Location: PHPKode > projects > Svn-access-manager > svn_access_manager/include/adodb5/docs/docs-adodb.htm
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<body bgcolor=white lang=EN-US link=blue vlink=blue style='tab-interval:36.0pt'>

<div class=Section1>

<h2>ADOdb Library for PHP</h2>

<p>V5.06 16 Oct 2008 (c) 2000-2009 John Lim (jlim#natsoft.com)</p>

<p><span style='font-size:7.5pt'>This software is dual licensed using BSD-Style
and LGPL. This means you can use it in compiled proprietary and commercial
products.</span></p>

<p>Useful ADOdb links: <a href="http://adodb.sourceforge.net/#download">Download</a>
&nbsp; <a href="http://adodb.sourceforge.net/#docs">Other Docs</a> </p>

<p><a href="#intro"><b>Introduction</b></a><b><br>
<a href="#features">Unique Features</a><br>
<a href="#users">How People are using ADOdb</a><br>
<a href="#bugs">Feature Requests and Bug Reports</a><br>
<a href="#install">Installation</a><br>
<a href="#mininstall">Minimum Install</a><br>
<a href="#coding">Initializing Code and Connectioning to Databases</a><br>
</b><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>&nbsp; <a href="#dsnsupport">Data Source
Name (DSN) Support</a></span> &nbsp; <a href="#connect_ex">Connection Examples</a>
<br>
<b><a href="#speed">High Speed ADOdb - tuning tips</a></b><br>
<b><a href="#hack">Hacking and Modifying ADOdb Safely</a><br>
<a href="#php5">PHP5 Features</a></b><br>
<span style='font-size:10.0pt'><a href="#php5iterators">foreach iterators</a> <a
href="#php5exceptions">exceptions</a></span><br>
<b><a href="#drivers">Supported Databases</a></b><br>
<b><a href="#quickstart">Tutorials</a></b><br>
<a href="#ex1">Example 1: Select</a><br>
<a href="#ex2">Example 2: Advanced Select</a><br>
<a href="#ex3">Example 3: Insert</a><br>
<a href="#ex4">Example 4: Debugging</a> &nbsp;<a href="#exrs2html">rs2html
example</a><br>
<a href="#ex5">Example 5: MySQL and Menus</a><br>
<a href="#ex6">Example 6: Connecting to Multiple Databases at once</a> <br>
<a href="#ex7">Example 7: Generating Update and Insert SQL</a> <br>
<a href="#ex8">Example 8: Implementing Scrolling with Next and Previous</a><br>
<a href="#ex9">Example 9: Exporting in CSV or Tab-Delimited Format</a> <br>
<a href="#ex10">Example 10: Custom filters</a><br>
<a href="#ex11">Example 11: Smart Transactions</a><br>
<br>
<b><a href="#errorhandling">Using Custom Error Handlers and PEAR_Error</a><br>
<a href="#DSN">Data Source Names</a><br>
<a href="#caching">Caching</a></b><br>
&nbsp; &nbsp; <a href="#memcache">MemCache</a><br>
&nbsp; &nbsp; <a href="#cacheapi">Caching API</a><br>
<b><a href="#pivot">Pivot Tables</a></b> </p>

<p><a href="#ref"><b>REFERENCE</b></a> </p>

<p><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Variables: <a href="#adodb_countrecs">$ADODB_COUNTRECS</a>
<a href="#adodb_ansi_padding_off">$ADODB_ANSI_PADDING_OFF</a> <a
href="#adodb_cache_dir">$ADODB_CACHE_DIR</a> <br>
&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; <a href="#force_type">$ADODB_FORCE_TYPE</a> <a
href="#adodb_fetch_mode">$ADODB_FETCH_MODE</a> <a href="#adodb_lang">$ADODB_LANG</a>
<a href="#adodb_auto_quote">ADODB_QUOTE_FIELDNAMES</a> <br>
Constants: <a href="#adodb_assoc_case">ADODB_ASSOC_CASE</a> </span><br>
<a href="#ADOConnection"><b>ADOConnection</b></a><br>
<span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Connections: <a href="#connect">Connect</a> <a
href="#pconnect">PConnect</a> <a href="#nconnect">NConnect</a> <a
href="#isconnected">IsConnected</a><br>
Executing SQL: <a href="#execute">Execute</a> <a href="#cacheexecute"><i>CacheExecute</i></a>
<a href="#selectlimit">SelectLimit</a> <a href="#cacheSelectLimit"><i>CacheSelectLimit</i></a>
<a href="#param">Param</a> <a href="#prepare">Prepare</a> <a href="#preparesp">PrepareSP</a>
<a href="#inparameter">InParameter</a> <a href="#outparameter">OutParameter</a>
<a href="#autoexecute">AutoExecute</a> <br>
&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; <a
href="#getone">GetOne</a> <a href="#cachegetone"><i>CacheGetOne</i></a> <a
href="#getrow">GetRow</a> <a href="#cachegetrow"><i>CacheGetRow</i></a> <a
href="#getall">GetAll</a> <a href="#cachegetall"><i>CacheGetAll</i></a> <a
href="#getcol">GetCol</a> <a href="#cachegetcol"><i>CacheGetCol</i></a> <a
href="#getassoc1">GetAssoc</a> <a href="#cachegetassoc"><i>CacheGetAssoc</i></a>
<a href="#replace">Replace</a> <a href="#getmedian">GetMedian</a> <br>
&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; <a
href="#executecursor">ExecuteCursor</a> (oci8 only)<br>
Generates SQL strings: <a href="#getupdatesql">GetUpdateSQL</a> <a
href="#getinsertsql">GetInsertSQL</a> <a href="#concat">Concat</a> <a
href="#ifnull">IfNull</a> <a href="#length">length</a> <a href="#random">random</a>
<a href="#substr">substr</a> <a href="#qstr">qstr</a> <a href="#param">Param</a>
<a href="#OffsetDate">OffsetDate</a> <a href="#sqldate">SQLDate</a> <a
href="#dbdate">DBDate</a> <a href="#dbtimestamp">DBTimeStamp</a> <a
href="#binddate">BindDate</a> <a href="#bindtimestamp">BindTimeStamp</a> <br>
Blobs: <a href="#updateblob">UpdateBlob</a> <a href="#updateclob">UpdateClob</a>
<a href="#updateblobfile">UpdateBlobFile</a> <a href="#blobencode">BlobEncode</a>
<a href="#blobdecode">BlobDecode</a><br>
Paging/Scrolling: <a href="#pageexecute">PageExecute</a> <a
href="#cachepageexecute">CachePageExecute</a><br>
Cleanup: <a href="#cacheflush">CacheFlush</a> <a href="#Close">Close</a><br>
Transactions: <a href="#starttrans">StartTrans</a> <a href="#completetrans">CompleteTrans</a>
<a href="#failtrans">FailTrans</a> <a href="#hasfailedtrans">HasFailedTrans</a>
<a href="#begintrans">BeginTrans</a> <a href="#committrans">CommitTrans</a> <a
href="#rollbacktrans">RollbackTrans</a> <a href="#SetTransactionMode">SetTransactionMode</a><br>
Fetching Data: <a href="#setfetchmode">SetFetchMode</a><br>
Strings: <a href="#concat">concat</a> <a href="#length">length</a> <a
href="#qstr">qstr</a> <a href="#quote">quote</a> <a href="#substr">substr</a><br>
Dates: <a href="#dbdate">DBDate</a> <a href="#dbtimestamp">DBTimeStamp</a> <a
href="#unixdate">UnixDate</a> <a href="#binddate">BindDate</a> <a
href="#bindtimestamp">BindTimeStamp</a> <a href="#unixtimestamp">UnixTimeStamp</a>
<a href="#OffsetDate">OffsetDate</a> <a href="#SQLDate">SQLDate</a> <br>
Row Management: <a href="#affected_rows">Affected_Rows</a> <a
href="#inserted_id">Insert_ID</a> <a href="#rowlock">RowLock</a> <a
href="#genid">GenID</a> <a href="#createseq">CreateSequence</a> <a
href="#dropseq">DropSequence</a> <br>
Error Handling: <a href="#errormsg">ErrorMsg</a> <a href="#errorno">ErrorNo</a>
<a href="#metaerror">MetaError</a> <a href="#metaerrormsg">MetaErrorMsg</a> <a
href="#ignoreerrors">IgnoreErrors</a><br>
Data Dictionary (metadata): <a href="#metadatabases">MetaDatabases</a> <a
href="#metatables">MetaTables</a> <a href="#metacolumns">MetaColumns</a> <a
href="#metacolumnames">MetaColumnNames</a> <a href="#metaprimarykeys">MetaPrimaryKeys</a>
<a href="#metaforeignkeys">MetaForeignKeys</a> <a href="#serverinfo">ServerInfo</a>
<br>
Statistics and Query-Rewriting: <a href="#logsql">LogSQL</a> <a
href="#fnexecute">fnExecute and fnCacheExecute</a><br>
Deprecated: <a href="#bind">Bind</a> <a href="#blankrecordset">BlankRecordSet</a>
<a href="#parameter">Parameter</a></span> <a href="#adorecordSet"><b><br>
ADORecordSet</b></a><br>
<span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Returns one field: <a href="#fields">Fields</a><br>
Returns one row:<a href="#fetchrow">FetchRow</a> <a href="#fetchinto">FetchInto</a>
<a href="#fetchobject">FetchObject</a> <a href="#fetchnextobject">FetchNextObject</a>
<a href="#fetchobj">FetchObj</a> <a href="#fetchnextobj">FetchNextObj</a> <a
href="#getrowassoc">GetRowAssoc</a> <br>
Returns all rows:<a href="#getarray">GetArray</a> <a href="#getrows">GetRows</a>
<a href="#getassoc">GetAssoc</a><br>
Scrolling:<a href="#move">Move</a> <a href="#movenext">MoveNext</a> <a
href="#movefirst">MoveFirst</a> <a href="#movelast">MoveLast</a> <a
href="#abspos">AbsolutePosition</a> <a href="#currentrow">CurrentRow</a> <a
href="#atfirstpage">AtFirstPage</a> <a href="#atlastpage">AtLastPage</a> <a
href="#absolutepage">AbsolutePage</a> <br>
Menu generation:<a href="#getmenu">GetMenu</a> <a href="#getmenu2">GetMenu2</a><br>
Dates:<a href="#userdate">UserDate</a> <a href="#usertimestamp">UserTimeStamp</a>
<a href="#unixdate">UnixDate</a> <a href="#unixtimestamp">UnixTimeStamp<br>
</a>Recordset Info:<a href="#recordcount">RecordCount</a> <a
href="#po_recordcount">PO_RecordCount</a> <a href="#nextrecordset">NextRecordSet</a><br>
Field Info:<a href="#fieldcount">FieldCount</a> <a href="#fetchfield">FetchField</a>
<a href="#metatype">MetaType</a><br>
Cleanup: <a href="#rsclose">Close</a></span> </p>

<p><span style='font-size:10.0pt'><a href="#rs2html"><b>rs2html</b></a>&nbsp; <a
href="#exrs2html">example</a></span><br>
<a href="#adodiff">Differences between ADOdb and ADO</a><br>
<a href="#driverguide"><b>Database Driver Guide<br>
</b></a><b><a href="#changes">Change Log</a></b></p>

<h2>Introduction<a name=intro></a></h2>

<p>PHP's database access functions are not standardised. This creates a need
for a database class library to hide the differences between the different
database API's (encapsulate the differences) so we can easily switch databases.
PHP 4.0.5 or later is now required (because we use array-based str_replace).</p>

<p>We currently support MySQL, Oracle, Microsoft SQL Server, Sybase, Sybase SQL
Anywhere, Informix, PostgreSQL, FrontBase, SQLite, Interbase (Firebird and
Borland variants), Foxpro, Access, <st1:City w:st="on"><st1:place w:st="on">ADO</st1:place></st1:City>,
DB2, SAP DB and ODBC. We have had successful reports of connecting to Progress
and CacheLite via ODBC. We hope more people will contribute drivers to support
other databases.</p>

<p>PHP4 supports session variables. You can store your session information
using ADOdb for true portability and scalability. See adodb-session.php for
more information.</p>

<p>Also read <a href="http://phplens.com/lens/adodb/tips_portable_sql.htm">tips_portable_sql.htm</a>
for tips on writing portable SQL.</p>

<h2>Unique Features of ADOdb<a name=features></a></h2>

<ul type=disc>
 <li class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto;
     mso-list:l2 level1 lfo1;tab-stops:list 36.0pt'><b>Easy for Windows
     programmers</b> to adapt to because many of the conventions are similar to
     Microsoft's <st1:City w:st="on"><st1:place w:st="on">ADO</st1:place></st1:City>.</li>
 <li class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto;
     mso-list:l2 level1 lfo1;tab-stops:list 36.0pt'>Unlike other PHP database
     classes which focus only on select statements, <b>we provide support code
     to handle inserts and updates which can be adapted to multiple databases
     quickly.</b> Methods are provided for date handling, string concatenation
     and string quoting characters for differing databases.</li>
 <li class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto;
     mso-list:l2 level1 lfo1;tab-stops:list 36.0pt'>A<b> metatype system </b>is
     built in so that we can figure out that types such as CHAR, TEXT and
     STRING are equivalent in different databases.</li>
 <li class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto;
     mso-list:l2 level1 lfo1;tab-stops:list 36.0pt'><b>Easy to port</b> because
     all the database dependant code are stored in stub functions. You do not
     need to port the core logic of the classes.</li>
 <li class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto;
     mso-list:l2 level1 lfo1;tab-stops:list 36.0pt'><b>Portable table and index
     creation</b> with the <a href="docs-datadict.htm">datadict</a> classes. </li>
 <li class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto;
     mso-list:l2 level1 lfo1;tab-stops:list 36.0pt'><b>Database performance
     monitoring and SQL tuning</b> with the <a href="docs-perf.htm">performance
     monitoring</a> classes. </li>
 <li class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto;
     mso-list:l2 level1 lfo1;tab-stops:list 36.0pt'><b>Database-backed sessions</b>
     with the <a href="docs-session.htm">session management</a> classes.
     Supports session expiry notification. </li>
 <li class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto;
     mso-list:l2 level1 lfo1;tab-stops:list 36.0pt'><b>Object-Relational
     Mapping</b> using <a href="docs-active-record.htm">ADOdb_Active_Record</a>
     classes. </li>
</ul>

<h2>How People are using ADOdb<a name=users></a></h2>

<p class=MsoNormal>Here are some examples of how people are using ADOdb (for a
much longer list, visit <a
href="http://phplens.com/phpeverywhere/adodb-cool-apps">adodb-cool-apps</a>): </p>

<ul type=disc>
 <li class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto;
     mso-list:l4 level1 lfo2;tab-stops:list 36.0pt'><a
     href="http://phplens.com/">PhpLens</a> is a commercial data grid component
     that allows both cool Web designers and serious unshaved programmers to
     develop and maintain databases on the Web easily. Developed by the author
     of ADOdb.</li>
 <li class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto;
     mso-list:l4 level1 lfo2;tab-stops:list 36.0pt'><a
     href="http://www.interakt.ro/phakt/">PHAkt: PHP Extension for DreamWeaver
     Ultradev</a> allows you to script PHP in the popular Web page editor.
     Database handling provided by ADOdb.</li>
 <li class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto;
     mso-list:l4 level1 lfo2;tab-stops:list 36.0pt'><a
     href="http://www.andrew.cmu.edu/%7Erdanyliw/snort/snortacid.html">Analysis
     Console for Intrusion Databases</a> (ACID): PHP-based analysis engine to
     search and process a database of security incidents generated by
     security-related software such as IDSes and firewalls (e.g. Snort,
     ipchains). By Roman Danyliw.</li>
 <li class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto;
     mso-list:l4 level1 lfo2;tab-stops:list 36.0pt'><a
     href="http://www.postnuke.com/">PostNuke</a> is a very popular free
     content management system and weblog system. It offers full CSS support,
     HTML 4.01 transitional compliance throughout, an advanced blocks system,
     and is fully multi-lingual enabled. </li>
 <li class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto;
     mso-list:l4 level1 lfo2;tab-stops:list 36.0pt'><a
     href="http://www.auto-net.no/easypublish.php?page=index&amp;lang_id=2">EasyPublish
     CMS</a> is another free content management system for managing information
     and integrated modules on your internet, intranet- and extranet-sites.
     From <st1:country-region w:st="on"><st1:place w:st="on">Norway</st1:place></st1:country-region>.</li>
 <li class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto;
     mso-list:l4 level1 lfo2;tab-stops:list 36.0pt'><a
     href="http://nola.noguska.com/">NOLA</a> is a full featured accounting,
     inventory, and job tracking application. It is licensed under the GPL, and
     developed by Noguska. </li>
</ul>

<h2>Feature Requests and Bug Reports<a name=bugs></a></h2>

<p>Feature requests and bug reports can be emailed to <a
href="mailto:jlim#natsoft.com">jlim#natsoft.com</a> or posted to the ADOdb Help
forums at <a href="http://phplens.com/lens/lensforum/topics.php?id=4">http://phplens.com/lens/lensforum/topics.php?id=4</a>.</p>

<h2>Installation Guide<a name=install></a></h2>

<p>Make sure you are running PHP 4.0.5 or later. Unpack all the files into a
directory accessible by your webserver.</p>

<p>To test, try modifying some of the tutorial examples. Make sure you
customize the connection settings correctly. You can debug using <i>$db-&gt;debug
= true</i> as shown below:</p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre
style='background:#EEEEEE'>&lt;?php<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>include('adodb/adodb.inc.php');<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$db = <a href="#adonewconnection">ADONewConnection</a>($dbdriver); # eg 'mysql' or 'postgres'<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$db-&gt;debug = true;<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$db-&gt;<a href="#connect">Connect</a>($server, $user, $password, $database);<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$rs = $db-&gt;<a href="#execute">Execute</a>('select * from some_small_table');<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>print &quot;&lt;pre&gt;&quot;;<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>print_r($rs-&gt;<a href="#getrows">GetRows</a>());<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>print &quot;&lt;/pre&gt;&quot;;<br>
?&gt;</pre></div>

<h3>Minimum Install<a name=mininstall></a></h3>

<p>For developers who want to release a minimal install of ADOdb, you will
need: </p>

<ul type=disc>
 <li class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto;
     mso-list:l9 level1 lfo3;tab-stops:list 36.0pt'>adodb.inc.php </li>
 <li class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto;
     mso-list:l9 level1 lfo3;tab-stops:list 36.0pt'>adodb-lib.inc.php </li>
 <li class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto;
     mso-list:l9 level1 lfo3;tab-stops:list 36.0pt'>adodb-time.inc.php </li>
 <li class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto;
     mso-list:l9 level1 lfo3;tab-stops:list 36.0pt'>drivers/adodb-$database.inc.php
     </li>
 <li class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto;
     mso-list:l9 level1 lfo3;tab-stops:list 36.0pt'>license.txt (for legal
     reasons) </li>
 <li class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto;
     mso-list:l9 level1 lfo3;tab-stops:list 36.0pt'>adodb-php4.inc.php </li>
 <li class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto;
     mso-list:l9 level1 lfo3;tab-stops:list 36.0pt'>adodb-iterator.inc.php
     (php5 functionality) </li>
</ul>

<p class=MsoNormal>Optional: </p>

<ul type=disc>
 <li class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto;
     mso-list:l3 level1 lfo4;tab-stops:list 36.0pt'>adodb-error.inc.php and
     lang/adodb-$lang.inc.php (if you use MetaError()) </li>
 <li class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto;
     mso-list:l3 level1 lfo4;tab-stops:list 36.0pt'>adodb-csvlib.inc.php (if
     you use cached recordsets - CacheExecute(), etc) </li>
 <li class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto;
     mso-list:l3 level1 lfo4;tab-stops:list 36.0pt'>adodb-exceptions.inc.php
     and adodb-errorhandler.inc.php (if you use adodb error handler or php5
     exceptions). </li>
 <li class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto;
     mso-list:l3 level1 lfo4;tab-stops:list 36.0pt'>adodb-active-record.inc.php
     if you use <a href="docs-active-record.htm">Active Records</a>. </li>
</ul>

<h3>Code Initialization Examples<a name=coding></a></h3>

<p>When running ADOdb, at least two files are loaded. First is
adodb/adodb.inc.php, which contains all functions used by all database classes.
The code specific to a particular database is in the
adodb/driver/adodb-????.inc.php file.</p>

<p><a name=adonewconnection></a>For example, to connect to a mysql database:</p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre
style='background:#EEEEEE'>include('/path/to/set/here/adodb.inc.php');<br>
$conn = &amp;ADONewConnection('mysql');</pre></div>

<p>Whenever you need to connect to a database, you create a Connection object
using the <b>ADONewConnection</b>($driver) function. <b>NewADOConnection</b>($driver)
is an alternative name for the same function.</p>

<p>At this point, you are not connected to the database (no longer true if you
pass in a <a href="#dsnsupport">dsn</a>). You will first need to decide whether
to use <i>persistent</i> or <i>non-persistent</i> connections. The advantage of
<i>persistent</i> connections is that they are faster, as the database
connection is never closed (even when you call Close()). <i>Non-persistent </i>connections
take up much fewer resources though, reducing the risk of your database and
your web-server becoming overloaded. </p>

<p>For persistent connections, use $conn-&gt;<a href="#pconnect">PConnect()</a>,
or $conn-&gt;<a href="#connect">Connect()</a> for non-persistent connections.
Some database drivers also support <a href="#nconnect">NConnect()</a>, which
forces the creation of a new connection. <a name="connection_gotcha"></a></p>

