by the Free 
Software Foundation, write to the Free Software Foundation; we sometimes make 
exceptions for this. Our decision will be guided by the two goals of preserving 
the free status of all derivatives of our free software and of promoting the 
sharing and reuse of software generally. 
<P><STRONG>NO WARRANTY</STRONG></P>
<P><STRONG>11.</STRONG> BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE, THERE IS 
NO WARRANTY FOR THE PROGRAM, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. EXCEPT 
WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES 
PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR 
IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF 
MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE 
QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. SHOULD THE PROGRAM PROVE 
DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING, REPAIR OR CORRECTION. 

<P><STRONG>12.</STRONG> IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED 
TO IN WRITING WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY 
AND/OR REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE, BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR 
DAMAGES, INCLUDING ANY GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES 
ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT 
LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY 
YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER 
PROGRAMS), EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE 
POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. 
<P>
<H2>END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS</H2>
<H2><A href="http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/gpl.html#TOC4" name=SEC4>How to Apply 
These Terms to Your New Programs</A></H2>
<P>If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest possible 
use to the public, the best way to achieve this is to make it free software 
which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms. </P>
<P>To do so, attach the following notices to the program. It is safest to attach 
them to the start of each source file to most effectively convey the exclusion 
of warranty; and each file should have at least the "copyright" line and a 
pointer to where the full notice is found. </P><PRE><VAR>one line to give the program's name and an idea of what it does.</VAR>
Copyright (C) <VAR>yyyy</VAR>  <VAR>name of author</VAR>

This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License
as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2
of the License, or (at your option) any later version.

This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
GNU General Public License for more details.

You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA  02110-1301, USA.
</PRE>
<P>Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail. </P>
<P>If the program is interactive, make it output a short notice like this when 
it starts in an interactive mode: </P><PRE>Gnomovision version 69, Copyright (C) <VAR>year</VAR> <VAR>name of author</VAR>
Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details
type `show w'.  This is free software, and you are welcome
to redistribute it under certain conditions; type `show c' 
for details.
</PRE>
<P>The hypothetical commands <SAMP>`show w'</SAMP> and <SAMP>`show c'</SAMP> 
should show the appropriate parts of the General Public License. Of course, the 
commands you use may be called something other than <SAMP>`show w'</SAMP> and 
<SAMP>`show c'</SAMP>; they could even be mouse-clicks or menu items--whatever 
suits your program. </P>
<P>You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your 
school, if any, to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program, if necessary. 
Here is a sample; alter the names: </P><PRE>Yoyodyne, Inc., hereby disclaims all copyright
interest in the program `Gnomovision'
(which makes passes at compilers) written 
by James Hacker.

<VAR>signature of Ty Coon</VAR>, 1 April 1989
Ty Coon, President of Vice
</PRE>
<P>This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into 
proprietary programs. If your program is a subroutine library, you may consider 
it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the library. If 
this is what you want to do, use the <A 
href="http://www.gnu.org/licenses/lgpl.html">GNU Lesser General Public 
License</A> instead of this License. 
<P>
<HR>

<P>
<DIV class=copyright>
<P>Return to the <A href="http://www.gnu.org/home.html">GNU Project home 
page</A>. </P>
<P>Please send FSF &amp; GNU inquiries to <A 
href="mailto:hide@address.com"><EM>hide@address.com</EM></A>. There are also <A 
href="http://www.gnu.org/home.html#ContactInfo">other ways to contact</A> the 
FSF. <BR>Please send broken links and other corrections (or suggestions) to <A 
href="mailto:hide@address.com"><EM>hide@address.com</EM></A>. </P>
<P>Please see the <A 
href="http://www.gnu.org/server/standards/README.translations.html">Translations 
README</A> for information on coordinating and submitting translations of this 
article. </P>
<P>Copyright notice above.<BR>51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110, 
USA <BR>Verbatim copying and distribution of this entire article is permitted in 
any medium without royalty provided this notice is preserved. </P>
<P>Updated: <!-- timestamp start -->$Date: 2005/06/07 16:30:55 $ $Author: 
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