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<h2>English-Arabic Transliteration</h2><br />

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      <span class="FirstChar">O</span>ut of vocabulary (OOV) words are a common source of errors in cross
      language information retrieval. Bilingual dictionaries are often limited in their coverage of named-
      entities, numbers, technical terms and acronyms. There is a need to generate translations for these 
      "on-the-fly" or at query time.<br /><br />
      A significant proportion of OOV words are named entities and technical terms. Typical analyses find 
      around 50% of OOV words to be named entities. Yet these can be the most important words in the queries. 
      Cross language retrieval performance (average precision) reduced more than 50% when named entities in 
      the queries were not translated.
        <span class="Quote"> The process of converting a word
      from one orthography into another is called transliteration. </span>
      When the query language and the document language share the same alphabet it may be sufficient to use 
      the OOV word as its own translation. However, when the two languages have different alphabets, the query 
      term must somehow be rendered in the orthography of the other language. The process of converting a word 
      from one orthography into another is called transliteration.<br /><br />
      Foreign words often occur in Arabic text as transliteration. This is the case for many categories of foreign 
      words, not just proper names but also technical terms such as caviar, telephone and internet.
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