<p><b>Connection Gotcha</b>: If you create two connections, but both use the
same userid and password, PHP will share the same connection. This can cause
problems if the connections are meant to different databases. The solution is
to always use different userid's for different databases, or use NConnect(). <a
name=dsnsupport></a></p>

<h3>Data Source Name (DSN) Support</h3>

<p>Since ADOdb 4.51, you can connect to a database by passing a dsn to
NewADOConnection() (or ADONewConnection, which is the same function). The dsn
format is: </p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre
style='background:#EEEEEE'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$driver://$username:$hide@address.com/$database?options[=value]</pre></div>

<p>NewADOConnection() calls Connect() or PConnect() internally for you. If the
connection fails, false is returned. </p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span><span style='color:green'># non-persistent connection</span></pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$dsn = 'mysql://root:hide@address.com/mydb'; </pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$db = NewADOConnection($dsn);</pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>if (!$db) die(&quot;Connection failed&quot;);<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>   </span></pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span></pre><pre><span style='mso-tab-count:
1'>         </span><span style='color:green'># no need to call connect/pconnect!</span></pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$arr = $db-&gt;GetArray(&quot;select * from table&quot;);</pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span></pre><pre><span style='mso-tab-count:
1'>         </span><span style='color:green'># persistent connection</span></pre>
<pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$dsn2 = 'mysql://root:hide@address.com/mydb?persist'; 
<span
style='mso-tab-count:1'></span></pre>
<pre><span style='mso-tab-count:
1'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span><span style='color:green'># non-persistent connection on port 3000</span></pre>
<pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span>$dsn2 = 'mysqli://root:hide@address.com/mydb?persist=0&amp;port=3000';</pre>
</div>

<p>If you have special characters such as /:?_ in your dsn, then you need to
rawurlencode them first: </p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$pwd = rawurlencode($pwd);<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$dsn = &quot;mysql://root:$hide@address.com/mydb&quot;;</pre><pre
style='background:#EEEEEE'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$dsn2=rawurlencode(&quot;sybase_ase&quot;).&quot;://user:hide@address.com/path?query&quot;;</pre></div>

<p>Legal options are: </p>

<div align=center>

<table class=MsoNormalTable border=1 cellpadding=0 style='mso-cellspacing:1.5pt'>
 <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes'>
  <td style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal>For all drivers</p>
  </td>
  <td style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal>'persist', 'persistent', 'debug', 'fetchmode', 'new' , 'cachesecs', 'memcache'</p>
  </td>
 </tr>
 <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:1'>
  <td style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal>Interbase/Firebird </p>
  </td>
  <td style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal>'dialect','charset','buffers','role' </p>
  </td>
 </tr>
 <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:2'>
  <td style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal>M'soft <st1:City w:st="on"><st1:place w:st="on">ADO</st1:place></st1:City></p>
  </td>
  <td style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal>'charpage' </p>
  </td>
 </tr>
 <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:3'>
  <td style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal>MySQL</p>
  </td>
  <td style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal>'clientflags' </p>
  </td>
 </tr>
 <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:4'>
  <td style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal>MySQLi</p>
  </td>
  <td style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal>'port', 'socket', 'clientflags' </p>
  </td>
 </tr>
 <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:5;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes'>
  <td style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal>Oci8</p>
  </td>
  <td style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal>'nls_date_format','charset' </p>
  </td>
 </tr>
</table>

</div>

<p>For all drivers, when the options <i>persist</i> or <i>persistent</i> are
set, a persistent connection is forced; similarly, when <i>new</i> is set, then
a new connection will be created using NConnect if the underlying driver
supports it. The <i>debug</i> option enables debugging. The <i>fetchmode</i>
calls <a href="#setfetchmode">SetFetchMode()</a>. If no value is defined for an
option, then the value is set to 1. </p>

<p>Since ADOdb 5.09, we added 2 new parameters:</p>
<ul>
<li class=MsoNormal><i>cachesecs</i> which globally determines how many seconds to cache recordsets (default is 3600 secs if not defined) when
CacheExecute() and CacheSelectLimit() are called and no cache-time parameter is passed into these functions.
<li class=MsoNormal><i>memcache</i> which defines the memcache host, port and whether to use compression. For example:
<pre>
	# we have a memcache server at 10.1.1.22 using default port 11211, no compression
	$dsn = 'mysql://user:hide@address.com/mydb?memcache=10.1.1.22'; 
	
	# we have a memcache server 10.1.1.22 port 8888, compression=on
	$dsn = 'mysql://user:hide@address.com/mydb?memcache=10.1.1.22:8888:1';
	 	
	# we have a memcache servers mem1,mem2 on port 8888, compression=off
	$dsn = 'mysql://user:hide@address.com/mydb?memcache=mem1,mem2:8888:0'; 
	
	# we have a memcache servers mem1,mem2 on port 8888, compression=off and cachesecs=120
	$dsn = 'mysql://user:hide@address.com/mydb?memcache=mem1,mem2:8888:0&cachesecs=120';
</pre>
</ul>

<p>ADOdb DSN's are compatible with version 1.0 of PEAR DB's DSN format. <a
name="connect_ex"></a></p>

<h3><span style='mso-bookmark:connect_ex'>Examples of Connecting to Databases</span></h3>

<h4><span style='mso-bookmark:connect_ex'>MySQL and Most Other Database Drivers</span></h4>

<p><span style='mso-bookmark:connect_ex'>MySQL connections are very
straightforward, and the parameters are identical to mysql_connect:</span></p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre><span
style='mso-bookmark:connect_ex'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$conn = &amp;ADONewConnection('mysql'); <br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$conn-&gt;PConnect('localhost','userid','password','database');<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span><br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span></span><span style='mso-bookmark:
connect_ex'><span style='color:green'># or dsn </span></span></pre><pre><span
style='mso-bookmark:connect_ex'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$dsn = 'mysql://user:hide@address.com/mydb'; </span></pre><pre><span
style='mso-bookmark:connect_ex'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$conn = ADONewConnection($dsn);<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span># no need for Connect()</span></pre><pre><span
style='mso-bookmark:connect_ex'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span></span></pre><pre><span
style='mso-bookmark:connect_ex'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span></span><span
style='mso-bookmark:connect_ex'><span style='color:green'># or persistent dsn</span></span></pre><pre><span
style='mso-bookmark:connect_ex'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$dsn = 'mysql://user:hide@address.com/mydb?persist'; </span></pre><pre><span
style='mso-bookmark:connect_ex'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$conn = ADONewConnection($dsn);<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span># no need for PConnect()</span></pre><pre><span
style='mso-bookmark:connect_ex'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span></span></pre><pre><span
style='mso-bookmark:connect_ex'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span></span><span
style='mso-bookmark:connect_ex'><span style='color:green'># a more complex example:</span></span></pre><pre><span
style='mso-bookmark:connect_ex'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$pwd = urlencode($pwd);</span></pre><pre><span
style='mso-bookmark:connect_ex'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$flags =<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>MYSQL_CLIENT_COMPRESS;</span></pre><pre><span
style='mso-bookmark:connect_ex'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$dsn = &quot;mysql://user:$hide@address.com/mydb?persist&amp;clientflags=$flags&quot;;</span></pre><pre><span
style='mso-bookmark:connect_ex'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$conn = ADONewConnection($dsn);<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span># no need for PConnect()</span></pre><pre
style='background:#EEEEEE'><span style='mso-bookmark:connect_ex'> </span></pre></div>

<p><span style='mso-bookmark:connect_ex'>For most drivers, you can use the
standard function: Connect($server, $user, $password, $database), or a </span><a
href="dsnsupport">DSN</a> since ADOdb 4.51. Exceptions to this are listed
below. </p>

<h4><a name=pdo>PDO</a></h4>

<p><span style='mso-bookmark:pdo'>PDO, which only works with PHP5, accepts a
driver specific connection string: </span></p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre><span
style='mso-bookmark:pdo'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></pre><pre><span
style='mso-bookmark:pdo'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$conn =&amp; NewADConnection('pdo');</span></pre><pre><span
style='mso-bookmark:pdo'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$conn-&gt;Connect('mysql:host=localhost',$user,$pwd,$mydb);</span></pre><pre><span
style='mso-bookmark:pdo'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$conn-&gt;Connect('mysql:host=localhost;dbname=mydb',$user,$pwd);</span></pre><pre><span
style='mso-bookmark:pdo'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$conn-&gt;Connect(&quot;mysql:host=localhost;dbname=mydb;username=$user;password=$pwd&quot;);</span></pre></div>

<p><span style='mso-bookmark:pdo'>The DSN mechanism is also supported: </span></p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre><span
style='mso-bookmark:pdo'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></pre><pre><span
style='mso-bookmark:pdo'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$conn =&amp; NewADConnection(&quot;pdo_mysql://user:hide@address.com/mydb?persist&quot;); # persist is optional</span></pre></div>

<h4><span style='mso-bookmark:pdo'>PostgreSQL</span></h4>

<p><span style='mso-bookmark:pdo'>PostgreSQL 7 and 8 accepts connections using:
</span></p>

<p><span style='mso-bookmark:pdo'>a. the standard connection string:</span></p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre
style='background:#EEEEEE'><span style='mso-bookmark:pdo'><span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$conn = &amp;ADONewConnection('postgres');<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$conn-&gt;PConnect('host=localhost port=5432 dbname=mary');</span></pre></div>

<p><span style='mso-bookmark:pdo'>b. the classical 4 parameters:</span></p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre
style='background:#EEEEEE'><span style='mso-bookmark:pdo'><span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$conn-&gt;PConnect('localhost','userid','password','database');<br>
<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span></span></pre></div>

<p><span style='mso-bookmark:pdo'>c. dsn: </span></p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre><span
style='mso-bookmark:pdo'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$dsn = 'postgres://user:hide@address.com/mydb?persist';<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span># persist is optional</span></pre><pre
style='background:#EEEEEE'><span style='mso-bookmark:pdo'><span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$conn = ADONewConnection($dsn);<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span># no need for Connect/PConnect</span></pre></div>

<span style='mso-bookmark:pdo'></span>

<h4><a name=ldap></a>LDAP</h4>

<p>Here is an example of querying a LDAP server. Thanks to Josh Eldridge for
the driver and this example: </p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></pre><pre>require('/path/to/adodb.inc.php');</pre><pre><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></pre><pre>/* Make sure to set this BEFORE calling Connect() */</pre><pre>$LDAP_CONNECT_OPTIONS = Array(</pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>Array (&quot;OPTION_NAME&quot;=&gt;LDAP_OPT_DEREF, &quot;OPTION_VALUE&quot;=&gt;2),</pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>Array (&quot;OPTION_NAME&quot;=&gt;LDAP_OPT_SIZELIMIT,&quot;OPTION_VALUE&quot;=&gt;100),</pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>Array (&quot;OPTION_NAME&quot;=&gt;LDAP_OPT_TIMELIMIT,&quot;OPTION_VALUE&quot;=&gt;30),</pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>Array (&quot;OPTION_NAME&quot;=&gt;LDAP_OPT_PROTOCOL_VERSION,&quot;OPTION_VALUE&quot;=&gt;3),</pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>Array (&quot;OPTION_NAME&quot;=&gt;LDAP_OPT_ERROR_NUMBER,&quot;OPTION_VALUE&quot;=&gt;13),</pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>Array (&quot;OPTION_NAME&quot;=&gt;LDAP_OPT_REFERRALS,&quot;OPTION_VALUE&quot;=&gt;FALSE),</pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>Array (&quot;OPTION_NAME&quot;=&gt;LDAP_OPT_RESTART,&quot;OPTION_VALUE&quot;=&gt;FALSE)</pre><pre>);</pre><pre>$host = 'ldap.baylor.edu';</pre><pre>$ldapbase = 'ou=People,o=<st1:place
w:st="on"><st1:PlaceName w:st="on">Baylor</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceType w:st="on">University</st1:PlaceType></st1:place>,c=US';</pre><pre><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></pre><pre>$ldap = NewADOConnection( 'ldap' );</pre><pre>$ldap-&gt;Connect( $host, $user_name='', $password='', $ldapbase );</pre><pre><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></pre><pre>echo &quot;&lt;pre&gt;&quot;;</pre><pre><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></pre><pre>print_r( $ldap-&gt;ServerInfo() );</pre><pre>$ldap-&gt;SetFetchMode(ADODB_FETCH_ASSOC);</pre><pre>$userName = 'eldridge';</pre><pre>$filter=&quot;(|(CN=$userName*)(sn=$userName*)(givenname=$userName*)(uid=$userName*))&quot;;</pre><pre><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></pre><pre>$rs = $ldap-&gt;Execute( $filter );</pre><pre>if ($rs)</pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>while ($arr = $rs-&gt;FetchRow()) {</pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>     </span>print_r($arr);<span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>       </span></pre><pre><span style='mso-tab-count:
1'>         </span>}</pre><pre><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></pre><pre>$rs = $ldap-&gt;Execute( $filter );</pre><pre>if ($rs) </pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>while (!$rs-&gt;EOF) {</pre><pre> <span
style='mso-tab-count:2'>                </span>print_r($rs-&gt;fields);<span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>     </span></pre><pre><span style='mso-tab-count:2'>                 </span>$rs-&gt;MoveNext();</pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>} </pre><pre><span style='mso-tab-count:
1'>         </span></pre><pre>print_r( $ldap-&gt;GetArray( $filter ) );</pre><pre>print_r( $ldap-&gt;GetRow( $filter ) );</pre><pre><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></pre><pre>$ldap-&gt;Close();</pre><pre>echo &quot;&lt;/pre&gt;&quot;;</pre></div>

<p>Using DSN: </p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></pre><pre>$dsn = &quot;ldap://ldap.baylor.edu/ou=People,o=<st1:place
w:st="on"><st1:PlaceName w:st="on">Baylor</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceType w:st="on">University</st1:PlaceType></st1:place>,c=US&quot;;</pre><pre>$db = NewADOConnection($dsn);</pre></div>

<h4>Interbase/Firebird</h4>

<p class=MsoNormal>You define the database in the $host parameter: </p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre
style='background:#EEEEEE'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$conn = &amp;ADONewConnection('ibase'); <br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$conn-&gt;PConnect('localhost:c:\ibase\employee.gdb','sysdba','masterkey');</pre></div>

<p>Or dsn: </p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre
style='background:#EEEEEE'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$dsn = 'firebird://user:hide@address.com/mydb?persist&amp;dialect=3';<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span># persist is optional<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$conn = ADONewConnection($dsn);<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span># no need for Connect/PConnect</pre></div>

<h4>SQLite</h4>

<p class=MsoNormal>Sqlite will create the database file if it does not exist. </p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$conn = &amp;ADONewConnection('sqlite');</pre><pre
style='background:#EEEEEE'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$conn-&gt;PConnect('c:\path\to\sqlite.db'); # sqlite will create if does not exist</pre></div>

<p>Or dsn: </p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$path = urlencode('c:\path\to\sqlite.db');</pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$dsn = &quot;sqlite://$path/?persist&quot;;<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span># persist is optional</pre><pre
style='background:#EEEEEE'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$conn = ADONewConnection($dsn);<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span># no need for Connect/PConnect</pre></div>

<h4>Oracle (oci8)</h4>

<p>With oci8, you can connect in multiple ways. Note that oci8 works fine with
newer versions of the Oracle, eg. 9i and 10g.</p>

<p>a. PHP and Oracle reside on the same machine, use default SID.</p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre
style='background:#EEEEEE'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$conn-&gt;Connect(false, 'scott', 'tiger');</pre></div>

<p>b. TNS Name defined in tnsnames.ora (or ONAMES or HOSTNAMES), eg. 'myTNS'</p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre
style='background:#EEEEEE'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$conn-&gt;PConnect(false, 'scott', 'tiger', 'myTNS');</pre></div>

<p>or</p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre
style='background:#EEEEEE'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>        </span>$conn-&gt;PConnect('myTNS', 'scott', 'tiger');</pre></div>

<p>c. Host Address and SID</p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span># with adodb 5.06 or 4.991 and later</pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$conn-&gt;Connect('192.168.0.1', 'scott', 'tiger', &quot;SID=$SID&quot;);</pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span></pre><pre><span style='mso-tab-count:
1'>         </span># OR with all versions of ADOdb</pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$conn-&gt;connectSID = true;</pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$conn-&gt;Connect('192.168.0.1', 'scott', 'tiger', $SID);</pre><pre
style='background:#EEEEEE'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span></pre></div>

<p>d. Host Address and Service Name</p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre
style='background:#EEEEEE'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$conn-&gt;Connect('192.168.0.1', 'scott', 'tiger', 'servicename');</pre></div>

<p>e. Oracle connection string: </p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre
style='background:#EEEEEE'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$cstr = &quot;(DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=TCP)(HOST=$host)(PORT=$port))<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:3'>                          </span>(CONNECT_DATA=(SID=$sid)))&quot;;<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$conn-&gt;Connect($cstr, 'scott', 'tiger');</pre></div>

<p>f. ADOdb dsn: </p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre
style='background:#EEEEEE'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$dsn = 'oci8://user:hide@address.com/?persist';<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span># persist is optional<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$conn = ADONewConnection($dsn);<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span># no need for Connect/PConnect<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span><br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$dsn = 'oci8://user:hide@address.com/sid';<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$conn = ADONewConnection($dsn);<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span><br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$dsn = 'oci8://user:pwd@/';<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>   </span># oracle on local machine<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$conn = ADONewConnection($dsn);</pre></div>

<p>You can also set the charSet for Oracle 9.2 and later, supported since PHP
4.3.2, ADOdb 4.54: </p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre
style='background:#EEEEEE'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$conn-&gt;charSet = 'we8iso8859p1';<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$conn-&gt;Connect(...);<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span><br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span># or<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$dsn = 'oci8://user:hide@address.com/?charset=WE8MSWIN1252';<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$db = ADONewConnection($dsn);</pre></div>

<h4><a name=dsnless></a>DSN-less ODBC ( Access, MSSQL and DB2 examples)</h4>

<p>ODBC DSN's can be created in the ODBC control panel, or you can use a
DSN-less connection.To use DSN-less connections with ODBC you need PHP 4.3 or
later. </p>

<p>For Microsoft Access:</p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$db =&amp; ADONewConnection('access');<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$dsn = <strong><span
style='font-family:"Courier New"'>&quot;Driver={Microsoft Access Driver (*.mdb)};Dbq=d:\\northwind.mdb;Uid=Admin;Pwd=;&quot;;</span></strong></pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$db-&gt;Connect($dsn);</pre></div>

<p class=MsoNormal>For Microsoft SQL Server: </p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre
style='background:#EEEEEE'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$db =&amp; ADONewConnection('odbc_mssql');<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$dsn = <strong><span
style='font-family:"Courier New"'>&quot;Driver={SQL Server};Server=localhost;Database=northwind;&quot;</span></strong>;<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$db-&gt;Connect($dsn,'userid','password');</pre></div>

<p class=MsoNormal>or if you prefer to use the mssql extension (which is
limited to mssql 6.5 functionality): </p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre
style='background:#EEEEEE'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$db =&amp; ADONewConnection('mssql');<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$db-&gt;Execute('localhost', 'userid', 'password', 'northwind');</pre></div>

<p class=MsoNormal>For DB2: </p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$dbms = 'db2'; # or 'odbc_db2' if db2 extension not available</pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$db =&amp; ADONewConnection($dbms);</pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$dsn = &quot;driver={IBM db2 odbc DRIVER};Database=sample;hostname=localhost;port=50000;protocol=TCPIP;&quot;.</pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:4'>                                   </span>&quot;uid=root; pwd=secret&quot;;<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$db-&gt;Connect($dsn);<br>
		  # or connect and set schema
		  $db-&gt;Connect($dsn,null,null,$schema);</pre>
</div>

<p class=MsoNormal><b>DSN-less Connections with <st1:City w:st="on">ADO</st1:City></b><br>
If you are using versions of PHP earlier than PHP 4.3.0, DSN-less connections
only work with Microsoft's <st1:City w:st="on"><st1:place w:st="on">ADO</st1:place></st1:City>,
which is Microsoft's COM based API. An example using the ADOdb library and
Microsoft's <st1:City w:st="on"><st1:place w:st="on">ADO</st1:place></st1:City>:
</p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre>&lt;?php<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>include('adodb.inc.php'); <br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$db = &amp;ADONewConnection(&quot;ado_mssql&quot;);<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>print &quot;&lt;h1&gt;Connecting DSN-less $db-&gt;databaseType...&lt;/h1&gt;&quot;;<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:2'>                 </span><br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span><b>$myDSN=&quot;PROVIDER=MSDASQL;DRIVER={SQL Server};&quot;<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:2'>                 </span>. &quot;SERVER=flipper;DATABASE=ai;UID=sa;PWD=;&quot;<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>;</b></pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$db-&gt;Connect($myDSN);</pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span></pre><pre><span style='mso-tab-count:
1'>         </span>$rs = $db-&gt;Execute(&quot;select * from table&quot;);</pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$arr = $rs-&gt;GetArray();</pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>print_r($arr);</pre><pre>?&gt;</pre></div>

<h2><a name=speed></a>High Speed ADOdb - tuning tips</h2>

<p>ADOdb is a big class library, yet it <a href="http://phplens.com/lens/adodb/">consistently
beats</a> all other PHP class libraries in performance. This is because it is
designed in a layered fashion, like an onion, with the fastest functions in the
innermost layer. Stick to the following functions for best performance:</p>

<div align=center>

<table class=MsoNormalTable border=1 cellpadding=0 width="40%"
 style='width:40.0%;mso-cellspacing:1.5pt'>
 <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes'>
  <td style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><b>Innermost Layer</b></p>
  </td>
 </tr>
 <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:1;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes'>
  <td style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p align=center style='text-align:center'>Connect, PConnect, NConnect<br>
  Execute, CacheExecute<br>
  SelectLimit, CacheSelectLimit<br>
  MoveNext, Close <br>
  qstr, Affected_Rows, Insert_ID</p>
  </td>
 </tr>
</table>

