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<h1>PHP Unit Test documentation</h1>
        This page...
        <ul>
<li>
            <a href="#unit">Unit test cases</a> and basic assertions.
        </li>
<li>
            <a href="#extending_unit">Extending test cases</a> to
            customise them for your own project.
        </li>
<li>
            <a href="#running_unit">Running a single case</a> as
            a single script.
        </li>
</ul>
<div class="content">
        <p><a class="target" name="unit"><h2>Unit test cases</h2></a></p>
            <p>
                The core system is a regression testing framework built around
                test cases.
                A sample test case looks like this...
<pre>
<strong>class FileTestCase extends UnitTestCase {
}</strong>
</pre>
                Actual tests are added as methods in the test case whose names
                by default start with the string "test" and
                when the test case is invoked all such methods are run in
                the order that PHP introspection finds them.
                As many test methods can be added as needed.
            </p>
            <p>
                For example...
<pre>
require_once('simpletest/autorun.php');
require_once('../classes/writer.php');

class FileTestCase extends UnitTestCase {
    function FileTestCase() {
        $this-&gt;UnitTestCase('File test');
    }<strong>
    
    function setUp() {
        @unlink('../temp/test.txt');
    }
    
    function tearDown() {
        @unlink('../temp/test.txt');
    }
    
    function testCreation() {
        $writer = &amp;new FileWriter('../temp/test.txt');
        $writer-&gt;write('Hello');
        $this-&gt;assertTrue(file_exists('../temp/test.txt'), 'File created');
    }</strong>
}
</pre>
                The constructor is optional and usually omitted.
                Without a name, the class name is taken as the name of the test case.
            </p>
            <p>
                Our only test method at the moment is <span class="new_code">testCreation()</span>
                where we check that a file has been created by our
                <span class="new_code">Writer</span> object.
                We could have put the <span class="new_code">unlink()</span>
                code into this method as well, but by placing it in
                <span class="new_code">setUp()</span> and
                <span class="new_code">tearDown()</span> we can use it with
                other test methods that we add.
            </p>
            <p>
                The <span class="new_code">setUp()</span> method is run
                just before each and every test method.
                <span class="new_code">tearDown()</span> is run just after
                each and every test method.
            </p>
            <p>
                You can place some test case set up into the constructor to
                be run once for all the methods in the test case, but
                you risk test inteference that way.
                This way is slightly slower, but it is safer.
                Note that if you come from a JUnit background this will not
                be the behaviour you are used to.
                JUnit surprisingly reinstantiates the test case for each test
                method to prevent such interference.
                SimpleTest requires the end user to use <span class="new_code">setUp()</span>, but
                supplies additional hooks for library writers.
            </p>
            <p>
                The means of reporting test results (see below) are by a
                visiting display class
                that is notified by various <span class="new_code">assert...()</span>
                methods.
                Here is the full list for the <span class="new_code">UnitTestCase</span>
                class, the default for SimpleTest...
                <table><tbody>
                    <tr>
<td><span class="new_code">assertTrue($x)</span></td>
<td>Fail if $x is false</td>
</tr>
                    <tr>
<td><span class="new_code">assertFalse($x)</span></td>
<td>Fail if $x is true</td>
</tr>
                    <tr>
<td><span class="new_code">assertNull($x)</span></td>
<td>Fail if $x is set</td>
</tr>
                    <tr>
<td><span class="new_code">assertNotNull($x)</span></td>
<td>Fail if $x not set</td>
</tr>
                    <tr>
<td><span class="new_code">assertIsA($x, $t)</span></td>
<td>Fail if $x is not the class or type $t</td>
</tr>
                    <tr>
<td><span class="new_code">assertNotA($x, $t)</span></td>
<td>Fail if $x is of the class or type $t</td>
</tr>
                    <tr>
<td><span class="new_code">assertEqual($x, $y)</span></td>
<td>Fail if $x == $y is false</td>
</tr>
                    <tr>
<td><span class="new_code">assertNotEqual($x, $y)</span></td>
<td>Fail if $x == $y is true</td>
</tr>
                    <tr>
<td><span class="new_code">assertWithinMargin($x, $y, $m)</span></td>