</div>

<p>The fastest way to access the field data is by accessing the array
$recordset-&gt;fields directly. Also set the global variables <a
href="#adodb_fetch_mode">$ADODB_FETCH_MODE</a> = ADODB_FETCH_NUM, and (for
oci8, ibase/firebird and odbc) <a href="#adodb_countrecs">$ADODB_COUNTRECS</a>
= false before you connect to your database.</p>

<p>Consider using bind parameters if your database supports it, as it improves
query plan reuse. Use ADOdb's performance tuning system to identify bottlenecks
quickly. At the time of writing (Dec 2003), this means oci8 and odbc drivers.</p>

<p>Lastly make sure you have a PHP accelerator cache installed such as APC,
Turck MMCache, Zend Accelerator or ionCube.</p>

<p>Some examples:</p>

<div align=center>

<table class=MsoNormalTable border=1 cellpadding=0 style='mso-cellspacing:1.5pt'>
 <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes'>
  <td style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><b>Fastest data retrieval using PHP</b></p>
  </td>
  <td style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><b>Fastest data retrieval using ADOdb extension</b></p>
  </td>
 </tr>
 <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:1;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes'>
  <td style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;
  mso-border-alt:solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;
  background:#EEEEEE'><pre style='background:#EEEEEE'>$rs =&amp; $rs-&gt;Execute($sql);<br>
while (!$rs-&gt;EOF) {<br>
  <span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>var_dump($rs-&gt;fields);<br>
  <span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$rs-&gt;MoveNext();<br>
}</pre></div>
  </td>
  <td style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;
  mso-border-alt:solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;
  background:#EEEEEE'><pre style='margin-bottom:12.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'>$rs =&amp; $rs-&gt;Execute($sql);<br>
$array = adodb_getall($rs);<br>
var_dump($array);<br style='mso-special-character:line-break'>
  <![if !supportLineBreakNewLine]><br style='mso-special-character:line-break'>
  <![endif]></pre></div>
  </td>
 </tr>
</table>

</div>

<p><b>Advanced Tips</b> </p>

<p>If you have the <a href="http://adodb.sourceforge.net/#extension">ADOdb C
extension</a> installed, you can replace your calls to $rs-&gt;MoveNext() with
adodb_movenext($rs). This doubles the speed of this operation. For retrieving
entire recordsets at once, use GetArray(), which uses the high speed extension
function adodb_getall($rs) internally. </p>

<p>Execute() is the default way to run queries. You can use the low-level
functions _Execute() and _query() to reduce query overhead. Both these
functions share the same parameters as Execute(). </p>

<p>If you do not have any bind parameters or your database supports binding
(without emulation), then you can call _Execute() directly. Calling this
function bypasses bind emulation. Debugging is still supported in _Execute(). </p>

<p>If you do not require debugging facilities nor emulated binding, and do not
require a recordset to be returned, then you can call _query. This is great for
inserts, updates and deletes. Calling this function bypasses emulated binding,
debugging, and recordset handling. Either the resultid, true or false are
returned by _query(). </p>

<p>For Informix, you can disable scrollable cursors with $db-&gt;cursorType =
0. </p>

<h2><a name=hack></a>Hacking ADOdb Safely</h2>

<p>You might want to modify ADOdb for your own purposes. Luckily you can still
maintain backward compatibility by sub-classing ADOdb and using the
$ADODB_NEWCONNECTION variable. $ADODB_NEWCONNECTION allows you to override the
behaviour of ADONewConnection(). ADOConnection() checks for this variable and
will call the function-name stored in this variable if it is defined. </p>

<p>In the following example, new functionality for the connection object is
placed in the <i>hack_mysql</i> and <i>hack_postgres7</i> classes. The
recordset class naming convention can be controlled using $rsPrefix. Here we
set it to 'hack_rs_', which will make ADOdb use <i>hack_rs_mysql</i> and <i>hack_rs_postgres7</i>
as the recordset classes. </p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre
style='background:#EEEEEE'>class hack_mysql extends adodb_mysql {<br>
var $rsPrefix = 'hack_rs_';<br>
<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>/* Your mods here */<br>
}<br>
<br>
class hack_rs_mysql extends ADORecordSet_mysql {<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>/* Your mods here */<br>
}<br>
<br>
class hack_postgres7 extends adodb_postgres7 {<br>
var $rsPrefix = 'hack_rs_';<br>
<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>/* Your mods here */<br>
}<br>
<br>
class hack_rs_postgres7 extends ADORecordSet_postgres7 {<br>
<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>/* Your mods here */<br>
}<br>
<br>
$ADODB_NEWCONNECTION = 'hack_factory';<br>
<br>
function&amp; hack_factory($driver)<br>
{<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>if ($driver !== 'mysql' &amp;&amp; $driver !== 'postgres7') return false;<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span><br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$driver = 'hack_'.$driver;<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$obj = new $driver();<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>return $obj;<br>
}<br>
<br>
include_once('adodb.inc.php');</pre></div>

<p>Don't forget to call the constructor of the parent class in your
constructor. If you want to use the default ADOdb drivers return false in the
above hack_factory() function. Also you can define your own
ADORecordSet_empty() class, by defining a class $$this-&gt;rsPrefix.'empty'
since 4.96/5.02. <a name=php5></a></p>

<h2>PHP5 Features</h2>

<p class=MsoNormal>ADOdb 4.02 or later will transparently determine which
version of PHP you are using. If PHP5 is detected, the following features become
available: </p>

<ul type=disc>
 <li class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:auto;margin-bottom:12.0pt;
     mso-list:l11 level1 lfo5;tab-stops:list 36.0pt'><b>PDO</b>: PDO drivers
     are available. See the <a href="#pdo">connection examples</a>. Currently
     PDO drivers are not as powerful as native drivers, and should be treated
     as experimental.<a name=php5iterators></a></li>
 <li class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto;
     mso-list:l11 level1 lfo5;tab-stops:list 36.0pt'><b>Foreach iterators</b>:
     This is a very natural way of going through a recordset: </li>
</ul>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE;
margin-left:36.0pt;margin-right:0cm'><pre style='background:#EEEEEE'><span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>  </span>$ADODB_FETCH_MODE = ADODB_FETCH_NUM;<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>  </span>$rs = $db-&gt;Execute($sql);<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>  </span>foreach($rs as $k =&gt; $row) {<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:2'>           </span>echo &quot;r1=&quot;.$row[0].&quot; r2=&quot;.$row[1].&quot;&lt;br&gt;&quot;;<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>  </span>}</pre></div>

<ul type=disc>
 <li class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto;
     mso-list:l11 level1 lfo5;tab-stops:list 36.0pt'><a name=php5exceptions></a><b>Exceptions</b>:
     Just include <i>adodb-exceptions.inc.php</i> and you can now catch
     exceptions on errors as they occur. </li>
</ul>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE;
margin-left:36.0pt;margin-right:0cm'><pre style='background:#EEEEEE'><span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>  </span><b>include(&quot;../adodb-exceptions.inc.php&quot;);</b> <br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>  </span>include(&quot;../adodb.inc.php&quot;);<span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>       </span> <br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>  </span>try { <br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:2'>           </span>$db = NewADOConnection(&quot;oci8&quot;); <br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:2'>           </span>$db-&gt;Connect('','scott','bad-password'); <br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>  </span>} catch (exception $e) { <br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:2'>           </span>var_dump($e); <br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:2'>           </span>adodb_backtrace($e-&gt;gettrace());<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>  </span>} </pre></div>

<p style='margin-left:36.0pt'>Note that reaching EOF is <b>not</b> considered
an error nor an exception. </p>

<h3><a name=drivers></a>Databases Supported</h3>

<p class=MsoNormal>The <i>name</i> below is the value you pass to
NewADOConnection($name) to create a connection object for that database. </p>

<table class=MsoNormalTable border=1 cellpadding=0 width="100%"
 style='width:100.0%;mso-cellspacing:1.5pt'>
 <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes'>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><b>Name</b></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><b>Tested</b></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><b>Database</b></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><b><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>RecordCount() usable</span></b></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><b>Prerequisites</b></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><b>Operating Systems</b></p>
  </td>
 </tr>
 <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:1'>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><b><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>access</span></b></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>B</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Microsoft Access/Jet. You
  need to create an ODBC DSN.</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Y/N</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>ODBC </span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Windows only</span></p>
  </td>
 </tr>
 <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:2'>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><b><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>ado</span></b></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>B</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Generic <st1:City w:st="on"><st1:place
   w:st="on">ADO</st1:place></st1:City>, not tuned for specific databases.
  Allows DSN-less connections. For best performance, use an OLEDB provider.
  This is the base class for all ado drivers.</span></p>
  <p><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>You can set $db-&gt;codePage before
  connecting.</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>? depends on database</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><st1:City w:st="on"><st1:place w:st="on"><span
    style='font-size:10.0pt'>ADO</span></st1:place></st1:City><span
  style='font-size:10.0pt'> or OLEDB provider</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Windows only</span></p>
  </td>
 </tr>
 <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:3'>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><b><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>ado_access</span></b></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>B</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Microsoft Access/Jet using <st1:City
  w:st="on"><st1:place w:st="on">ADO</st1:place></st1:City>. Allows DSN-less
  connections. For best performance, use an OLEDB provider.</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Y/N</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><st1:City w:st="on"><st1:place w:st="on"><span
    style='font-size:10.0pt'>ADO</span></st1:place></st1:City><span
  style='font-size:10.0pt'> or OLEDB provider</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Windows only</span></p>
  </td>
 </tr>
 <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:4'>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><b><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>ado_mssql</span></b></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>B</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Microsoft SQL Server using <st1:City
  w:st="on"><st1:place w:st="on">ADO</st1:place></st1:City>. Allows DSN-less
  connections. For best performance, use an OLEDB provider.</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Y/N</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><st1:City w:st="on"><st1:place w:st="on"><span
    style='font-size:10.0pt'>ADO</span></st1:place></st1:City><span
  style='font-size:10.0pt'> or OLEDB provider</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Windows only</span></p>
  </td>
 </tr>
 <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:5;height:40.5pt'>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt;height:40.5pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><b><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>db2</span></b></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt;height:40.5pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>C</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt;height:40.5pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Uses PHP's db2-specific
  extension for better performance.</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt;height:40.5pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Y/N</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt;height:40.5pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>DB2 CLI/ODBC interface</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt;height:40.5pt'>
  <p><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Unix and Windows. Requires IBM DB2
  Universal Database client.</span></p>
  </td>
 </tr>
 
 <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:5;height:40.5pt'>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt;height:40.5pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><b><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>db2oci</span></b></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt;height:40.5pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>C</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt;height:40.5pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Based on db2 driver. Allows use of oracle style :0, :1, :2 bind variables. Used with DB2 9.7 or later with PL/SQL mode turned on.</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt;height:40.5pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Y/N</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt;height:40.5pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>DB2 CLI/ODBC interface</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt;height:40.5pt'>
  <p><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Unix and Windows. Requires IBM DB2
  Universal Database client.</span></p>
  </td>
 </tr>
 
 <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:6;height:40.5pt'>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt;height:40.5pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><b><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>odbc_db2</span></b></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt;height:40.5pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>C</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt;height:40.5pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Connects to DB2 using
  generic ODBC extension.</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt;height:40.5pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Y/N</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt;height:40.5pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>DB2 CLI/ODBC interface</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt;height:40.5pt'>
  <p><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Unix and Windows. <a
  href="http://www.faqts.com/knowledge_base/view.phtml/aid/6283/fid/14">Unix
  install hints</a>. I have had reports that the $host and $database params
  have to be reversed in Connect() when using the CLI interface.</span></p>
  </td>
 </tr>
 <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:7'>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><b><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>vfp</span></b></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>A</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Microsoft Visual FoxPro.
  You need to create an ODBC DSN.</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Y/N</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>ODBC</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Windows only</span></p>
  </td>
 </tr>
 <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:8'>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><b><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>fbsql</span></b></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>C</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>FrontBase. </span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Y</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>?</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Unix and Windows</span></p>
  </td>
 </tr>
 <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:9'>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><b><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>ibase</span></b></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>B</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Interbase 6 or earlier.
  Some users report you might need to use this<br>
  $db-&gt;PConnect('localhost:c:/ibase/employee.gdb', &quot;sysdba&quot;,
  &quot;masterkey&quot;) to connect. Lacks Affected_Rows currently.<br>
  <br>
  You can set $db-&gt;role, $db-&gt;dialect, $db-&gt;buffers and
  $db-&gt;charSet before connecting.</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Y/N</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Interbase client</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Unix and Windows</span></p>
  </td>
 </tr>
 <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:10'>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><b><i><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>firebird</span></i></b></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>C</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Firebird version of
  interbase.</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Y/N</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Interbase client</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Unix and Windows</span></p>
  </td>
 </tr>
 <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:11'>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><b><i><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>borland_ibase</span></i></b></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>C</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Borland version of
  Interbase 6.5 or later. Very sad that the forks differ.</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Y/N</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Interbase client</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Unix and Windows</span></p>
  </td>
 </tr>
 <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:12'>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><b><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>informix</span></b></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>C</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Generic informix driver.
  Use this if you are using Informix 7.3 or later.</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Y/N</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Informix client</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Unix and Windows</span></p>
  </td>
 </tr>
 <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:13'>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><b><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>informix72</span></b></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>C</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Informix databases before
  Informix 7.3 that do no support SELECT FIRST.</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Y/N</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Informix client</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Unix and Windows</span></p>
  </td>
 </tr>
 <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:14'>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><b><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>ldap</span></b></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>C</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>LDAP driver. See this
  example for usage information.</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal>&nbsp;</p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>LDAP extension</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>?</span></p>
  </td>
 </tr>
 <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:15;height:54.75pt'>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt;height:54.75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><b><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>mssql</span></b></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt;height:54.75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>A</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt;height:54.75pt'>
  <p><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Microsoft SQL Server 7 and later. Works
  with Microsoft SQL Server 2000 also. Note that date formating is problematic
  with this driver. For example, the PHP mssql extension does not return the
  seconds for datetime!</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt;height:54.75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Y/N</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt;height:54.75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Mssql client</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt;height:54.75pt'>
  <p><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Unix and Windows. <br>
  <a href="http://phpbuilder.com/columns/alberto20000919.php3">Unix install
  howto</a> and <a
  href="http://linuxjournal.com/article.php?sid=6636&amp;mode=thread&amp;order=0">another
  one</a>. </span></p>
  </td>
 </tr>
 <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:16;height:54.75pt'>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt;height:54.75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><b><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>mssqlpo</span></b></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt;height:54.75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>A</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt;height:54.75pt'>
  <p><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Portable mssql driver. Identical to above mssql
  driver, except that '||', the concatenation operator, is converted to '+'.
  Useful for porting scripts from most other sql variants that use ||.</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt;height:54.75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Y/N</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt;height:54.75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Mssql client</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt;height:54.75pt'>
  <p><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Unix and Windows. <a
  href="http://phpbuilder.com/columns/alberto20000919.php3"><br>
  Unix install howto</a>.</span></p>
  </td>
 </tr>
 <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:17;height:54.75pt'>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt;height:54.75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><b><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>mssqlnative</span></b></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt;height:54.75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>C</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt;height:54.75pt'>
  <p><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Native mssql driver from M'soft. </span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt;height:54.75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>?</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt;height:54.75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>?</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt;height:54.75pt'>
  <p><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Windows. Tq Garrett Serack of M'soft.</span></p>
  </td>
 </tr>
 <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:18'>
  <td style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></p>
  </td>
  <td style='border:none;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;color:windowtext'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p>
  </td>
  <td style='border:none;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;color:windowtext'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p>
  </td>
  <td style='border:none;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;color:windowtext'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p>
  </td>
  <td style='border:none;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;color:windowtext'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p>
  </td>
  <td style='border:none;padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt;color:windowtext'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p>
  </td>
 </tr>
 <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:19'>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><b><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>mysql</span></b></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>A</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>MySQL without transaction
  support. You can also set $db-&gt;clientFlags before connecting.</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Y</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>MySQL client</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Unix and Windows</span></p>
  </td>
 </tr>
 <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:20'>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><b><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>mysqlt</span></b><span
  style='font-size:10.0pt'> or <b>maxsql</b></span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>A</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>MySQL with transaction support. We
  recommend using || as the concat operator for best portability. This can be
  done by running MySQL using: <br>
  <i>mysqld --ansi</i> or <i>mysqld --sql-mode=PIPES_AS_CONCAT</i></span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Y/N</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>MySQL client</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Unix and Windows</span></p>
  </td>
 </tr>
 <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:21'>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><b><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>oci8</span></b></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>A</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Oracle 8/9. Has more
  functionality than <i>oracle</i> driver (eg. Affected_Rows). You might have
  to putenv('ORACLE_HOME=...') before Connect/PConnect. </span></p>
  <p><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>There are 2 ways of connecting - with
  server IP and service name: <br>
  <i>PConnect('serverip:1521','scott','tiger','service'</i>)<br>
  or using an entry in TNSNAMES.ORA or ONAMES or HOSTNAMES: <br>
  <i>PConnect(false, 'scott', 'tiger', $oraname)</i>. </span></p>
  <p><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Since 2.31, we support Oracle REF cursor
  variables directly (see <a href="#executecursor">ExecuteCursor</a>).</span> </p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Y/N</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Oracle client</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Unix and Windows</span></p>
  </td>
 </tr>
 <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:22'>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><b><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>oci805</span></b></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>C</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Supports reduced Oracle
  functionality for Oracle 8.0.5. SelectLimit is not as efficient as in the
  oci8 or oci8po drivers.</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Y/N</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Oracle client</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Unix and Windows</span></p>
  </td>
 </tr>
 <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:23'>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><b><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>oci8po</span></b></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>A</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Oracle 8/9 portable driver.
  This is nearly identical with the oci8 driver except (a) bind variables in
  Prepare() use the ? convention, instead of :bindvar, (b) field names use the
  more common PHP convention of lowercase names. </span></p>
  <p><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Use this driver if porting from other
  databases is important. Otherwise the oci8 driver offers better performance. </span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Y/N</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Oracle client</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Unix and Windows</span></p>
  </td>
 </tr>
 <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:24'>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><b><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>odbc</span></b></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>A</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Generic ODBC, not tuned for
  specific databases. To connect, use <br>
  PConnect('DSN','user','pwd'). This is the base class for all odbc derived
  drivers.</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>? depends on database</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>ODBC</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Unix and Windows. <a
  href="http://phpbuilder.com/columns/alberto20000919.php3?page=4">Unix hints.</a></span></p>
  </td>
 </tr>
 <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:25'>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><b><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>odbc_mssql</span></b></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>C</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Uses ODBC to connect to
  MSSQL</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Y/N</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>ODBC</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Unix and Windows. </span></p>
  </td>
 </tr>
 <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:26'>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><b><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>odbc_oracle</span></b></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>C</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Uses ODBC to connect to
  Oracle</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Y/N</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>ODBC</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Unix and Windows. </span></p>
  </td>
 </tr>
 <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:27'>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><b><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>odbtp</span></b></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>C</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Generic odbtp driver. <a
  href="http://odbtp.sourceforge.net/">Odbtp</a> is a software for accessing
  Windows ODBC data sources from other operating systems.</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Y/N</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>odbtp</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Unix and Windows</span></p>
  </td>
 </tr>
 <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:28'>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><b><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>odbtp_unicode</span></b></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>C</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Odtbp with unicode support</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Y/N</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>odbtp</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Unix and Windows</span></p>
  </td>
 </tr>
 <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:29;height:25.5pt'>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt;height:25.5pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><b><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>oracle</span></b></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt;height:25.5pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>C</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt;height:25.5pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Implements old Oracle 7
  client API. Use oci8 driver if possible for better performance.</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt;height:25.5pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Y/N</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt;height:25.5pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Oracle client</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt;height:25.5pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Unix and Windows</span></p>
  </td>
 </tr>
 <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:30;height:25.5pt'>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt;height:25.5pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><b><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>netezza</span></b></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt;height:25.5pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>C</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt;height:25.5pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Netezza driver. Netezza is
  based on postgres code-base.</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt;height:25.5pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Y</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt;height:25.5pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>?</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt;height:25.5pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>?</span></p>
  </td>
 </tr>
 <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:31'>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><b><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>pdo</span></b></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>C</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Generic PDO driver for
  PHP5. </span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Y</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>PDO extension and database
  specific drivers</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Unix and Windows. </span></p>
  </td>
 </tr>
 <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:32'>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><b><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>postgres</span></b></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>A</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Generic PostgreSQL driver.
  Currently identical to postgres7 driver.</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Y</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>PostgreSQL client</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Unix and Windows. </span></p>
  </td>
 </tr>
 <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:33'>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><b><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>postgres64</span></b></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>A</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>For PostgreSQL 6.4 and
  earlier which does not support LIMIT internally.</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Y</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>PostgreSQL client</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Unix and Windows. </span></p>
  </td>
 </tr>
 <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:34'>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><b><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>postgres7</span></b></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>A</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>PostgreSQL which supports
  LIMIT and other version 7 functionality.</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Y</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>PostgreSQL client</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Unix and Windows. </span></p>
  </td>
 </tr>
 <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:35'>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><b><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>postgres8</span></b></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>A</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>PostgreSQL which supports
  version 8 functionality.</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Y</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>PostgreSQL client</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Unix and Windows. </span></p>
  </td>
 </tr>
 <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:36'>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><b><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>sapdb</span></b></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>C</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>SAP DB. Should work
  reliably as based on ODBC driver.</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Y/N</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>SAP ODBC client</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>?</span></p>
  </td>
 </tr>
 <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:37'>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><b><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>sqlanywhere</span></b></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>C</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Sybase SQL Anywhere. Should
  work reliably as based on ODBC driver.</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Y/N</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>SQL Anywhere ODBC client</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>?</span></p>
  </td>
 </tr>
 <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:38;height:40.5pt'>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt;height:40.5pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><b><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>sqlite</span></b></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt;height:40.5pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>B</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt;height:40.5pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>SQLite.</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt;height:40.5pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Y</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt;height:40.5pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>-</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt;height:40.5pt'>
  <p><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Unix and Windows.</span></p>
  </td>
 </tr>
 <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:39;height:40.5pt'>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt;height:40.5pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><b><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>sqlitepo</span></b></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt;height:40.5pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>B</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt;height:40.5pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Portable SQLite driver. This
  is because assoc mode does not work like other drivers in sqlite. Namely,
  when selecting (joining) multiple tables, the table names are included in the
  assoc keys in the &quot;sqlite&quot; driver.</span></p>
  <p><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>In &quot;sqlitepo&quot; driver, the table
  names are stripped from the returned column names. When this results in a
  conflict, the first field get preference. </span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt;height:40.5pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Y</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt;height:40.5pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>-</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt;height:40.5pt'>
  <p><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Unix and Windows.</span></p>
  </td>
 </tr>
 <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:40'>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><b><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>sybase</span></b></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>C</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Sybase. </span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Y/N</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Sybase client</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Unix and Windows.</span></p>
  </td>
 </tr>
 <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:41;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes'>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><b><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>sybase_ase</span></b></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>C</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Sybase ASE. </span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Y/N</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Sybase client</span></p>
  </td>
  <td valign=top style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Unix and Windows.</span></p>
  </td>
 </tr>
</table>

<p>The &quot;Tested&quot; column indicates how extensively the code has been
tested and used. <br>
A = well tested and used by many people<br>
B = tested and usable, but some features might not be implemented<br>
C = user contributed or experimental driver. Might not fully support all of the
latest features of ADOdb. </p>

<p>The column &quot;RecordCount() usable&quot; indicates whether RecordCount()
return the number of rows, or returns -1 when a SELECT statement is executed.
If this column displays Y/N then the RecordCount() is emulated when the global
variable $ADODB_COUNTRECS=true (this is the default). Note that for large
recordsets, it might be better to disable RecordCount() emulation because
substantial amounts of memory are required to cache the recordset for counting.
Also there is a speed penalty of 40-50% if emulation is required. This is
emulated in most databases except for PostgreSQL and MySQL. This variable is
checked every time a query is executed, so you can selectively choose which
recordsets to count.</p>

<div class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'>

<hr size=2 width="100%" align=center>

</div>

<h1>Tutorials<a name=quickstart></a></h1>

<h3>Example 1: Select Statement<a name=ex1></a></h3>

<p>Task: Connect to the Access Northwind DSN, display the first 2 columns of
each row.</p>

<p>In this example, we create a ADOConnection object, which represents the
connection to the database. The connection is initiated with <a href="#pconnect"><span
style='font-family:"Courier New"'>PConnect</span></a>, which is a persistent
connection. Whenever we want to query the database, we call the <span
style='font-family:"Courier New"'>ADOConnection.<a href="#execute">Execute</a>()</span>
function. This returns an ADORecordSet object which is actually a cursor that
holds the current row in the array <span style='font-family:"Courier New"'>fields[]</span>.
We use <span style='font-family:"Courier New"'><a href="#movenext">MoveNext</a>()</span>
to move from row to row.</p>

<p>NB: A useful function that is not used in this example is <span
style='font-family:"Courier New"'><a href="#selectlimit">SelectLimit</a></span>,
which allows us to limit the number of rows shown. </p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre>&lt;?<br>
<b>include</b>('adodb.inc.php');<span style='mso-tab-count:1'> </span><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>   </span># load code common to ADOdb<br>
$<span style='color:#660000'>conn</span> = &amp;ADONewConnection('access');<span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>        </span># create a connection<br>
$<span style='color:#660000'>conn</span>-&gt;PConnect('northwind');<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>   </span># connect to MS-Access, northwind DSN<br>
$<span style='color:#660000'>recordSet</span> = &amp;$<span style='color:#660000'>conn</span>-&gt;Execute('select * from products');<br>
if (!$<span style='color:#660000'>recordSet</span>) <br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>print $<span style='color:#660000'>conn</span>-&gt;ErrorMsg();<br>
else<br>
<b>while</b> (!$<span style='color:#660000'>recordSet</span>-&gt;EOF) {<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span><b>print</b> $<span
style='color:#660000'>recordSet</span>-&gt;fields[0].' '.$<span
style='color:#660000'>recordSet</span>-&gt;fields[1].'&lt;BR&gt;';<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$<span style='color:#660000'>recordSet</span>-&gt;MoveNext();<br>
}</pre><pre><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></pre><pre>$<span style='color:#660000'>recordSet</span>-&gt;Close(); # optional<br>
$<span style='color:#660000'>conn</span>-&gt;Close(); # optional<br
style='mso-special-character:line-break'>
<![if !supportLineBreakNewLine]><br style='mso-special-character:line-break'>
<![endif]></pre><pre>?&gt;</pre></div>

<p>The $<span style='font-family:"Courier New"'>recordSet</span> returned
stores the current row in the <span style='font-family:"Courier New"'>$recordSet-&gt;fields</span>
array, indexed by column number (starting from zero). We use the <span
style='font-family:"Courier New"'><a href="#movenext">MoveNext</a>()</span>
function to move to the next row. The <span style='font-family:"Courier New"'>EOF</span>
property is set to true when end-of-file is reached. If an error occurs in
Execute(), we return false instead of a recordset.</p>

<p>The <code><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>$recordSet-&gt;fields[]</span></code>
array is generated by the PHP database extension. Some database extensions only
index by number and do not index the array by field name. To force indexing by
name - that is associative arrays - use the SetFetchMode function. Each
recordset saves and uses whatever fetch mode was set when the recordset was
created in Execute() or SelectLimit(). </p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$db-&gt;SetFetchMode(ADODB_FETCH_NUM);<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$rs1 = $db-&gt;Execute('select * from table');<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$db-&gt;SetFetchMode(ADODB_FETCH_ASSOC);<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$rs2 = $db-&gt;Execute('select * from table');<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>print_r($rs1-&gt;fields); # shows <i>array([0]=&gt;'v0',[1] =&gt;'v1')</i></pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>print_r($rs2-&gt;fields); # shows <i>array(['col1']=&gt;'v0',['col2'] =&gt;'v1')</i></pre></div>

<p>To get the number of rows in the select statement, you can use <span
style='font-family:"Courier New"'>$recordSet-&gt;<a href="#recordcount">RecordCount</a>()</span>.
Note that it can return -1 if the number of rows returned cannot be determined.</p>

<h3>Example 2: Advanced Select with Field Objects<a name=ex2></a></h3>

<p>Select a table, display the first two columns. If the second column is a
date or timestamp, reformat the date to <st1:country-region w:st="on"><st1:place
 w:st="on">US</st1:place></st1:country-region> format.</p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre>&lt;?<br>
<b>include</b>('adodb.inc.php');<span style='mso-tab-count:1'> </span><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>   </span># load code common to ADOdb<br>
$<span style='color:#660000'>conn</span> = &amp;ADONewConnection('access');<span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>        </span># create a connection<br>
$<span style='color:#660000'>conn</span>-&gt;PConnect('northwind');<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>   </span># connect to MS-Access, northwind dsn<br>
$<span style='color:#660000'>recordSet</span> = &amp;$<span style='color:#660000'>conn</span>-&gt;Execute('select CustomerID,OrderDate from Orders');<br>
if (!$<span style='color:#660000'>recordSet</span>) <br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>print $<span style='color:#660000'>conn</span>-&gt;ErrorMsg();<br>
else<br>
<b>while</b> (!$<span style='color:#660000'>recordSet</span>-&gt;EOF) {<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$<span style='color:#660000'>fld</span> = <b><span
style='color:#336600'>$</span></b><span style='color:#660000'>recordSet</span><b><span
style='color:#336600'>-&gt;FetchField</span></b><span style='color:#006600'>(</span>1<span
style='color:#006600'>);</span></pre><pre><span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$<span
style='color:#660000'>type</span> = <b><span style='color:#336600'>$</span></b><span
style='color:#660000'>recordSet</span><b><span style='color:#336600'>-&gt;MetaType</span></b>($fld-&gt;type);<br>
<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span><b>if</b> ( $<span
style='color:#660000'>type</span> == 'D' || $<span style='color:#660000'>type</span> == 'T') <br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:2'>                 </span><b>print</b> $<span
style='color:#660000'>recordSet</span>-&gt;fields[0].' '.<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:3'>                          </span><b><span
style='color:#336600'>$</span></b><span style='color:#660000'>recordSet</span><b><span
style='color:#336600'>-&gt;UserDate</span></b>($<span style='color:#660000'>recordSet</span>-&gt;fields[1],'<b>m/d/Y</b>').'&lt;BR&gt;';<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span><b>else </b></pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:2'>                 </span><b>print</b> $<span
style='color:#660000'>recordSet</span>-&gt;fields[0].' '.$<span
style='color:#660000'>recordSet</span>-&gt;fields[1].'&lt;BR&gt;';<br>
<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$<span style='color:#660000'>recordSet</span>-&gt;MoveNext();<br>
}</pre><pre>$<span style='color:#660000'>recordSet</span>-&gt;Close(); # optional<br>
$<span style='color:#660000'>conn</span>-&gt;Close(); # optional<br
style='mso-special-character:line-break'>
<![if !supportLineBreakNewLine]><br style='mso-special-character:line-break'>
<![endif]></pre><pre>?&gt;</pre></div>

<p>In this example, we check the field type of the second column using <span
style='font-family:"Courier New"'><a href="#fetchfield">FetchField</a>().</span>
This returns an object with at least 3 fields.</p>

<ul type=disc>
 <li class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto;
     mso-list:l6 level1 lfo6;tab-stops:list 36.0pt'><b>name</b>: name of column</li>
 <li class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto;
     mso-list:l6 level1 lfo6;tab-stops:list 36.0pt'><b>type</b>: native field
     type of column</li>
 <li class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto;
     mso-list:l6 level1 lfo6;tab-stops:list 36.0pt'><b>max_length</b>: maximum
     length of field. Some databases such as MySQL do not return the maximum
     length of the field correctly. In these cases max_length will be set to
     -1.</li>
</ul>

<p>We then use <span style='font-family:"Courier New"'><a href="#metatype">MetaType</a>()</span>
to translate the native type to a <i>generic</i> type. Currently the following <i>generic</i>
types are defined:</p>

<ul type=disc>
 <li class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto;
     mso-list:l0 level1 lfo7;tab-stops:list 36.0pt'><b>C</b>: character fields
     that should be shown in a &lt;input type=&quot;text&quot;&gt; tag.</li>
 <li class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto;
     mso-list:l0 level1 lfo7;tab-stops:list 36.0pt'><b>X</b>: TeXt, large text
     fields that should be shown in a &lt;textarea&gt;</li>
 <li class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto;
     mso-list:l0 level1 lfo7;tab-stops:list 36.0pt'><b>B</b>: Blobs, or Binary
     Large Objects. Typically images. </li>
 <li class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto;
     mso-list:l0 level1 lfo7;tab-stops:list 36.0pt'><b>D</b>: Date field</li>
 <li class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto;
     mso-list:l0 level1 lfo7;tab-stops:list 36.0pt'><b>T</b>: Timestamp field</li>
 <li class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto;
     mso-list:l0 level1 lfo7;tab-stops:list 36.0pt'><b>L</b>: Logical field
     (boolean or bit-field)</li>
 <li class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto;
     mso-list:l0 level1 lfo7;tab-stops:list 36.0pt'><b>I</b>:&nbsp; Integer
     field</li>
 <li class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto;
     mso-list:l0 level1 lfo7;tab-stops:list 36.0pt'><b>N</b>: Numeric field.
     Includes autoincrement, numeric, floating point, real and integer. </li>
 <li class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto;
     mso-list:l0 level1 lfo7;tab-stops:list 36.0pt'><b>R</b>: Serial field.
     Includes serial, autoincrement integers. This works for selected
     databases. </li>
</ul>

<p>If the metatype is of type date or timestamp, then we print it using the
user defined date format with <span style='font-family:"Courier New"'><a
href="#userdate">UserDate</a>(),</span> which converts the PHP SQL date string
format to a user defined one. Another use for <span style='font-family:"Courier New"'><a
href="#metatype">MetaType</a>()</span> is data validation before doing an SQL
insert or update.</p>

<h3>Example 3: Inserting<a name=ex3></a></h3>

<p>Insert a row to the Orders table containing dates and strings that need to
be quoted before they can be accepted by the database, eg: the single-quote in
the word <i>John's</i>.</p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre
style='background:#EEEEEE'>&lt;?<br>
<b>include</b>('adodb.inc.php');<span style='mso-tab-count:1'> </span><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>   </span># load code common to ADOdb<br>
$<span style='color:#660000'>conn</span> = &amp;ADONewConnection('access');<span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>        </span># create a connection<br>
<br>
$<span style='color:#660000'>conn</span>-&gt;PConnect('northwind');<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>   </span># connect to MS-Access, northwind dsn<br>
$<span style='color:#660000'>shipto</span> = <b><span style='color:#006600'>$conn-&gt;qstr</span></b>(&quot;<i>John's Old Shoppe</i>&quot;);<br>
<br>
$<span style='color:#660000'>sql</span> = &quot;insert into orders (customerID,EmployeeID,OrderDate,ShipName) &quot;;<br>
$<span style='color:#660000'>sql</span> .= &quot;values ('ANATR',2,&quot;.<b><span
style='color:#006600'>$conn-&gt;DBDate(</span>time()</b><b><span
style='color:#006600'>)</span></b><span style='color:#006600'>.</span>&quot;,$<span
style='color:#660000'>shipto</span>)&quot;;<br>
<br>
<b>if</b> ($<span style='color:#660000'>conn</span>-&gt;Execute($<span
style='color:#660000'>sql</span>) <b><span style='color:#336600'>=== false</span></b>) {<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span><b>print</b> 'error inserting: '.<b><span
style='color:#336600'>$conn-&gt;ErrorMsg()</span></b>.'&lt;BR&gt;';<br>
}<br>
?&gt;</pre></div>

<p>In this example, we see the advanced date and quote handling facilities of
ADOdb. The unix timestamp (which is a long integer) is appropriately formated
for Access with <span style='font-family:"Courier New"'><a href="#dbdate">DBDate</a>()</span>,
and the right escape character is used for quoting the <i>John's Old Shoppe</i>,
which is<b> </b><i>John'<b>'</b>s Old Shoppe</i> and not PHP's default <i>John<b>'</b>s
Old Shoppe</i> with <span style='font-family:"Courier New"'><a href="#qstr">qstr</a>()</span>.
</p>

<p>Observe the error-handling of the Execute statement. False is returned by<span
style='font-family:"Courier New"'> <a href="#execute">Execute</a>() </span>if
an error occured. The error message for the last error that occurred is
displayed in <span style='font-family:"Courier New"'><a href="#errormsg">ErrorMsg</a>()</span>.
Note: <i>php_track_errors</i> might have to be enabled for error messages to be
saved.</p>

<h3>Example 4: Debugging<a name=ex4></a></h3>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre>&lt;?<br>
<b>include</b>('adodb.inc.php');<span style='mso-tab-count:1'> </span><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>   </span># load code common to ADOdb<br>
$<span style='color:#663300'>conn</span> = &amp;ADONewConnection('access');<span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>        </span># create a connection<br>
$<span style='color:#663300'>conn</span>-&gt;PConnect('northwind');<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>   </span># connect to MS-Access, northwind dsn<br>
$<span style='color:#663300'>shipto</span> = <b>$conn-&gt;qstr</b>(&quot;John's Old Shoppe&quot;);<br>
$<span style='color:#663300'>sql</span> = &quot;insert into orders (customerID,EmployeeID,OrderDate,ShipName) &quot;;<br>
$<span style='color:#663300'>sql</span> .= &quot;values ('ANATR',2,&quot;.$<span
style='color:#663300'>conn</span>-&gt;FormatDate(time()).&quot;,$shipto)&quot;;<br>
<b><span style='color:#336600'>$</span></b><b><span style='color:#663300'>conn</span></b><b><span
style='color:#336600'>-&gt;debug = true;</span></b></pre><pre><b>if</b> ($<span
style='color:#663300'>conn</span>-&gt;Execute($sql) <b>=== false</b>) <b>print</b> 'error inserting';</pre><pre>?&gt;</pre></div>

<p>In the above example, we have turned on debugging by setting <b>debug = true</b>.
This will display the SQL statement before execution, and also show any error
messages. There is no need to call <span style='font-family:"Courier New"'><a
href="#errormsg">ErrorMsg</a>()</span> in this case. For displaying the
recordset, see the <span style='font-family:"Courier New"'><a href="#exrs2html">rs2html</a>()
</span>example.</p>

<p>Also see the section on <a href="#errorhandling">Custom Error Handlers</a>.</p>

<h3>Example 5: MySQL and Menus<a name=ex5></a></h3>

<p>Connect to MySQL database <i>agora</i>, and generate a &lt;select&gt; menu
from an SQL statement where the &lt;option&gt; captions are in the 1st column,
and the value to send back to the server is in the 2nd column.</p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre
style='background:#EEEEEE'>&lt;?<br>
<b>include</b>('adodb.inc.php'); # load code common to ADOdb<br>
$<span style='color:#663300'>conn</span> = &amp;ADONewConnection('mysql');<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span># create a connection<br>
$<span style='color:#663300'>conn</span>-&gt;PConnect('localhost','userid','','agora');# connect to MySQL, agora db<br>
$<span style='color:#663300'>sql</span> = 'select CustomerName, CustomerID from customers';<br>
$<span style='color:#663300'>rs</span> = $<span style='color:#663300'>conn</span>-&gt;Execute($sql);<br>
<b>print</b> <b><span style='color:#336600'>$</span></b><b><span
style='color:#663300'>rs</span></b><b><span style='color:#336600'>-&gt;GetMenu('GetCust','Mary Rosli');<br>
?&gt;</span></b></pre></div>

<p>Here we define a menu named GetCust, with the menu option 'Mary Rosli'
selected. See <a href="#getmenu"><span style='font-family:"Courier New"'>GetMenu</span></a><span
style='font-family:"Courier New"'>()</span>. We also have functions that return
the recordset as an array: <span style='font-family:"Courier New"'><a
href="#getarray">GetArray</a>()</span>, and as an associative array with the
key being the first column: <a href="#getassoc1">GetAssoc</a>().</p>

<h3>Example 6: Connecting to 2 Databases At Once<a name=ex6></a></h3>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre
style='background:#EEEEEE'>&lt;?<br>
<b>include</b>('adodb.inc.php');<span style='mso-tab-count:1'> </span> # load code common to ADOdb<br>
$<span style='color:#663300'>conn1</span> = &amp;ADONewConnection('mysql');<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span># create a mysql connection<br>
$<span style='color:#663300'>conn2</span> = &amp;ADONewConnection('oracle');<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span># create a oracle connection<br>
<br>
$conn1-&gt;PConnect($server, $userid, $password, $database);<br>
$conn2-&gt;PConnect(false, $ora_userid, $ora_pwd, $oraname);<br>
<br>
$conn1-&gt;Execute('insert ...');<br>
$conn2-&gt;Execute('update ...');<br>
?&gt;</pre></div>

<h3>Example 7: Generating Update and Insert SQL<a name=ex7></a></h3>

<p>Since ADOdb 4.56, we support <a
href="reference.functions.getupdatesql.html#autoexecute">AutoExecute()</a>,
which simplifies things by providing an advanced wrapper for GetInsertSQL() and
GetUpdateSQL(). For example, an INSERT can be carried out with: </p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></pre><pre><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>    </span>$record[&quot;firstname&quot;] = &quot;Bob&quot;; </pre><pre><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>    </span>$record[&quot;lastname&quot;] = &quot;Smith&quot;; </pre><pre><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>    </span>$record[&quot;created&quot;] = time(); </pre><pre><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>    </span>$insertSQL = $conn-&gt;AutoExecute($rs, $record, 'INSERT'); </pre></div>

<p class=MsoNormal>and an UPDATE with: </p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></pre><pre><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>    </span>$record[&quot;firstname&quot;] = &quot;Caroline&quot;; </pre><pre><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>    </span>$record[&quot;lastname&quot;] = &quot;Smith&quot;; # Update Caroline's lastname from Miranda to Smith </pre><pre><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>    </span>$insertSQL = $conn-&gt;AutoExecute($rs, $record, 'UPDATE', 'id = 1'); </pre></div>

<p>The rest of this section is out-of-date: </p>

<p>ADOdb 1.31 and later supports two new recordset functions: GetUpdateSQL( )
and GetInsertSQL( ). This allow you to perform a &quot;SELECT * FROM table
query WHERE...&quot;, make a copy of the $rs-&gt;fields, modify the fields, and
then generate the SQL to update or insert into the table automatically. </p>

<p>We show how the functions can be used when accessing a table with the
following fields: (ID, FirstName, LastName, Created). </p>