<td>Fail if abs($x - $y) &lt; $m is false</td>
</tr>
                    <tr>
<td><span class="new_code">assertOutsideMargin($x, $y, $m)</span></td>
<td>Fail if abs($x - $y) &lt; $m is true</td>
</tr>
                    <tr>
<td><span class="new_code">assertIdentical($x, $y)</span></td>
<td>Fail if $x == $y is false or a type mismatch</td>
</tr>
                    <tr>
<td><span class="new_code">assertNotIdentical($x, $y)</span></td>
<td>Fail if $x == $y is true and types match</td>
</tr>
                    <tr>
<td><span class="new_code">assertReference($x, $y)</span></td>
<td>Fail unless $x and $y are the same variable</td>
</tr>
                    <tr>
<td><span class="new_code">assertClone($x, $y)</span></td>
<td>Fail unless $x and $y are identical copies</td>
</tr>
                    <tr>
<td><span class="new_code">assertPattern($p, $x)</span></td>
<td>Fail unless the regex $p matches $x</td>
</tr>
                    <tr>
<td><span class="new_code">assertNoPattern($p, $x)</span></td>
<td>Fail if the regex $p matches $x</td>
</tr>
                    <tr>
<td><span class="new_code">expectError($x)</span></td>
<td>Swallows any upcoming matching error</td>
</tr>
                    <tr>
<td><span class="new_code">assert($e)</span></td>
<td>Fail on failed <a href="expectation_documentation.html">expectation</a> object $e</td>
</tr>
                </tbody></table>
                All assertion methods can take an optional description as a
                last parameter.
                This is to label the displayed result with.
                If omitted a default message is sent instead, which is usually
                sufficient.
                This default message can still be embedded in your own message
                if you include "%s" within the string.
                All the assertions return true on a pass or false on failure.
            </p>
            <p>
                Some examples...
<pre>
$variable = null;
<strong>$this-&gt;assertNull($variable, 'Should be cleared');</strong>
</pre>
                ...will pass and normally show no message.
                If you have
                <a href="http://www.lastcraft.com/display_subclass_tutorial.php">set up the tester to display passes</a>
                as well then the message will be displayed as is.
<pre>
<strong>$this-&gt;assertIdentical(0, false, 'Zero is not false [%s]');</strong>
</pre>
                This will fail as it performs a type
                check, as well as a comparison, between the two values.
                The "%s" part is replaced by the default
                error message that would have been shown if we had not
                supplied our own.
<pre>
$a = 1;
$b = $a;
<strong>$this-&gt;assertReference($a, $b);</strong>
</pre>
                Will fail as the variable <span class="new_code">$a</span> is a copy of <span class="new_code">$b</span>.
<pre>
<strong>$this-&gt;assertPattern('/hello/i', 'Hello world');</strong>
</pre>
                This will pass as using a case insensitive match the string
                <span class="new_code">hello</span> is contained in <span class="new_code">Hello world</span>.
<pre>
<strong>$this-&gt;expectError();</strong>
trigger_error('Catastrophe');
</pre>
                Here the check catches the "Catastrophe"
                message without checking the text and passes.
                This removes the error from the queue.
<pre>
<strong>$this-&gt;expectError('Catastrophe');</strong>
trigger_error('Catastrophe');
</pre>
                The next error check tests not only the existence of the error,
                but also the text which, here matches so another pass.
                If any unchecked errors are left at the end of a test method then
                an exception will be reported in the test.
            </p>
            <p>
                Note that SimpleTest cannot catch compile time PHP errors.
            </p>
            <p>
                The test cases also have some convenience methods for debugging
                code or extending the suite...
                <table><tbody>
                    <tr>
<td><span class="new_code">setUp()</span></td>
<td>Runs this before each test method</td>
</tr>
                    <tr>
<td><span class="new_code">tearDown()</span></td>
<td>Runs this after each test method</td>
</tr>
                    <tr>
<td><span class="new_code">pass()</span></td>
<td>Sends a test pass</td>
</tr>
                    <tr>
<td><span class="new_code">fail()</span></td>
<td>Sends a test failure</td>
</tr>
                    <tr>
<td><span class="new_code">error()</span></td>
<td>Sends an exception event</td>
</tr>
                    <tr>
<td><span class="new_code">signal($type, $payload)</span></td>
<td>Sends a user defined message to the test reporter</td>
</tr>
                    <tr>
<td><span class="new_code">dump($var)</span></td>
<td>Does a formatted <span class="new_code">print_r()</span> for quick and dirty debugging</td>
</tr>
                </tbody></table>
            </p>
        