<p>Before these functions can be called, you need to initialize the recordset by
performing a select on the table. Idea and code by Jonathan Younger
jyounger#unilab.com. Since ADOdb 2.42, you can pass a table name instead of a
recordset into GetInsertSQL (in $rs), and it will generate an insert statement
for that table. </p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre
style='background:#EEEEEE'>&lt;?<br>
#==============================================<br>
# SAMPLE GetUpdateSQL() and GetInsertSQL() code<br>
#==============================================<br>
include('adodb.inc.php');<br>
include('tohtml.inc.php');<br>
<br>
#==========================<br>
# This code tests an insert<br>
<br>
$sql = &quot;SELECT * FROM ADOXYZ WHERE id = -1&quot;; <br>
# Select an empty record from the database<br>
<br>
$conn = &amp;ADONewConnection(&quot;mysql&quot;);<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span># create a connection<br>
$conn-&gt;debug=1;<br>
$conn-&gt;PConnect(&quot;localhost&quot;, &quot;admin&quot;, &quot;&quot;, &quot;test&quot;); # connect to MySQL, testdb<br>
$rs = $conn-&gt;Execute($sql); # Execute the query and get the empty recordset<br>
<br>
$record = array(); # Initialize an array to hold the record data to insert<br>
<br>
# Set the values for the fields in the record<br>
# Note that field names are case-insensitive<br>
$record[&quot;firstname&quot;] = &quot;Bob&quot;;<br>
$record[&quot;lastNamE&quot;] = &quot;Smith&quot;;<br>
$record[&quot;creaTed&quot;] = time();<br>
<br>
# Pass the empty recordset and the array containing the data to insert<br>
# into the GetInsertSQL function. The function will process the data and return<br>
# a fully formatted insert sql statement.<br>
$insertSQL = $conn-&gt;GetInsertSQL($rs, $record);<br>
<br>
$conn-&gt;Execute($insertSQL); # Insert the record into the database<br>
<br>
#==========================<br>
# This code tests an update<br>
<br>
$sql = &quot;SELECT * FROM ADOXYZ WHERE id = 1&quot;; <br>
# Select a record to update<br>
<br>
$rs = $conn-&gt;Execute($sql); # Execute the query and get the existing record to update<br>
<br>
$record = array(); # Initialize an array to hold the record data to update<br>
<br>
# Set the values for the fields in the record<br>
# Note that field names are case-insensitive<br>
$record[&quot;firstname&quot;] = &quot;Caroline&quot;;<br>
$record[&quot;LasTnAme&quot;] = &quot;Smith&quot;; # Update Caroline's lastname from Miranda to Smith<br>
<br>
# Pass the single record recordset and the array containing the data to update<br>
# into the GetUpdateSQL function. The function will process the data and return<br>
# a fully formatted update sql statement with the correct WHERE clause.<br>
# If the data has not changed, no recordset is returned<br>
$updateSQL = $conn-&gt;GetUpdateSQL($rs, $record);<br>
<br>
$conn-&gt;Execute($updateSQL); # Update the record in the database<br>
$conn-&gt;Close();<br>
?&gt;</pre></div>

<p class=MsoNormal><a name="ADODB_FORCE_TYPE"></a><b>$ADODB_FORCE_TYPE</b></p>

<p>The behaviour of AutoExecute(), GetUpdateSQL() and GetInsertSQL() when
converting empty or null PHP variables to SQL is controlled by the global
$ADODB_FORCE_TYPE variable. Set it to one of the values below. Default is
ADODB_FORCE_VALUE (3): </p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre
style='background:#EEEEEE'>0 = ignore empty fields. All empty fields in array are ignored.<br>
1 = force null. All empty, php null and string 'null' fields are changed to sql NULL values.<br>
2 = force empty. All empty, php null and string 'null' fields are changed to sql empty '' or 0 values.<br>
3 = force value. Value is left as it is. Php null and string 'null' are set to sql NULL values and <br>
<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>    </span>empty fields '' are set to empty '' sql values.<br>
<br>
define('ADODB_FORCE_IGNORE',0);<br>
define('ADODB_FORCE_NULL',1);<br>
define('ADODB_FORCE_EMPTY',2);<br>
define('ADODB_FORCE_VALUE',3);</pre></div>

<p>Thanks to Niko (nuko#mbnet.fi) for the $ADODB_FORCE_TYPE code. </p>

<p>Note: the constant ADODB_FORCE_NULLS is obsolete since 4.52 and is ignored.
Set $ADODB_FORCE_TYPE = ADODB_FORCE_NULL for equivalent behaviour. </p>

<p>Since 4.62, the table name to be used can be overridden by setting
$rs-&gt;tableName before AutoExecute(), GetInsertSQL() or GetUpdateSQL() is
called. </p>

<h3>Example 8: Implementing Scrolling with Next and Previous<a name=ex8></a></h3>

<p>The following code creates a very simple recordset pager, where you can
scroll from page to page of a recordset.</p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre
style='background:#EEEEEE'>include_once('../adodb.inc.php');<br>
include_once('../adodb-pager.inc.php');<br>
session_start();<br>
<br>
$db = NewADOConnection('mysql');<br>
<br>
$db-&gt;Connect('localhost','root','','xphplens');<br>
<br>
$sql = &quot;select * from adoxyz &quot;;<br>
<br>
$pager = new ADODB_Pager($db,$sql);<br>
$pager-&gt;Render($rows_per_page=5);</pre></div>

<p>This will create a basic record pager that looks like this: <a name=scr></a></p>

<table class=MsoNormalTable border=1 cellpadding=0 style='mso-cellspacing:1.5pt;
 background:beige'>
 <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes'>
  <td style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><a href="#scr"><code><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>|&lt;</span></code></a>
  &nbsp; <a href="#scr"><code><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>&lt;&lt;</span></code></a>
  &nbsp; <a href="#scr"><code><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>&gt;&gt;</span></code></a>
  &nbsp; <a href="#scr"><code><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>&gt;|</span></code></a>
  &nbsp; </p>
  </td>
 </tr>
 <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:1'>
  <td style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <table class=MsoNormalTable border=1 cellpadding=0 width="100%"
   style='width:100.0%;mso-cellspacing:1.5pt;background:white' cols=4>
   <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes'>
    <td style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
    <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><b>ID<o:p></o:p></b></p>
    </td>
    <td style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
    <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><b>First Name<o:p></o:p></b></p>
    </td>
    <td style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
    <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><b>Last Name<o:p></o:p></b></p>
    </td>
    <td style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
    <p class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'><b>Date Created<o:p></o:p></b></p>
    </td>
   </tr>
   <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:1'>
    <td style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
    <p class=MsoNormal align=right style='text-align:right'>36&nbsp;</p>
    </td>
    <td style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
    <p class=MsoNormal>Alan&nbsp;</p>
    </td>
    <td style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
    <p class=MsoNormal>Turing&nbsp;</p>
    </td>
    <td style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
    <p class=MsoNormal>Sat 06, Oct 2001&nbsp;</p>
    </td>
   </tr>
   <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:2'>
    <td style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
    <p class=MsoNormal align=right style='text-align:right'>37&nbsp;</p>
    </td>
    <td style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
    <p class=MsoNormal>Serena&nbsp;</p>
    </td>
    <td style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
    <p class=MsoNormal>Williams&nbsp;</p>
    </td>
    <td style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
    <p class=MsoNormal>Sat 06, Oct 2001&nbsp;</p>
    </td>
   </tr>
   <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:3'>
    <td style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
    <p class=MsoNormal align=right style='text-align:right'>38&nbsp;</p>
    </td>
    <td style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
    <p class=MsoNormal>Yat Sun&nbsp;</p>
    </td>
    <td style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
    <p class=MsoNormal>Sun&nbsp;</p>
    </td>
    <td style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
    <p class=MsoNormal>Sat 06, Oct 2001&nbsp;</p>
    </td>
   </tr>
   <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:4'>
    <td style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
    <p class=MsoNormal align=right style='text-align:right'>39&nbsp;</p>
    </td>
    <td style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
    <p class=MsoNormal>Wai Hun&nbsp;</p>
    </td>
    <td style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
    <p class=MsoNormal>See&nbsp;</p>
    </td>
    <td style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
    <p class=MsoNormal>Sat 06, Oct 2001&nbsp;</p>
    </td>
   </tr>
   <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:5;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes'>
    <td style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
    <p class=MsoNormal align=right style='text-align:right'>40&nbsp;</p>
    </td>
    <td style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
    <p class=MsoNormal>Steven&nbsp;</p>
    </td>
    <td style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
    <p class=MsoNormal>Oey&nbsp;</p>
    </td>
    <td style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
    <p class=MsoNormal>Sat 06, Oct 2001&nbsp;</p>
    </td>
   </tr>
  </table>
  <p class=MsoNormal><o:p></o:p></p>
  </td>
 </tr>
 <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:2;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes'>
  <td style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>Page 8/10</span></p>
  </td>
 </tr>
</table>

<p>The number of rows to display at one time is controled by the Render($rows)
method. If you do not pass any value to Render(), ADODB_Pager will default to
10 records per page. </p>

<p>You can control the column titles by modifying your SQL (supported by most
databases): </p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre
style='background:#EEEEEE'>$sql = 'select id as &quot;ID&quot;, firstname as &quot;First Name&quot;, <br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:2'>                 </span><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>lastname as &quot;Last Name&quot;, created as &quot;Date Created&quot; <br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:2'>                 </span>from adoxyz';</pre></div>

<p>The above code can be found in the <i>adodb/tests/testpaging.php</i> example
included with this release, and the class ADODB_Pager in <i>adodb/adodb-pager.inc.php</i>.
The ADODB_Pager code can be adapted by a programmer so that the text links can
be replaced by images, and the dull white background be replaced with more
interesting colors. </p>

<p>You can also allow display of html by setting $pager-&gt;htmlSpecialChars =
false. </p>

<p>Some of the code used here was contributed by Iván Oliva and Cornel G. </p>

<h3><a name=ex9></a>Example 9: Exporting in CSV or Tab-Delimited Format</h3>

<p>We provide some helper functions to export in comma-separated-value (CSV)
and tab-delimited formats:</p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre><b>include_once('/path/to/adodb/toexport.inc.php');</b><br>
include_once('/path/to/adodb/adodb.inc.php');<br style='mso-special-character:
line-break'>
<![if !supportLineBreakNewLine]><br style='mso-special-character:line-break'>
<![endif]></pre><pre style='background:#EEEEEE'>$db = &amp;NewADOConnection('mysql');<br>
$db-&gt;Connect($server, $userid, $password, $database);<br>
<br>
$rs = $db-&gt;Execute('select fname as &quot;First Name&quot;, surname as &quot;Surname&quot; from table');<br>
<br>
print &quot;&lt;pre&gt;&quot;;<br>
print <b>rs2csv</b>($rs); # return a string, CSV format</pre>

<p style='tab-stops:45.8pt 91.6pt 137.4pt 183.2pt 229.0pt 274.8pt 320.6pt 366.4pt 412.2pt 458.0pt 503.8pt 549.6pt 595.4pt 641.2pt 687.0pt 732.8pt;
background:#EEEEEE;border:none;mso-border-alt:solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:0cm;
mso-padding-alt:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt'><span style='font-size:9.0pt;
font-family:"Courier New"'>print '&lt;hr&gt;';<br>
<br>
$rs-&gt;MoveFirst(); # note, some databases do not support MoveFirst<br>
print <b>rs2tab</b>($rs,<i>false</i>); # return a string, tab-delimited<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:6'>                                                    </span><span
style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span># false == suppress field names in first line<o:p></o:p></span></p>

<pre style='background:#EEEEEE'>print '&lt;hr&gt;';<br>
$rs-&gt;MoveFirst();<br>
<b>rs2tabout</b>($rs); # send to stdout directly (there is also an rs2csvout function)<br>
print &quot;&lt;/pre&gt;&quot;;<br>
<br>
$rs-&gt;MoveFirst();<br>
$fp = fopen($path, &quot;w&quot;);<br>
if ($fp) {<br>
<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><b>rs2csvfile</b>($rs, $fp); # write to file (there is also an rs2tabfile function)<br>
<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>fclose($fp);<br>
}</pre></div>

<p>Carriage-returns or newlines are converted to spaces. Field names are
returned in the first line of text. Strings containing the delimiter character
are quoted with double-quotes. Double-quotes are double-quoted again. This
conforms to Excel import and export guide-lines. </p>

<p>All the above functions take as an optional last parameter, $addtitles which
defaults to <i>true</i>. When set to <i>false</i> field names in the first line
are suppressed. </p>

<h3>Example 10: Recordset Filters<a name=ex10></a></h3>

<p>Sometimes we want to pre-process all rows in a recordset before we use it.
For example, we want to ucwords all text in recordset. </p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre
style='background:#EEEEEE'>include_once('adodb/rsfilter.inc.php');<br>
include_once('adodb/adodb.inc.php');<br>
<br>
// ucwords() every element in the recordset<br>
function do_ucwords(&amp;$arr,$rs)<br>
{<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>foreach($arr as $k =&gt; $v) {<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:2'>                 </span>$arr[$k] = ucwords($v);<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>}<br>
}<br>
<br>
$db = NewADOConnection('mysql');<br>
$db-&gt;PConnect('server','user','pwd','db');<br>
<br>
$rs = $db-&gt;Execute('select ... from table');<br>
$rs = <b>RSFilter</b>($rs,'do_ucwords');</pre></div>

<p>The <i>RSFilter</i> function takes 2 parameters, the recordset, and the name
of the <i>filter</i> function. It returns the processed recordset scrolled to
the first record. The <i>filter</i> function takes two parameters, the current
row as an array, and the recordset object. For future compatibility, you should
not use the original recordset object. </p>

<h3>Example 11:<a name=ex11></a> Smart Transactions</h3>

<p class=MsoNormal>The old way of doing transactions required you to use </p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre
style='background:#EEEEEE'>$conn-&gt;<b>BeginTrans</b>();<br>
$ok = $conn-&gt;Execute($sql);<br>
if ($ok) $ok = $conn-&gt;Execute($sql2);<br>
if (!$ok) $conn-&gt;<b>RollbackTrans</b>();<br>
else $conn-&gt;<b>CommitTrans</b>();</pre></div>

<p class=MsoNormal>This is very complicated for large projects because you have
to track the error status. Smart Transactions is much simpler. You start a
smart transaction by calling StartTrans(): </p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre
style='background:#EEEEEE'>$conn-&gt;<b>StartTrans</b>();<br>
$conn-&gt;Execute($sql);<br>
$conn-&gt;Execute($Sql2);<br>
$conn-&gt;<b>CompleteTrans</b>();</pre></div>

<p class=MsoNormal>CompleteTrans() detects when an SQL error occurs, and will
Rollback/Commit as appropriate. To specificly force a rollback even if no error
occured, use FailTrans(). Note that the rollback is done in CompleteTrans(),
and not in FailTrans(). </p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre
style='background:#EEEEEE'>$conn-&gt;<b>StartTrans</b>();<br>
$conn-&gt;Execute($sql);<br>
if (!CheckRecords()) $conn-&gt;<strong><span style='font-family:"Courier New"'>FailTrans</span></strong>();<br>
$conn-&gt;Execute($Sql2);<br>
$conn-&gt;<b>CompleteTrans</b>();</pre></div>

<p>You can also check if a transaction has failed, using HasFailedTrans(),
which returns true if FailTrans() was called, or there was an error in the SQL
execution. Make sure you call HasFailedTrans() before you call CompleteTrans(),
as it is only works between StartTrans/CompleteTrans. </p>

<p>Lastly, StartTrans/CompleteTrans is nestable, and only the outermost block
is executed. In contrast, BeginTrans/CommitTrans/RollbackTrans is NOT nestable.
</p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre>$conn-&gt;<strong><span
style='font-family:"Courier New"'>StartTrans</span></strong>();<br>
$conn-&gt;Execute($sql);<br>
<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>$conn-&gt;<strong><span
style='font-family:"Courier New"'>StartTrans</span></strong>();<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>    </span><span
style='color:#006600'># ignored</span></pre><pre><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>if (!CheckRecords()) $conn-&gt;FailTrans();</pre><pre><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>$conn-&gt;<strong><span
style='font-family:"Courier New"'>CompleteTrans</span></strong>(); <span
style='color:#006600'># ignored</span></pre><pre>$conn-&gt;Execute($Sql2);</pre><pre
style='background:#EEEEEE'>$conn-&gt;<strong><span style='font-family:"Courier New"'>CompleteTrans</span></strong>();</pre></div>

<p>Note: Savepoints are currently not supported. </p>

<h2><a name=errorhandling></a>Using Custom Error Handlers and PEAR_Error</h2>

<p>ADOdb supports PHP5 exceptions. Just include <i>adodb-exceptions.inc.php</i>
and you can now catch exceptions on errors as they occur. </p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre
style='background:#EEEEEE'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span><b>include(&quot;../adodb-exceptions.inc.php&quot;);</b> <br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>include(&quot;../adodb.inc.php&quot;);<span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>       </span> <br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>try { <br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:2'>                 </span>$db = NewADOConnection(&quot;oci8://scott:bad-hide@address.com/&quot;); <br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>} catch (exception $e) { <br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:2'>                 </span>var_dump($e); <br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:2'>                 </span>adodb_backtrace($e-&gt;gettrace());<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>} </pre></div>

<p>ADOdb also provides two custom handlers which you can modify for your needs.
The first one is in the <b>adodb-errorhandler.inc.php</b> file. This makes use
of the standard PHP functions <a href="http://php.net/error_reporting">error_reporting</a>
to control what error messages types to display, and <a
href="http://php.net/trigger_error">trigger_error</a> which invokes the default
PHP error handler. </p>

<p>Including the above file will cause <i>trigger_error($errorstring,E_USER_ERROR)</i>
to be called when<br>
(a) Connect() or PConnect() fails, or <br>
(b) a function that executes SQL statements such as Execute() or SelectLimit()
has an error.<br>
(c) GenID() appears to go into an infinite loop. </p>

<p>The $errorstring is generated by ADOdb and will contain useful debugging
information similar to the error.log data generated below. This file
adodb-errorhandler.inc.php should be included before you create any
ADOConnection objects. </p>

<p>If you define error_reporting(0), no errors will be passed to the error
handler. If you set error_reporting(E_ALL), all errors will be passed to the
error handler. You still need to use <b>ini_set(&quot;display_errors&quot;,
&quot;0&quot; or &quot;1&quot;)</b> to control the display of errors. </p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre>&lt;?php<br>
<b>error_reporting(E_ALL); # pass any error messages triggered to error handler<br>
include('adodb-errorhandler.inc.php');</b></pre><pre>include('adodb.inc.php');</pre><pre>include('tohtml.inc.php');</pre><pre>$c = NewADOConnection('mysql');</pre><pre>$c-&gt;PConnect('localhost','root','','northwind');</pre><pre>$rs=$c-&gt;Execute('select * from productsz'); #invalid table productsz');</pre><pre>if ($rs) rs2html($rs);</pre><pre>?&gt;</pre></div>

<p>If you want to log the error message, you can do so by defining the
following optional constants ADODB_ERROR_LOG_TYPE and ADODB_ERROR_LOG_DEST.
ADODB_ERROR_LOG_TYPE is the error log message type (see <a
href="http://php.net/error_log">error_log</a> in the PHP manual). In this case
we set it to 3, which means log to the file defined by the constant
ADODB_ERROR_LOG_DEST. </p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre>&lt;?php<br>
<b>error_reporting(E_ALL); # report all errors<br>
ini_set(&quot;display_errors&quot;, &quot;0&quot;); # but do not echo the errors<br>
define('ADODB_ERROR_LOG_TYPE',3);<br>
define('ADODB_ERROR_LOG_DEST','C:/errors.log');<br>
include('adodb-errorhandler.inc.php');</b></pre><pre>include('adodb.inc.php');</pre><pre>include('tohtml.inc.php');</pre><pre><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></pre><pre>$c = NewADOConnection('mysql');</pre><pre>$c-&gt;PConnect('localhost','root','','northwind');</pre><pre>$rs=$c-&gt;Execute('select * from productsz'); ## invalid table productsz</pre><pre>if ($rs) rs2html($rs);</pre><pre>?&gt;</pre></div>

<p class=MsoNormal>The following message will be logged in the error.log file: </p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre
style='background:#EEEEEE'>(2001-10-28 14:20:38) mysql error: [1146: Table 'northwind.productsz' doesn't exist] in<br>
<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>EXECUTE(&quot;select * from productsz&quot;)</pre></div>

<h3>PEAR_ERROR</h3>

<p class=MsoNormal>The second error handler is <b>adodb-errorpear.inc.php</b>.
This will create a PEAR_Error derived object whenever an error occurs. The last
PEAR_Error object created can be retrieved using ADODB_Pear_Error(). </p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre>&lt;?php<br>
<b>include('adodb-errorpear.inc.php');</b></pre><pre>include('adodb.inc.php');</pre><pre>include('tohtml.inc.php');</pre><pre>$c = NewADOConnection('mysql');</pre><pre>$c-&gt;PConnect('localhost','root','','northwind');</pre><pre>$rs=$c-&gt;Execute('select * from productsz'); #invalid table productsz');</pre><pre>if ($rs) rs2html($rs);</pre><pre>else {</pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span><b>$e = ADODB_Pear_Error();<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>echo '&lt;p&gt;',$e-&gt;message,'&lt;/p&gt;';</b></pre><pre>}</pre><pre>?&gt;</pre></div>

<p>You can use a PEAR_Error derived class by defining the constant
ADODB_PEAR_ERROR_CLASS before the adodb-errorpear.inc.php file is included. For
easy debugging, you can set the default error handler in the beginning of the
PHP script to PEAR_ERROR_DIE, which will cause an error message to be printed,
then halt script execution: </p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre
style='background:#EEEEEE'>include('PEAR.php');<br>
PEAR::setErrorHandling('PEAR_ERROR_DIE');</pre></div>

<p>Note that we do not explicitly return a PEAR_Error object to you when an
error occurs. We return false instead. You have to call ADODB_Pear_Error() to
get the last error or use the PEAR_ERROR_DIE technique. </p>

<h3>MetaError and MetaErrMsg</h3>

<p>If you need error messages that work across multiple databases, then use <a
href="#metaerror">MetaError()</a>, which returns a virtualized error number,
based on PEAR DB's error number system, and <a href="#metaerrmsg">MetaErrMsg()</a>.
</p>

<h4>Error Messages</h4>

<p>Error messages are outputted using the static method
ADOConnnection::outp($msg,$newline=true). By default, it sends the messages to
the client. You can override this to perform error-logging. </p>

<h2><a name=dsn></a>Data Source Names</h2>

<p>We now support connecting using PEAR style DSN's. A DSN is a connection
string of the form:</p>

<p>$dsn = <i>&quot;$driver://$username:$password@$hostname/$databasename&quot;</i>;</p>

<p>An example:</p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre
style='background:#EEEEEE'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>   </span>$username = 'root';<br>
<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>   </span>$password = '';<br>
<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>   </span>$hostname = 'localhost';<br>
<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>   </span>$databasename = 'xphplens';<br>
<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>   </span>$driver = 'mysql';<br>
<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>   </span>$dsn = &quot;$driver://$username:$password@$hostname/$databasename&quot;<br>
<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>   </span>$db = NewADOConnection(); <br>
<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>   </span># DB::Connect($dsn) also works if you include 'adodb/adodb-pear.inc.php' at the top<br>
<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>   </span>$rs = $db-&gt;query('select firstname,lastname from adoxyz');<br>
<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>   </span>$cnt = 0;<br>
<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>   </span>while ($arr = $rs-&gt;fetchRow()) {<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:2'>                 </span>print_r($arr); print &quot;&lt;br&gt;&quot;;<br>
<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>   </span>}</pre></div>

<p><a href="#dsnsupport">More info and connection examples</a> on the DSN
format. </p>

<h2><a name=pear></a>PEAR Compatibility</h2>

<p class=MsoNormal>We support DSN's (see above), and the following functions: </p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre><b><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>DB_Common</b></pre><pre> <span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>        </span>query - returns PEAR_Error on error</pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>limitQuery - return PEAR_Error on error</pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>prepare - does not return PEAR_Error on error</pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>execute - does not return PEAR_Error on error</pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>setFetchMode - supports ASSOC and ORDERED</pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>errorNative</pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>quote</pre><pre><span style='mso-tab-count:
1'>         </span>nextID</pre><pre><span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>disconnect</pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span></pre><pre><span style='mso-tab-count:
1'>         </span>getOne</pre><pre><span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>getAssoc</pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>getRow</pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>getCol</pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span></pre><pre><b> DB_Result</b></pre><pre> <span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>        </span>numRows - returns -1 if not supported</pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>numCols</pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>fetchInto - does not support passing of fetchmode</pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>fetchRows - does not support passing of fetchmode</pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>free</pre></div>

<h2><a name=caching></a>Caching of Recordsets</h2>

<p>ADOdb now supports caching of recordsets in the file system using the
CacheExecute( ), CachePageExecute( ) and CacheSelectLimit( ) functions. There
are similar to the non-cache functions, except that they take a new first
parameter, $secs2cache. </p>

<p>An example: </p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre
style='background:#EEEEEE'><b>include</b>('adodb.inc.php'); # load code common to ADOdb<br>
$ADODB_CACHE_DIR = '/usr/ADODB_cache';<br>
$<span style='color:#663300'>conn</span> = &amp;ADONewConnection('mysql');<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span># create a connection<br>
$<span style='color:#663300'>conn</span>-&gt;PConnect('localhost','userid','','agora');# connect to MySQL, agora db<br>
$<span style='color:#663300'>sql</span> = 'select CustomerName, CustomerID from customers';<br>
$<span style='color:#663300'>rs</span> = $<span style='color:#663300'>conn</span>-&gt;CacheExecute(15,$sql);</pre></div>

<p>The first parameter is the number of seconds to cache the query. Subsequent
calls to that query will used the cached version stored in $ADODB_CACHE_DIR. To
force a query to execute and flush the cache, call CacheExecute() with the
first parameter set to zero. Alternatively, use the CacheFlush($sql) call. </p>

<p>For the sake of security, we recommend you set <i>register_globals=off</i> in
php.ini if you are using $ADODB_CACHE_DIR.</p>

<p>In ADOdb 1.80 onwards, the secs2cache parameter is optional in
CacheSelectLimit() and CacheExecute(). If you leave it out, it will use the
$connection-&gt;cacheSecs parameter, which defaults to 60 minutes. The following
are equivalent: </p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></pre><pre><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span># (1)</pre><pre><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>$rs = $db-&gt;SelectLimit(30, 'select * from table', 10);</pre><pre><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span></pre><pre><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span># (2)</pre><pre><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>$db-&gt;cacheSsecs = 30;</pre><pre><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>$rs = $db-&gt;SelectLimit('select * from table', 10);</pre><pre
style='background:#EEEEEE'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span></pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$conn-&gt;Connect(...);<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$conn-&gt;cacheSecs = 3600*24; # cache 24 hours<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$rs = $conn-&gt;CacheExecute('select * from table');</pre></div>

<p>Please note that magic_quotes_runtime should be turned off. Do not change
$ADODB_FETCH_MODE (or SetFetchMode) as the cached recordset will use the
$ADODB_FETCH_MODE set when the query was executed. <a name=memcache></a></p>

<h3><span style='mso-bookmark:memcache'>MemCache support</span></h3>

<p><span style='mso-bookmark:memcache'>You can also share cached recordsets on
a memcache server. The memcache API supports one or more pooled hosts. Only if
none of the pooled servers can be contacted will a connect error be generated.
Example below: </span></p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre><span
style='mso-bookmark:memcache'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></pre><pre><span
style='mso-bookmark:memcache'>$db = NewADOConnection($driver='mysql');</span></pre><pre><span
style='mso-bookmark:memcache'>$db-&gt;memCache = true;</span></pre><pre><span
style='mso-bookmark:memcache'>$db-&gt;memCacheHost = array($ip1, $ip2, $ip3); /// $db-&gt;memCacheHost = $ip1; will work too</span></pre><pre><span
style='mso-bookmark:memcache'>$db-&gt;memCachePort = 11211; /// this is default memCache port</span></pre><pre><span
style='mso-bookmark:memcache'>$db-&gt;memCacheCompress = false; /// Use 'true' to store the item compressed (uses zlib)</span></pre><pre><span
style='mso-bookmark:memcache'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></pre><pre><span
style='mso-bookmark:memcache'>$db-&gt;Connect(...);</span></pre><pre><span
style='mso-bookmark:memcache'>$db-&gt;CacheExecute($sql);</span></pre></div>

<p><span style='mso-bookmark:memcache'>More info on memcache can be found at </span><a
href="http://www.danga.com/memcached/">http://www.danga.com/memcached/</a>. <a
name=cacheapi></a></p>

<h3><span style='mso-bookmark:cacheapi'>Caching API</span></h3>

<p><span style='mso-bookmark:cacheapi'>There is also a caching API since
4.99/5.05. Two implementations of the API are already available providing file
and memcache support. </span></p>

<p><span style='mso-bookmark:cacheapi'>The new API for creating your custom
caching class uses 2 globals: </span></p>

<ul type=disc>
 <li class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto;
     mso-list:l8 level1 lfo8;tab-stops:list 36.0pt'><span style='mso-bookmark:
     cacheapi'>$ADODB_CACHE_CLASS: name of caching class </span></li>
 <li class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto;
     mso-list:l8 level1 lfo8;tab-stops:list 36.0pt'><span style='mso-bookmark:
     cacheapi'>$ADODB_CACHE: instance of $ADODB_CACHE_CLASS </span></li>
</ul>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre><span
style='mso-bookmark:cacheapi'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></pre><pre><span
style='mso-bookmark:cacheapi'>include &quot;/path/to/adodb.inc.php&quot;;</span></pre><pre><span
style='mso-bookmark:cacheapi'>$ADODB_CACHE_CLASS = 'MyCacheClass';</span></pre><pre><span
style='mso-bookmark:cacheapi'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></pre><pre><span
style='mso-bookmark:cacheapi'>class MyCacheClass extends ADODB_Cache_File</span></pre><pre><span
style='mso-bookmark:cacheapi'>{</span></pre><pre><span style='mso-bookmark:
cacheapi'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>var $createdir = false; // do not set this to true unless you use temp directories in cache path</span></pre><pre><span
style='mso-bookmark:cacheapi'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>function writecache($filename, $contents,$debug=false){...}</span></pre><pre><span
style='mso-bookmark:cacheapi'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>function &amp;readcache($filename, &amp;$err, $secs2cache, $rsClass){ ...}</span></pre><pre><span
style='mso-bookmark:cacheapi'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span> :</span></pre><pre><span
style='mso-bookmark:cacheapi'>}</span></pre><pre><span style='mso-bookmark:
cacheapi'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></pre><pre><span style='mso-bookmark:cacheapi'>$DB = NewADOConnection($driver);</span></pre><pre><span
style='mso-bookmark:cacheapi'>$DB-&gt;Connect(...);<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>## MyCacheClass created here and stored in $ADODB_CACHE global variable.</span></pre><pre><span
style='mso-bookmark:cacheapi'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></pre><pre><span
style='mso-bookmark:cacheapi'>$data = $rs-&gt;CacheGetOne($sql); ## MyCacheClass is used here for caching...</span></pre></div>

<span style='mso-bookmark:cacheapi'></span>

<h2><a name=pivot></a>Pivot Tables</h2>

<p>Since ADOdb 2.30, we support the generation of SQL to create pivot tables,
also known as cross-tabulations. For further explanation read this DevShed <a
href="http://www.devshed.com/Server_Side/MySQL/MySQLWiz/">Cross-Tabulation tutorial</a>.
We assume that your database supports the SQL case-when expression. </p>

<p>In this example, we will use the Northwind database from Microsoft. In the
database, we have a products table, and we want to analyze this table by <i>suppliers
versus product categories</i>. We will place the suppliers on each row, and
pivot on categories. So from the table on the left, we generate the pivot-table
on the right:</p>

<div align=center>

<table class=MsoNormalTable border=0 cellpadding=0 style='mso-cellspacing:1.5pt;
 mso-padding-alt:1.5pt 1.5pt 1.5pt 1.5pt'>
 <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes'>
  <td style='padding:1.5pt 1.5pt 1.5pt 1.5pt'>
  <div align=center>
  <table class=MsoNormalTable border=1 cellpadding=0 width=142
   style='width:106.5pt;mso-cellspacing:1.5pt;mso-padding-alt:1.5pt 1.5pt 1.5pt 1.5pt'>
   <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes'>
    <td style='padding:1.5pt 1.5pt 1.5pt 1.5pt'>
    <p class=MsoNormal><i>Supplier</i></p>
    </td>
    <td style='padding:1.5pt 1.5pt 1.5pt 1.5pt'>
    <p class=MsoNormal><i>Category</i></p>
    </td>
   </tr>
   <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:1'>
    <td style='padding:1.5pt 1.5pt 1.5pt 1.5pt'>
    <p class=MsoNormal>supplier1</p>
    </td>
    <td style='padding:1.5pt 1.5pt 1.5pt 1.5pt'>
    <p class=MsoNormal>category1</p>
    </td>
   </tr>
   <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:2'>
    <td style='padding:1.5pt 1.5pt 1.5pt 1.5pt'>
    <p class=MsoNormal>supplier2</p>
    </td>
    <td style='padding:1.5pt 1.5pt 1.5pt 1.5pt'>
    <p class=MsoNormal>category1</p>
    </td>
   </tr>
   <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:3;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes'>
    <td style='padding:1.5pt 1.5pt 1.5pt 1.5pt'>
    <p class=MsoNormal>supplier2</p>
    </td>
    <td style='padding:1.5pt 1.5pt 1.5pt 1.5pt'>
    <p class=MsoNormal>category2</p>
    </td>
   </tr>
  </table>
  </div>
  <p class=MsoNormal><o:p></o:p></p>
  </td>
  <td style='padding:1.5pt 1.5pt 1.5pt 1.5pt'>
  <p class=MsoNormal><span style='font-family:"Courier New"'>--&gt;</span></p>
  </td>
  <td style='padding:1.5pt 1.5pt 1.5pt 1.5pt'>
  <div align=center>
  <table class=MsoNormalTable border=1 cellpadding=0 style='mso-cellspacing:
   1.5pt;mso-padding-alt:1.5pt 1.5pt 1.5pt 1.5pt'>
   <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:0;mso-yfti-firstrow:yes'>
    <td style='padding:1.5pt 1.5pt 1.5pt 1.5pt'>
    <p class=MsoNormal>&nbsp;</p>
    </td>
    <td style='padding:1.5pt 1.5pt 1.5pt 1.5pt'>
    <p class=MsoNormal><i>category1</i></p>
    </td>
    <td style='padding:1.5pt 1.5pt 1.5pt 1.5pt'>
    <p class=MsoNormal><i>category2</i></p>
    </td>
    <td style='padding:1.5pt 1.5pt 1.5pt 1.5pt'>
    <p class=MsoNormal><i>total</i></p>
    </td>
   </tr>
   <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:1'>
    <td style='padding:1.5pt 1.5pt 1.5pt 1.5pt'>
    <p class=MsoNormal><i>supplier1</i></p>
    </td>
    <td style='padding:1.5pt 1.5pt 1.5pt 1.5pt'>
    <p class=MsoNormal align=right style='text-align:right'>1</p>
    </td>
    <td style='padding:1.5pt 1.5pt 1.5pt 1.5pt'>
    <p class=MsoNormal align=right style='text-align:right'>0</p>
    </td>
    <td style='padding:1.5pt 1.5pt 1.5pt 1.5pt'>
    <p class=MsoNormal align=right style='text-align:right'>1</p>
    </td>
   </tr>
   <tr style='mso-yfti-irow:2;mso-yfti-lastrow:yes'>
    <td style='padding:1.5pt 1.5pt 1.5pt 1.5pt'>
    <p class=MsoNormal><i>supplier2</i></p>
    </td>
    <td style='padding:1.5pt 1.5pt 1.5pt 1.5pt'>
    <p class=MsoNormal align=right style='text-align:right'>1</p>
    </td>
    <td style='padding:1.5pt 1.5pt 1.5pt 1.5pt'>
    <p class=MsoNormal align=right style='text-align:right'>1</p>
    </td>
    <td style='padding:1.5pt 1.5pt 1.5pt 1.5pt'>
    <p class=MsoNormal align=right style='text-align:right'>2</p>
    </td>
   </tr>
  </table>
  </div>
  <p class=MsoNormal><o:p></o:p></p>
  </td>
 </tr>
</table>

</div>

<p>The following code will generate the SQL for a cross-tabulation: </p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre
style='background:#EEEEEE'># Query the main &quot;product&quot; table<br>
# Set the rows to SupplierName<br>
# and the columns to the values of Categories<br>
# and define the joins to link to lookup tables <br>
# &quot;categories&quot; and &quot;suppliers&quot;<br>
#<br>
<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>include &quot;adodb/pivottable.inc.php&quot;;<br>
<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>$sql = PivotTableSQL(<br>
<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span style='mso-tab-count:1'>        </span>$gDB,<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>                                      </span># adodb connection<br>
<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span style='mso-tab-count:1'>        </span>'products p ,categories c ,suppliers s',<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>   </span># tables<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>'SupplierName',<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>                             </span># rows (multiple fields allowed)<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>'CategoryName',<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>                            </span># column to pivot on <br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>'p.CategoryID = c.CategoryID and s.SupplierID= p.SupplierID' # joins/where<br>
);</pre></div>

<p>This will generate the following SQL:</p>

<p><code><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>SELECT SupplierName, </span></code><span
style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Courier New"'><br>
<code>SUM(CASE WHEN CategoryName='Beverages' THEN 1 ELSE 0 END) AS
&quot;Beverages&quot;, </code><br>
<code>SUM(CASE WHEN CategoryName='Condiments' THEN 1 ELSE 0 END) AS
&quot;Condiments&quot;, </code><br>
<code>SUM(CASE WHEN CategoryName='Confections' THEN 1 ELSE 0 END) AS
&quot;Confections&quot;, </code><br>
<code>SUM(CASE WHEN CategoryName='Dairy Products' THEN 1 ELSE 0 END) AS
&quot;Dairy Products&quot;, </code><br>
<code>SUM(CASE WHEN CategoryName='Grains/Cereals' THEN 1 ELSE 0 END) AS
&quot;Grains/Cereals&quot;, </code><br>
<code>SUM(CASE WHEN CategoryName='Meat/Poultry' THEN 1 ELSE 0 END) AS
&quot;Meat/Poultry&quot;, </code><br>
<code>SUM(CASE WHEN CategoryName='Produce' THEN 1 ELSE 0 END) AS
&quot;Produce&quot;, </code><br>
<code>SUM(CASE WHEN CategoryName='Seafood' THEN 1 ELSE 0 END) AS
&quot;Seafood&quot;, </code><br>
<code>SUM(1) as Total </code><br>
<code>FROM products p ,categories c ,suppliers s WHERE p.CategoryID =
c.CategoryID and s.SupplierID= p.SupplierID </code><br>
<code>GROUP BY SupplierName</code></span></p>

<p>You can also pivot on <i>numerical columns</i> and <i>generate totals</i> by
using ranges. This code was revised in ADODB 2.41 and is not backward
compatible. The second example shows this:</p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>$sql = PivotTableSQL(<br>
<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span style='mso-tab-count:1'>        </span>$gDB,<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>                                       </span># adodb connection<br>
<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span style='mso-tab-count:1'>        </span>'products p ,categories c ,suppliers s',<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>    </span># tables<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>'SupplierName',<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>                              </span># rows (multiple fields allowed)</pre><pre><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>   </span>array(<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>                       </span><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>                </span># column ranges</pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>' 0 '<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>      </span>=&gt; 'UnitsInStock &lt;= 0',</pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>&quot;1 to 5&quot;<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>   </span>=&gt; '0 &lt; UnitsInStock and UnitsInStock &lt;= 5',</pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>&quot;6 to 10&quot;<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>=&gt; '5 &lt; UnitsInStock and UnitsInStock &lt;= 10',</pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>&quot;11 to 15&quot; =&gt; '10 &lt; UnitsInStock and UnitsInStock &lt;= 15',</pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>&quot;16+&quot;<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>      </span>=&gt; '15 &lt; UnitsInStock'</pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>),</pre><pre><span style='mso-tab-count:
1'>         </span>' p.CategoryID = c.CategoryID and s.SupplierID= p.SupplierID', # joins/where</pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>'UnitsInStock',<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>                             </span># sum this field</pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>'Sum '<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>                                      </span># sum label prefix</pre><pre>);</pre></div>

<p>Which generates: </p>

<p><code><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>SELECT SupplierName, </span></code><span
style='font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Courier New"'><br>
<code>SUM(CASE WHEN UnitsInStock &lt;= 0 THEN UnitsInStock ELSE 0 END) AS
&quot;Sum 0 &quot;, </code><br>
<code>SUM(CASE WHEN 0 &lt; UnitsInStock and UnitsInStock &lt;= 5 THEN
UnitsInStock ELSE 0 END) AS &quot;Sum 1 to 5&quot;,</code><br>
<code>SUM(CASE WHEN 5 &lt; UnitsInStock and UnitsInStock &lt;= 10 THEN UnitsInStock
ELSE 0 END) AS &quot;Sum 6 to 10&quot;,</code><br>
<code>SUM(CASE WHEN 10 &lt; UnitsInStock and UnitsInStock &lt;= 15 THEN
UnitsInStock ELSE 0 END) AS &quot;Sum 11 to 15&quot;, </code><br>
<code>SUM(CASE WHEN 15 &lt; UnitsInStock THEN UnitsInStock ELSE 0 END) AS
&quot;Sum 16+&quot;, </code><br>
<code>SUM(UnitsInStock) AS &quot;Sum UnitsInStock&quot;, </code><br>
<code>SUM(1) as Total,</code><br>
<code>FROM products p ,categories c ,suppliers s WHERE p.CategoryID =
c.CategoryID and s.SupplierID= p.SupplierID </code><br>
<code>GROUP BY SupplierName</code></span></p>

<div class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'>

<hr size=2 width="100%" align=center>

</div>

<h1>Class Reference<a name=ref></a></h1>

<p>Function parameters with [ ] around them are optional.</p>

<h2>Global Variables</h2>

<h3><a name="adodb_countrecs"></a>$ADODB_COUNTRECS</h3>

<p>If the database driver API does not support counting the number of records
returned in a SELECT statement, the function RecordCount() is emulated when the
global variable $ADODB_COUNTRECS is set to true, which is the default. We
emulate this by buffering the records, which can take up large amounts of
memory for big recordsets. Set this variable to false for the best performance.
This variable is checked every time a query is executed, so you can selectively
choose which recordsets to count.</p>

<h3><a name="adodb_cache_dir"></a>$ADODB_CACHE_DIR</h3>

<p>If you are using recordset caching, this is the directory to save your
recordsets in. Define this before you call any caching functions such as
CacheExecute( ). We recommend setting <i>register_globals=off</i> in php.ini if
you use this feature for security reasons.</p>

<p>If you are using Unix and apache, you might need to set your cache directory
permissions to something similar to the following:</p>

<p>chown -R apache /path/to/adodb/cache<br>
chgrp -R apache /path/to/adodb/cache </p>

<h3><a name="adodb_ansi_padding_off"></a>$ADODB_ANSI_PADDING_OFF</h3>

<p>Determines whether to right trim CHAR fields (and also VARCHAR for
ibase/firebird). Set to true to trim. Default is false. Currently works for
oci8po, ibase and firebird drivers. Added in ADOdb 4.01. </p>