        <p><a class="target" name="extending_unit"><h2>Extending test cases</h2></a></p>
            <p>
                Of course additional test methods can be added to create
                specific types of test case, so as to extend framework...
<pre>
require_once('simpletest/autorun.php');
<strong>
class FileTester extends UnitTestCase {
    function FileTester($name = false) {
        $this-&gt;UnitTestCase($name);
    }
    
    function assertFileExists($filename, $message = '%s') {
        $this-&gt;assertTrue(
                file_exists($filename),
                sprintf($message, 'File [$filename] existence check'));
    }</strong>
}
</pre>
                Here the SimpleTest library is held in a folder called
                <em>simpletest</em> that is local.
                Substitute your own path for this.
            </p>
            <p>
                To prevent this test case being run accidently, it is
                advisable to mark it as <span class="new_code">abstract</span>.
            </p>
            <p>
                Alternatively you could add a
                <span class="new_code">SimpleTestOptions::ignore('FileTester');</span>
                directive in your code.
            </p>
            <p>
                This new case can be now be inherited just like
                a normal test case...
<pre>
class FileTestCase extends <strong>FileTester</strong> {
    
    function setUp() {
        @unlink('../temp/test.txt');
    }
    
    function tearDown() {
        @unlink('../temp/test.txt');
    }
    
    function testCreation() {
        $writer = &amp;new FileWriter('../temp/test.txt');
        $writer-&gt;write('Hello');<strong>
        $this-&gt;assertFileExists('../temp/test.txt');</strong>
    }
}
</pre>
            </p>
            <p>
                If you want a test case that does not have all of the
                <span class="new_code">UnitTestCase</span> assertions,
                only your own and a few basics,
                you need to extend the <span class="new_code">SimpleTestCase</span>
                class instead.
                It is found in <em>simple_test.php</em> rather than
                <em>unit_tester.php</em>.
                See <a href="group_test_documentation.html">later</a> if you
                want to incorporate other unit tester's
                test cases in your test suites.
            </p>
        
        <p><a class="target" name="running_unit"><h2>Running a single test case</h2></a></p>
            <p>
                You won't often run single test cases except when bashing
                away at a module that is having difficulty, and you don't
                want to upset the main test suite.
                With <em>autorun</em> no particular scaffolding is needed,
                just launch your particular test file and you're ready to go.
            </p>
            <p>
                You can even decide which reporter (for example,
                <span class="new_code">TextReporter</span> or <span class="new_code">HtmlReporter</span>)
                you prefer for a specific file when launched on its own...
<pre>
&lt;?php
require_once('simpletest/autorun.php');<strong>
SimpleTest :: prefer(new TextReporter());</strong>
require_once('../classes/writer.php');

class FileTestCase extends UnitTestCase {
    ...
}
?&gt;
</pre>
                This script will run as is, but of course will output zero passes
                and zero failures until test methods are added.
            </p>
        
    </div>
        References and related information...
        <ul>
<li>
            SimpleTest project page on <a href="http://sourceforge.net/projects/simpletest/">SourceForge</a>.
        </li>
<li>
            SimpleTest download page on <a href="http://www.lastcraft.com/simple_test.php">LastCraft</a>.
        </li>
<li>
            <a href="http://simpletest.org/api/">Full API for SimpleTest</a>
            from the PHPDoc.
        </li>
</ul>
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