<h3><a name="adodb_lang"></a>$ADODB_LANG</h3>

<p>Determines the language used in MetaErrorMsg(). The default is 'en', for
English. To find out what languages are supported, see the files in
adodb/lang/adodb-$lang.inc.php, where $lang is the supported langauge. </p>

<h3><a name="adodb_fetch_mode"></a>$ADODB_FETCH_MODE</h3>

<p>This is a global variable that determines how arrays are retrieved by recordsets.
The recordset saves this value on creation (eg. in Execute( ) or SelectLimit(
)), and any subsequent changes to $ADODB_FETCH_MODE have no affect on existing
recordsets, only on recordsets created in the future.</p>

<p>The following constants are defined:</p>

<p>define('ADODB_FETCH_DEFAULT',0);<br>
define('ADODB_FETCH_NUM',1);<br>
define('ADODB_FETCH_ASSOC',2);<br>
define('ADODB_FETCH_BOTH',3); </p>

<p>An example: </p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$ADODB_<b>FETCH_MODE</b> = ADODB_FETCH_NUM;<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$rs1 = $db-&gt;Execute('select * from table');<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$ADODB_<b>FETCH_MODE</b> = ADODB_FETCH_ASSOC;<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$rs2 = $db-&gt;Execute('select * from table');<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>print_r($rs1-&gt;fields); # shows <i>array([0]=&gt;'v0',[1] =&gt;'v1')</i></pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>print_r($rs2-&gt;fields); # shows <i>array(['col1']=&gt;'v0',['col2'] =&gt;'v1')</i></pre></div>

<p>As you can see in the above example, both recordsets store and use different
fetch modes based on the $ADODB_FETCH_MODE setting when the recordset was
created by Execute().</p>

<p>If no fetch mode is predefined, the fetch mode defaults to
ADODB_FETCH_DEFAULT. The behaviour of this default mode varies from driver to
driver, so do not rely on ADODB_FETCH_DEFAULT. For portability, we recommend
sticking to ADODB_FETCH_NUM or ADODB_FETCH_ASSOC. Many drivers do not support
ADODB_FETCH_BOTH.</p>

<p><strong>SetFetchMode Function</strong></p>

<p>If you have multiple connection objects, and want to have different fetch
modes for each connection, then use <a href="#setfetchmode">SetFetchMode</a>.
Once this function is called for a connection object, that connection object
will ignore the global variable $ADODB_FETCH_MODE and will use the internal
fetchMode property exclusively.</p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$db-&gt;SetFetchMode(ADODB_FETCH_NUM);<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$rs1 = $db-&gt;Execute('select * from table');<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$db-&gt;SetFetchMode(ADODB_FETCH_ASSOC);<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$rs2 = $db-&gt;Execute('select * from table');<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>print_r($rs1-&gt;fields); # shows <i>array([0]=&gt;'v0',[1] =&gt;'v1')</i></pre><pre
style='background:#EEEEEE'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>print_r($rs2-&gt;fields); # shows <i>array(['col1']=&gt;'v0',['col2'] =&gt;'v1')</i></pre></div>

<p>To retrieve the previous fetch mode, you can use check the $db-&gt;fetchMode
property, or use the return value of SetFetchMode( ). </p>

<p><a name="adodb_assoc_case"></a><strong>ADODB_ASSOC_CASE</strong></p>

<p>You can control the associative fetch case for certain drivers which behave
differently. For the sybase, oci8po, mssql, odbc and ibase drivers and all
drivers derived from them, ADODB_ASSOC_CASE will by default generate recordsets
where the field name keys are lower-cased. Use the constant ADODB_ASSOC_CASE to
change the case of the keys. There are 3 possible values:</p>

<p>0 = assoc lowercase field names. $rs-&gt;fields['orderid']<br>
1 = assoc uppercase field names. $rs-&gt;fields['ORDERID']<br>
2 = use native-case field names. $rs-&gt;fields['OrderID'] -- this is the
default since ADOdb 2.90</p>

<p>To use it, declare it before you incldue adodb.inc.php.</p>

<p>define('ADODB_ASSOC_CASE', 2); # use native-case for ADODB_FETCH_ASSOC<br>
include('adodb.inc.php'); </p>

<h3><a name="force_type"></a>$ADODB_FORCE_TYPE</h3>

<p>See the <a href="#ADODB_FORCE_TYPE">GetUpdateSQL tutorial</a>. </p>

<h3><a name="adodb_auto_quote"></a>$ADODB_QUOTE_FIELDNAMES</h3>

<p>Auto-quotes field names when using AutoExecute() when set to true. </p>

<p>&nbsp;</p>

<div class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'>

<hr size=2 width="100%" align=center>

</div>

<h2>ADOConnection<a name=adoconnection></a></h2>

<p>Object that performs the connection to the database, executes SQL statements
and has a set of utility functions for standardising the format of SQL
statements for issues such as concatenation and date formats.</p>

<h3>ADOConnection Fields</h3>

<p><b>databaseType</b>: Name of the database system we are connecting to. Eg. <b>odbc</b>
or <b>mssql</b> or <b>mysql</b>.</p>

<p><b>dataProvider</b>: The underlying mechanism used to connect to the
database. Normally set to <b>native</b>, unless using <b>odbc</b> or <b>ado</b>.</p>

<p><b>host: </b>Name of server or data source name (DSN) to connect to.</p>

<p><b>database</b>: Name of the database or to connect to. If ado is used, it
will hold the ado data provider.</p>

<p><b>user</b>: Login id to connect to database. Password is not saved for
security reasons.</p>

<p><b>raiseErrorFn</b>: Allows you to define an error handling function. See
adodb-errorhandler.inc.php for an example.</p>

<p><b>debug</b>: Set to <i>true</i> to make debug statements to appear.</p>

<p><b>concat_operator</b>: Set to '+' or '||' normally. The operator used to
concatenate strings in SQL. Used by the <b><a href="#concat">Concat</a></b>
function.</p>

<p><b>fmtDate</b>: The format used by the <b><a href="#dbdate">DBDate</a></b>
function to send dates to the database. is '#Y-m-d#' for Microsoft Access, and
''Y-m-d'' for MySQL.</p>

<p><b>fmtTimeStamp: </b>The format used by the <b><a href="#dbtimestamp">DBTimeStamp</a></b>
function to send timestamps to the database. </p>

<p><b>true</b>: The value used to represent true.Eg. '.T.'. for Foxpro, '1' for
Microsoft SQL.</p>

<p><b>false: </b>The value used to represent false. Eg. '.F.'. for Foxpro, '0'
for Microsoft SQL.</p>

<p><b>replaceQuote</b>: The string used to escape quotes. Eg. double
single-quotes for Microsoft SQL, and backslash-quote for MySQL. Used by <a
href="#qstr">qstr</a>.</p>

<p><b>autoCommit</b>: indicates whether automatic commit is enabled. Default is
true.</p>

<p><b>charSet</b>: set the default charset to use. Currently only
interbase/firebird supports this.</p>

<p><b>dialect</b>: set the default sql dialect to use. Currently only interbase/firebird
supports this.</p>

<p><b>role</b>: set the role. Currently only interbase/firebird supports this.</p>

<p><b>metaTablesSQL</b>: SQL statement to return a list of available tables.
Eg. <i>SHOW TABLES</i> in MySQL.</p>

<p><b>genID</b>: The latest id generated by GenID() if supported by the
database.</p>

<p><b>cacheSecs</b>: The number of seconds to cache recordsets if
CacheExecute() or CacheSelectLimit() omit the $secs2cache parameter. Defaults
to 60 minutes.</p>

<p><b>sysDate</b>: String that holds the name of the database function to call
to get the current date. Useful for inserts and updates.</p>

<p><b>sysTimeStamp</b>: String that holds the name of the database function to
call to get the current timestamp/datetime value.</p>

<p><b>leftOuter</b>: String that holds operator for left outer join, if known.
Otherwise set to false.</p>

<p><b>rightOuter</b>: String that holds operator for left outer join, if known.
Otherwise set to false.</p>

<p><b>ansiOuter</b>: Boolean that if true indicates that ANSI style outer joins
are permitted. Eg. <i>select * from table1 left join table2 on p1=p2.</i></p>

<p><b>connectSID</b>: Boolean that indicates whether to treat the $database
parameter in connects as the SID for the oci8 driver. Defaults to false. Useful
for Oracle 8.0.5 and earlier.</p>

<p><b>autoRollback</b>: Persistent connections are auto-rollbacked in PConnect(
) if this is set to true. Default is false.</p>

<div class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'>

<hr size=2 width="100%" align=center>

</div>

<h3>ADOConnection Main Functions</h3>

<p><b>ADOConnection( )</b></p>

<p>Constructor function. Do not call this directly. Use ADONewConnection( )
instead.</p>

<p><b>Connect<a name=connect></a>($host,[$user],[$password],[$database])</b></p>

<p>Non-persistent connect to data source or server $<b>host</b>, using userid $<b>user
</b>and password $<b>password</b>. If the server supports multiple databases,
connect to database $<b>database</b>. </p>

<p>Returns true/false depending on connection success. Since 4.23, null is
returned if the extension is not loaded.</p>

<p><st1:City w:st="on"><st1:place w:st="on">ADO</st1:place></st1:City> Note: If
you are using a Microsoft ADO and not OLEDB, you can set the $database
parameter to the OLEDB data provider you are using.</p>

<p>PostgreSQL: An alternative way of connecting to the database is to pass the
standard PostgreSQL connection string in the first parameter $host, and the
other parameters will be ignored.</p>

<p>For Oracle and Oci8, there are two ways to connect. First is to use the TNS
name defined in your local tnsnames.ora (or ONAMES or HOSTNAMES). Place the
name in the $database field, and set the $host field to false. Alternatively,
set $host to the server, and $database to the database SID, this bypassed
tnsnames.ora. </p>

<p>Examples: </p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre
style='background:#EEEEEE'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span># $oraname in tnsnames.ora/ONAMES/HOSTNAMES<br>
<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>$conn-&gt;Connect(false, 'scott', 'tiger', $oraname); <br>
<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>$conn-&gt;Connect('server:1521', 'scott', 'tiger', 'ServiceName'); # bypass tnsnames.ora</pre></div>

<p>There are many examples of connecting to a database. See <a
href="#connect_ex">Connection Examples</a> for many examples. </p>

<p><b>PConnect<a name=pconnect></a>($host,[$user],[$password],[$database])</b></p>

<p>Persistent connect to data source or server $<b>host</b>, using userid $<b>user</b>
and password $<b>password</b>. If the server supports multiple databases,
connect to database $<b>database</b>.</p>

<p>We now perform a rollback on persistent connection for selected databases
since 2.21, as advised in the PHP manual. See change log or source code for
which databases are affected. </p>

<p>Returns true/false depending on connection. Since 4.23, 0 is returned if the
extension is not loaded. See Connect( ) above for more info.</p>

<p>Since ADOdb 2.21, we also support autoRollback. If you set:</p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre
style='background:#EEEEEE'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>$conn = &amp;NewADOConnection('mysql');<br>
<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>$conn-&gt;autoRollback = true; # default is false<br>
<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>$conn-&gt;PConnect(...); # rollback here</pre></div>

<p>Then when doing a persistent connection with PConnect( ), ADOdb will perform
a rollback first. This is because it is documented that PHP is not guaranteed
to rollback existing failed transactions when persistent connections are used.
This is implemented in Oracle, MySQL, PgSQL, MSSQL, ODBC currently. </p>

<p>Since ADOdb 3.11, you can force non-persistent connections even if PConnect
is called by defining the constant ADODB_NEVER_PERSIST before you call
PConnect. </p>

<p>Since 4.23, null is returned if the extension is not loaded. </p>

<p><b>NConnect<a name=nconnect></a>($host,[$user],[$password],[$database])</b></p>

<p>Always force a new connection. In contrast, PHP sometimes reuses connections
when you use Connect() or PConnect(). Currently works only on mysql (PHP 4.3.0
or later), postgresql and oci8-derived drivers. For other drivers, NConnect()
works like Connect().</p>

<p><b>IsConnected( )</b><a name=isconnected></a></p>

<p>Returns true if connected to database. Added in 4.53. </p>

<p><b>Execute<a name=execute></a>($sql,$inputarr=false)</b></p>

<p>Execute SQL statement $<b>sql</b> and return derived class of ADORecordSet
if successful. Note that a record set is always returned on success, even if we
are executing an insert or update statement. You can also pass in $sql a
statement prepared in <a href="#prepare">Prepare()</a>.</p>

<p>Returns derived class of ADORecordSet. Eg. if connecting via mysql, then
ADORecordSet_mysql would be returned. False is returned if there was an error
in executing the sql.</p>

<p>The $inputarr parameter can be used for binding variables to parameters.
Below is an Oracle example:</p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre
style='background:#EEEEEE'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>$conn-&gt;Execute(&quot;SELECT * FROM TABLE WHERE COND=:val&quot;, array('val'=&gt; $val));<br>
<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span></pre></div>

<p>Another example, using ODBC,which uses the ? convention:</p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre
style='background:#EEEEEE'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>$conn-&gt;Execute(&quot;SELECT * FROM TABLE WHERE COND=?&quot;, array($val));</pre></div>

<p class=MsoNormal><a name=binding></a><i>Binding variables</i></p>

<p>Variable binding speeds the compilation and caching of SQL statements,
leading to higher performance. Currently Oracle, Interbase and ODBC supports
variable binding. Interbase/ODBC style ? binding is emulated in databases that
do not support binding. Note that you do not have to quote strings if you use
binding. </p>

<p>Variable binding in the odbc, interbase and oci8po drivers. </p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre
style='background:#EEEEEE'>$rs = $db-&gt;Execute('select * from table where val=?', array('10'));</pre></div>

<p class=MsoNormal>Variable binding in the oci8 driver: </p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre
style='background:#EEEEEE'>$rs = $db-&gt;Execute('select name from table where val=:key', <br>
<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>array('key' =&gt; 10));</pre></div>

<p class=MsoNormal><a name=bulkbind></a><i>Bulk binding</i> </p>

<p>Since ADOdb 3.80, we support bulk binding in Execute(), in which you pass in
a 2-dimensional array to be bound to an INSERT/UPDATE or DELETE statement. </p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre
style='background:#EEEEEE'>$arr = array(<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>array('Ahmad',32),<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>array('Zulkifli', 24),<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>array('Rosnah', 21)<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>);<br>
$ok = $db-&gt;Execute('insert into table (name,age) values (?,?)',$arr);</pre></div>

<p>This provides very high performance as the SQL statement is prepared first.
The prepared statement is executed repeatedly for each array row until all rows
are completed, or until the first error. Very useful for importing data. </p>

<p><b>CacheExecute<a name=cacheexecute></a>([$secs2cache,]$sql,$inputarr=false)</b></p>

<p>Similar to Execute, except that the recordset is cached for $secs2cache
seconds in the $ADODB_CACHE_DIR directory, and $inputarr only accepts
1-dimensional arrays. If CacheExecute() is called again with the same $sql,
$inputarr, and also the same database, same userid, and the cached recordset
has not expired, the cached recordset is returned. </p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre
style='background:#EEEEEE'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>include('adodb.inc.php'); <br>
<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>include('tohtml.inc.php');<br>
<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>$ADODB_<b>CACHE_DIR</b> = '/usr/local/ADOdbcache';<br>
<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>$conn = &amp;ADONewConnection('mysql'); <br>
<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>$conn-&gt;PConnect('localhost','userid','password','database');<br>
<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>$rs = $conn-&gt;<b>CacheExecute</b>(15, 'select * from table'); # cache 15 secs<br>
<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>rs2html($rs); /* recordset to html table */<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span></pre></div>

<p>Alternatively, since ADOdb 1.80, the $secs2cache parameter is optional:</p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre
style='background:#EEEEEE'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$conn-&gt;Connect(...);<br>
<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>   </span><span style='mso-tab-count:1'>      </span>$conn-&gt;cacheSecs = 3600*24; // cache 24 hours<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$rs = $conn-&gt;CacheExecute('select * from table');</pre></div>

<p class=MsoNormal>If $secs2cache is omitted, we use the value in
$connection-&gt;cacheSecs (default is 3600 seconds, or 1 hour). Use
CacheExecute() only with SELECT statements. </p>

<p>Performance note: I have done some benchmarks and found that they vary so
greatly that it's better to talk about when caching is of benefit. When your
database server is <i>much slower </i>than your Web server or the database is <i>very
overloaded </i>then ADOdb's caching is good because it reduces the load on your
database server. If your database server is lightly loaded or much faster than
your Web server, then caching could actually reduce performance. </p>

<p><b>ExecuteCursor<a name=executecursor></a>($sql,$cursorName='rs',$parameters=false)</b></p>

<p>Execute an Oracle stored procedure, and returns an Oracle REF cursor
variable as a regular ADOdb recordset. Does not work with any other database
except oci8. Thanks to Robert Tuttle for the design. </p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre
style='background:#EEEEEE'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>    </span>$db = ADONewConnection(&quot;oci8&quot;); <br>
<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>    </span>$db-&gt;Connect(&quot;foo.com:1521&quot;, &quot;uid&quot;, &quot;pwd&quot;, &quot;FOO&quot;); <br>
<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>    </span>$rs = $db-&gt;ExecuteCursor(&quot;begin :cursorvar := getdata(:param1); end;&quot;, <br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:5'>                                            </span>'cursorvar',<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:5'>                                            </span>array('param1'=&gt;10)); <br>
<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>    </span># $rs is now just like any other ADOdb recordset object<br>
<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>    </span>rs2html($rs);</pre></div>

<p>ExecuteCursor() is a helper function that does the following internally: </p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre
style='background:#EEEEEE'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$stmt = $db-&gt;Prepare(&quot;begin :cursorvar := getdata(:param1); end;&quot;, true); <br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$db-&gt;Parameter($stmt, $cur, 'cursorvar', false, -1, OCI_B_CURSOR);<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$rs = $db-&gt;Execute($stmt,$bindarr);</pre></div>

<p>ExecuteCursor only accepts 1 out parameter. So if you have 2 out parameters,
use: </p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre
style='background:#EEEEEE'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$vv = 'A%';<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$stmt = $db-&gt;PrepareSP(&quot;BEGIN list_tabs(:crsr,:tt); END;&quot;);<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$db-&gt;OutParameter($stmt, $cur, 'crsr', -1, OCI_B_CURSOR);<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$db-&gt;OutParameter($stmt, $vv, 'tt', 32); # return varchar(32)<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$arr = $db-&gt;GetArray($stmt);<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>print_r($arr);<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>echo &quot; val = $vv&quot;; ## outputs 'TEST'</pre></div>

<p class=MsoNormal>for the following PL/SQL: </p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre
style='background:#EEEEEE'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>TYPE TabType IS REF CURSOR RETURN TAB%ROWTYPE;<br>
<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>PROCEDURE list_tabs(tabcursor IN OUT TabType,tablenames IN OUT VARCHAR) IS<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>BEGIN<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:2'>                 </span>OPEN tabcursor FOR SELECT * FROM TAB WHERE tname LIKE tablenames;<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:2'>                 </span>tablenames := 'TEST';<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>END list_tabs;</pre></div>

<p><b>SelectLimit<a name=selectlimit></a>($sql,$numrows=-1,$offset=-1,$inputarr=false)</b></p>

<p>Returns a recordset if successful. Returns false otherwise. Performs a
select statement, simulating PostgreSQL's SELECT statement, LIMIT $numrows
OFFSET $offset clause.</p>

<p>In PostgreSQL, SELECT * FROM TABLE LIMIT 3 will return the first 3 records
only. The equivalent is <code><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>$connection-&gt;SelectLimit('SELECT
* FROM TABLE',3)</span></code>. This functionality is simulated for databases
that do not possess this feature.</p>

<p>And SELECT * FROM TABLE LIMIT 3 OFFSET 2 will return records 3, 4 and 5 (eg.
after record 2, return 3 rows). The equivalent in ADOdb is <code><span
style='font-size:10.0pt'>$connection-&gt;SelectLimit('SELECT * FROM TABLE',3,2)</span></code>.</p>

<p>Note that this is the <i>opposite</i> of MySQL's LIMIT clause. You can also
set <code><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>$connection-&gt;SelectLimit('SELECT *
FROM TABLE',-1,10)</span></code> to get rows 11 to the last row.</p>

<p>The last parameter $inputarr is for databases that support variable binding
such as Oracle oci8. This substantially reduces SQL compilation overhead. Below
is an Oracle example:</p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre
style='background:#EEEEEE'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>$conn-&gt;SelectLimit(&quot;SELECT * FROM TABLE WHERE COND=:val&quot;, 100,-1,array('val'=&gt; $val));<br>
<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span></pre></div>

<p>The oci8po driver (oracle portable driver) uses the more standard bind
variable of ?: </p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre
style='background:#EEEEEE'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>$conn-&gt;SelectLimit(&quot;SELECT * FROM TABLE WHERE COND=?&quot;, 100,-1,array('val'=&gt; $val));</pre></div>

<p>Ron Wilson reports that SelectLimit does not work with UNIONs. </p>

<p><b>CacheSelectLimit<a name=cacheselectlimit></a>([$secs2cache,] $sql,
$numrows=-1,$offset=-1,$inputarr=false)</b></p>

<p>Similar to SelectLimit, except that the recordset returned is cached for
$secs2cache seconds in the $ADODB_CACHE_DIR directory. </p>

<p>Since 1.80, $secs2cache has been optional, and you can define the caching
time in $connection-&gt;cacheSecs.</p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre
style='background:#EEEEEE'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$conn-&gt;Connect(...);<br>
<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>   </span>$conn-&gt;cacheSecs = 3600*24; // cache 24 hours<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$rs = $conn-&gt;CacheSelectLimit('select * from table',10);</pre></div>

<p><b>CacheFlush<a name=cacheflush></a>($sql=false,$inputarr=false)</b></p>

<p>Flush (delete) any cached recordsets for the SQL statement $sql in
$ADODB_CACHE_DIR. </p>

<p>If no parameter is passed in, then all adodb_*.cache files are deleted. </p>

<p>CacheSelectLimit() rewrites the SQL query, so you won't be able to pass the
SQL to CacheFlush. In this case, to flush the cached SQL recordset returned by
CacheSelectLimit(), set $secs2cache to -1: </p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$db-&gt;CacheSelectLimit(-1, $sql, $nrows);</pre></div>

<p>If you want to flush all cached recordsets manually, execute the following
PHP code (works only under Unix): <br>
<code><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>&nbsp; system(&quot;rm -f `find
&quot;.$ADODB_CACHE_DIR.&quot; -name adodb_*.cache`&quot;);</span></code></p>

<p>For general cleanup of all expired files, you should use <a
href="http://www.superscripts.com/tutorial/crontab.html">crontab</a> on Unix,
or at.exe on Windows, and a shell script similar to the following:<span
style='font-family:"Courier New"'><br>
#------------------------------------------------------ <br>
# This particular example deletes files in the TMPPATH <br>
# directory with the string &quot;.cache&quot; in their name that <br>
# are more than 7 days old. <br>
#------------------------------------------------------ <br>
AGED=7 <br>
find ${TMPPATH} -mtime +$AGED | grep &quot;\.cache&quot; | xargs rm -f </span></p>

<p><b>MetaError<a name=metaerror></a>($errno=false)</b></p>

<p>Returns a virtualized error number, based on PEAR DB's error number system.
You might need to include adodb-error.inc.php before you call this function.
The parameter $errno is the native error number you want to convert. If you do
not pass any parameter, MetaError will call ErrorNo() for you and convert it.
If the error number cannot be virtualized, MetaError will return -1 (DB_ERROR).</p>

<p><b>MetaErrorMsg<a name=metaerrormsg></a>($errno)</b></p>

<p>Pass the error number returned by MetaError() for the equivalent textual
error message.</p>

<p><b>ErrorMsg<a name=errormsg></a>()</b></p>

<p>Returns the last status or error message. The error message is reset after
every call to Execute(). </p>

<p>This can return a string even if no error occurs. In general you do not need
to call this function unless an ADOdb function returns false on an error. </p>

<p>Note: If <b>debug</b> is enabled, the SQL error message is always displayed
when the <b>Execute</b> function is called.</p>

<p><b>ErrorNo<a name=errorno></a>()</b></p>

<p>Returns the last error number. The error number is reset after every call to
Execute(). If 0 is returned, no error occurred. </p>

<p>Note that old versions of PHP (pre 4.0.6) do not support error number for
ODBC. In general you do not need to call this function unless an ADOdb function
returns false on an error.</p>

<p><b>IgnoreErrors<a name=ignoreerrors></a>($saveErrHandlers)</b></p>

<p>Allows you to ignore errors so that StartTrans()/CompleteTrans() is not
affected, nor is the default error handler called if an error occurs. Useful
when you want to check if a field or table exists in a database without
invoking an error if it does not exist. </p>

<p>Usage: </p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></pre><pre>$saveErrHandlers = $conn-&gt;IgnoreErrors();</pre><pre>$rs = $conn-&gt;Execute(&quot;select field from some_table_that_might_not_exist&quot;);</pre><pre>$conn-&gt;IgnoreErrors($saveErrHandlers);</pre></div>

<p>Warning: do not call StartTrans()/CompleteTrans() inside a code block that
is using IgnoreErrors(). </p>

<p><b>SetFetchMode<a name=setfetchmode></a>($mode)</b></p>

<p>Sets the current fetch mode for the connection and stores it in
$db-&gt;fetchMode. Legal modes are ADODB_FETCH_ASSOC and ADODB_FETCH_NUM. For
more info, see <a href="#adodb_fetch_mode">$ADODB_FETCH_MODE</a>.</p>

<p>Returns the previous fetch mode, which could be false if SetFetchMode( ) has
not been called before.</p>

<p><b>CreateSequence<a name=createseq></a>($seqName = 'adodbseq',$startID=1)</b></p>

<p>Create a sequence. The next time GenID( ) is called, the value returned will
be $startID. Added in 2.60. </p>

<p><b>DropSequence<a name=dropseq></a>($seqName = 'adodbseq')</b></p>

<p>Delete a sequence. Added in 2.60. </p>

<p><b>GenID<a name=genid></a>($seqName = 'adodbseq',$startID=1)</b></p>

<p>Generate a sequence number . Works for interbase, mysql, postgresql, oci8,
oci8po, mssql, ODBC based (access,vfp,db2,etc) drivers currently. Uses $seqName
as the name of the sequence. GenID() will automatically create the sequence for
you if it does not exist (provided the userid has permission to do so).
Otherwise you will have to create the sequence yourself. </p>

<p>If your database driver emulates sequences, the name of the table is the
sequence name. The table has one column, &quot;id&quot; which should be of type
integer, or if you need something larger - numeric(16). </p>

<p>For ODBC and databases that do not support sequences natively (eg mssql,
mysql), we create a table for each sequence. If the sequence has not been
defined earlier, it is created with the starting value set in $startID.</p>

<p>Note that the mssql driver's GenID() before 1.90 used to generate 16 byte
GUID's.</p>

<p><b>UpdateBlob<a name=updateblob></a>($table,$column,$val,$where)</b></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>Allows you to store a blob (in $val) into $table into
$column in a row at $where. </p>

<p>Usage: </p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre
style='background:#EEEEEE'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span># for oracle<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$conn-&gt;Execute('INSERT INTO blobtable (id, blobcol) VALUES (1, empty_blob())');<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$conn-&gt;UpdateBlob('blobtable','blobcol',$blobvalue,'id=1');<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span><br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span># non oracle databases<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$conn-&gt;Execute('INSERT INTO blobtable (id, blobcol) VALUES (1, null)');<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$conn-&gt;UpdateBlob('blobtable','blobcol',$blobvalue,'id=1');</pre></div>

<p>Returns true if succesful, false otherwise. Supported by MySQL, PostgreSQL,
Oci8, Oci8po and Interbase drivers. Other drivers might work, depending on the
state of development.</p>

<p>Note that when an Interbase blob is retrieved using SELECT, it still needs
to be decoded using $connection-&gt;DecodeBlob($blob); to derive the original
value in versions of PHP before 4.1.0. </p>

<p>For PostgreSQL, you can store your blob using blob oid's or as a bytea field.
You can use bytea fields but not blob oid's currently with UpdateBlob( ).
Conversely UpdateBlobFile( ) supports oid's, but not bytea data.<br>
<br>
If you do not pass in an oid, then UpdateBlob() assumes that you are storing in
bytea fields. </p>

<p>If you do not have any blob fields, you can improve you can improve general
SQL query performance by disabling blob handling with
$connection-&gt;disableBlobs = true. </p>

<p><b>UpdateClob<a name=updateclob></a>($table,$column,$val,$where)</b></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>Allows you to store a clob (in $val) into $table into
$column in a row at $where. Similar to UpdateBlob (see above), but for
Character Large OBjects. </p>

<p>Usage: </p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre
style='background:#EEEEEE'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span># for oracle<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$conn-&gt;Execute('INSERT INTO clobtable (id, clobcol) VALUES (1, empty_clob())');<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$conn-&gt;UpdateBlob('clobtable','clobcol',$clobvalue,'id=1');<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span><br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span># non oracle databases<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$conn-&gt;Execute('INSERT INTO clobtable (id, clobcol) VALUES (1, null)');<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$conn-&gt;UpdateBlob('clobtable','clobcol',$clobvalue,'id=1');</pre></div>

<p><b>UpdateBlobFile<a name=updateblobfile></a>($table,$column,$path,$where,$blobtype='BLOB')</b></p>

<p>Similar to UpdateBlob, except that we pass in a file path to where the blob
resides. </p>

<p>For PostgreSQL, if you are using blob oid's, use this interface. This
interface does not support bytea fields. </p>

<p>Returns true if successful, false otherwise. </p>

<p><b>BlobEncode<a name=blobencode id=blobencode></a>($blob)</b> </p>

<p>Some databases require blob's to be encoded manually before upload. Note if
you use UpdateBlob( ) or UpdateBlobFile( ) the conversion is done automatically
for you and you do not have to call this function. For PostgreSQL, currently,
BlobEncode() can only be used for bytea fields. </p>

<p>Returns the encoded blob value. </p>

<p>Note that there is a connection property called <em>blobEncodeType</em>
which has 3 legal values: </p>

<p>false - no need to perform encoding or decoding.<br>
'I' - blob encoding required, and returned encoded blob is a numeric value (no
need to quote).<br>
'C' - blob encoding required, and returned encoded blob is a character value
(requires quoting). </p>

<p>This is purely for documentation purposes, so that programs that accept
multiple database drivers know what is the right thing to do when processing
blobs. </p>

<p><strong>BlobDecode<a name=blobdecode></a>($blob, $maxblobsize = false)</strong>
</p>

<p>Some databases require blob's to be decoded manually after doing a select
statement. If the database does not require decoding, then this function will
return the blob unchanged. Currently BlobDecode is only required for one
database, PostgreSQL, and only if you are using blob oid's (if you are using
bytea fields, we auto-decode for you). The default maxblobsize is set in
$connection-&gt;maxblobsize, which is set to 256K in adodb 4.54. </p>

<p>In ADOdb 4.54 and later, the blob is the return value. In earlier versions,
the blob data is sent to stdout.</p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre
style='background:#EEEEEE'>$rs = $db-&gt;Execute(&quot;select bloboid from postgres_table where id=$key&quot;);<br>
$blob = $db-&gt;BlobDecode( reset($rs-&gt;fields) );</pre></div>

<p><b>Replace<a name=replace></a>($table, $arrFields,
$keyCols,$autoQuote=false)</b></p>

<p>Try to update a record, and if the record is not found, an insert statement
is generated and executed. Returns 0 on failure, 1 if update statement worked,
2 if no record was found and the insert was executed successfully. This differs
from MySQL's replace which deletes the record and inserts a new record. This
also means you cannot update the primary key. The only exception to this is
Interbase and its derivitives, which uses delete and insert because of some
Interbase API limitations. </p>

<p>The parameters are $table which is the table name, the $arrFields which is
an associative array where the keys are the field names, and $keyCols is the
name of the primary key, or an array of field names if it is a compound key. If
$autoQuote is set to true, then Replace() will quote all values that are
non-numeric; auto-quoting will not quote nulls. Note that auto-quoting will not
work if you use SQL functions or operators. </p>

<p>Examples: </p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre
style='background:#EEEEEE'># single field primary key<br>
$ret = $db-&gt;Replace('atable', <br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>array('id'=&gt;1000,'firstname'=&gt;'Harun','lastname'=&gt;'Al-Rashid'),<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>'id',$autoquote = true);<span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>  </span><br>
# generates UPDATE atable SET firstname='Harun',lastname='Al-Rashid' WHERE id=1000<br>
# or INSERT INTO atable (id,firstname,lastname) VALUES (1000,'Harun','Al-Rashid')<br>
<br>
# compound key<br>
$ret = $db-&gt;Replace('atable2', <br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>array('firstname'=&gt;'Harun','lastname'=&gt;'Al-Rashid', 'age' =&gt; 33, 'birthday' =&gt; 'null'),<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>array('lastname','firstname'),<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$autoquote = true);<br>
<br>
# no auto-quoting<br>
$ret = $db-&gt;Replace('atable2', <br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>array('firstname'=&gt;&quot;'Harun'&quot;,'lastname'=&gt;&quot;'Al-Rashid'&quot;, 'age' =&gt; 'null'),<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>array('lastname','firstname'));<span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>    </span></pre></div>

<p><b>AutoExecute<a name=autoexecute></a>($table, $arrFields, $mode,
$where=false, $forceUpdate=true,$magicq=false)</b></p>

<p>Since ADOdb 4.56, you can automatically generate and execute INSERTs and
UPDATEs on a given table with this function, which is a wrapper for
GetInsertSQL() and GetUpdateSQL(). </p>

<p>AutoExecute() inserts or updates $table given an array of $arrFields, where
the keys are the field names and the array values are the field values to
store. Note that there is some overhead because the table is first queried to
extract key information before the SQL is generated. We generate an INSERT or
UPDATE based on $mode (see below). </p>

<p>Legal values for $mode are </p>

<ul type=disc>
 <li class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto;
     mso-list:l5 level1 lfo9;tab-stops:list 36.0pt'>'INSERT' or 1 or DB_AUTOQUERY_INSERT
     </li>
 <li class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto;
     mso-list:l5 level1 lfo9;tab-stops:list 36.0pt'>'UPDATE' or 2 or
     DB_AUTOQUERY_UPDATE </li>
</ul>

<p>You have to define the constants DB_AUTOQUERY_UPDATE and DB_AUTOQUERY_INSERT
yourself or include adodb-pear.inc.php. </p>

<p>The $where clause is required if $mode == 'UPDATE'. If $forceUpdate=false
then we will query the database first and check if the field value returned by
the query matches the current field value; only if they differ do we update
that field. </p>

<p>Returns true on success, false on error. </p>

<p>An example of its use is: </p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></pre><pre>$record[&quot;firstName&quot;] = &quot;Carol&quot;;</pre><pre>$record[&quot;lasTname&quot;] = &quot;Smith&quot;; </pre><pre>$conn-&gt;AutoExecute($table,$record,'INSERT');</pre><pre># executes <i>&quot;INSERT INTO $table (firstName,lasTname) values ('Carol',Smith')&quot;</i>;</pre><pre><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></pre><pre>$record[&quot;firstName&quot;] = &quot;Carol&quot;;</pre><pre>$record[&quot;lasTname&quot;] = &quot;Jones&quot;; </pre><pre>$conn-&gt;AutoExecute($table,$record,'UPDATE', &quot;lastname like 'Sm%'&quot;);</pre><pre># executes <i>&quot;UPDATE $table SET firstName='Carol',lasTname='Jones' WHERE lastname like 'Sm%'&quot;</i>;</pre></div>

<p>Note: One of the strengths of ADOdb's AutoExecute() is that only valid field
names for $table are updated. If $arrFields contains keys that are invalid
field names for $table, they are ignored. There is some overhead in doing this
as we have to query the database to get the field names, but given that you are
not directly coding the SQL yourself, you probably aren't interested in speed
at all, but convenience. </p>

<p>Since 4.62, the table name to be used can be overridden by setting
$rs-&gt;tableName before AutoExecute(), GetInsertSQL() or GetUpdateSQL() is
called. </p>

<p>Since 4.94, setting the global variable $ADODB_QUOTE_FIELDNAMES to true will
force field names to be auto-quoted in AutoExecute(), GetInsertSQL() and
GetUpdateSQL(). </p>

<p><b>GetUpdateSQL<a name=getupdatesql></a>(&amp;$rs, $arrFields,
$forceUpdate=false,$magicq=false, $force=null)</b></p>

<p>Generate SQL to update a table given a recordset $rs, and the modified
fields of the array $arrFields (which must be an associative array holding the
column names and the new values) are compared with the current recordset. If
$forceUpdate is true, then we also generate the SQL even if $arrFields is
identical to $rs-&gt;fields. Requires the recordset to be associative. $magicq
is used to indicate whether magic quotes are enabled (see qstr()). The field
names in the array are case-insensitive.</p>

<p>Since 4.52, we allow you to pass the $force type parameter, and this
overrides the <a href="#ADODB_FORCE_TYPE">$ADODB_FORCE_TYPE</a> global
variable. </p>

<p>Since 4.62, the table name to be used can be overridden by setting
$rs-&gt;tableName before AutoExecute(), GetInsertSQL() or GetUpdateSQL() is
called. </p>

<p><b>GetInsertSQL<a name=getinsertsql></a>(&amp;$rs, $arrFields,$magicq=false,$force_type=false)</b></p>

<p>Generate SQL to insert into a table given a recordset $rs. Requires the
query to be associative. $magicq is used to indicate whether magic quotes are
enabled (for qstr()). The field names in the array are case-insensitive.</p>

<p>Since 2.42, you can pass a table name instead of a recordset into
GetInsertSQL (in $rs), and it will generate an insert statement for that table.
</p>

<p>Since 4.52, we allow you to pass the $force_type parameter, and this
overrides the <a href="#ADODB_FORCE_TYPE">$ADODB_FORCE_TYPE</a> global
variable. </p>

<p>Since 4.62, the table name to be used can be overridden by setting
$rs-&gt;tableName before AutoExecute(), GetInsertSQL() or GetUpdateSQL() is
called. </p>

<p><b>PageExecute<a name=pageexecute></a>($sql, $nrows, $page, $inputarr=false)</b>
</p>

<p>Used for pagination of recordset. $page is 1-based. See <a href="#ex8">Example
8</a>.</p>

<p><b>CachePageExecute<a name=cachepageexecute></a>($secs2cache, $sql, $nrows,
$page, $inputarr=false)</b> </p>

<p>Used for pagination of recordset. $page is 1-based. See <a href="#ex8">Example
8</a>. Caching version of PageExecute.</p>

<p><b>Close<a name=close></a>( )</b></p>

<p>Close the database connection. PHP4 proudly states that we no longer have to
clean up at the end of the connection because the reference counting mechanism
of PHP4 will automatically clean up for us.</p>

<p><b>StartTrans<a name=starttrans></a>( )</b></p>

<p>Start a monitored transaction. As SQL statements are executed, ADOdb will
monitor for SQL errors, and if any are detected, when CompleteTrans() is
called, we auto-rollback. </p>

<p>To understand why StartTrans() is superior to BeginTrans(), let us examine a
few ways of using BeginTrans(). The following is the wrong way to use
transactions: </p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre
style='background:#EEEEEE'>$DB-&gt;BeginTrans();<br>
$DB-&gt;Execute(&quot;update table1 set val=$val1 where id=$id&quot;);<br>
$DB-&gt;Execute(&quot;update table2 set val=$val2 where id=$id&quot;);<br>
$DB-&gt;CommitTrans();</pre></div>

<p>because you perform no error checking. It is possible to update table1 and
for the update on table2 to fail. Here is a better way: </p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre
style='background:#EEEEEE'>$DB-&gt;BeginTrans();<br>
$ok = $DB-&gt;Execute(&quot;update table1 set val=$val1 where id=$id&quot;);<br>
if ($ok) $ok = $DB-&gt;Execute(&quot;update table2 set val=$val2 where id=$id&quot;);<br>
if ($ok) $DB-&gt;CommitTrans();<br>
else $DB-&gt;RollbackTrans();</pre></div>

<p>Another way is (since ADOdb 2.0): </p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre
style='background:#EEEEEE'>$DB-&gt;BeginTrans();<br>
$ok = $DB-&gt;Execute(&quot;update table1 set val=$val1 where id=$id&quot;);<br>
if ($ok) $ok = $DB-&gt;Execute(&quot;update table2 set val=$val2 where id=$id&quot;);<br>
$DB-&gt;CommitTrans($ok);</pre></div>

<p>Now it is a headache monitoring $ok all over the place. StartTrans() is an
improvement because it monitors all SQL errors for you. This is particularly
useful if you are calling black-box functions in which SQL queries might be
executed. Also all BeginTrans, CommitTrans and RollbackTrans calls inside a
StartTrans block will be disabled, so even if the black box function does a
commit, it will be ignored. </p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre
style='background:#EEEEEE'>$DB-&gt;StartTrans();<br>
CallBlackBox();<br>
$DB-&gt;Execute(&quot;update table1 set val=$val1 where id=$id&quot;);<br>
$DB-&gt;Execute(&quot;update table2 set val=$val2 where id=$id&quot;);<br>
$DB-&gt;CompleteTrans();</pre></div>

<p>Note that a StartTrans blocks are nestable, the inner blocks are ignored. </p>

<p><b>CompleteTrans<a name=completetrans></a>($autoComplete=true)</b></p>

<p>Complete a transaction called with StartTrans(). This function monitors for
SQL errors, and will commit if no errors have occured, otherwise it will
rollback. Returns true on commit, false on rollback. If the parameter
$autoComplete is true monitor sql errors and commit and rollback as
appropriate. Set $autoComplete to false to force rollback even if no SQL error
detected. </p>

<p><b>FailTrans<a name=failtrans></a>( )</b></p>

<p>Fail a transaction started with StartTrans(). The rollback will only occur
when CompleteTrans() is called. </p>

<p><b>HasFailedTrans<a name=hasfailedtrans></a>( )</b></p>

<p>Check whether smart transaction has failed, eg. returns true if there was an
error in SQL execution or FailTrans() was called. If not within smart
transaction, returns false. </p>

<p><b>BeginTrans<a name=begintrans></a>( )</b></p>

<p>Begin a transaction. Turns off autoCommit. Returns true if successful. Some
databases will always return false if transaction support is not available. Any
open transactions will be rolled back when the connection is closed. Among the
databases that support transactions are Oracle, PostgreSQL, Interbase, MSSQL,
certain versions of MySQL, DB2, Informix, Sybase, etc.</p>

<p>Note that <a href="#starttrans">StartTrans()</a> and CompleteTrans() is a
superior method of handling transactions, available since ADOdb 3.40. For a
explanation, see the <a href="#starttrans">StartTrans()</a> documentation. </p>

<p>You can also use the ADOdb <a href="#errorhandling">error handler</a> to die
and rollback your transactions for you transparently. Some buggy database
extensions are known to commit all outstanding tranasactions, so you might want
to explicitly do a $DB-&gt;RollbackTrans() in your error handler for safety. </p>

<h4>Detecting Transactions</h4>

<p>Since ADOdb 2.50, you are able to detect when you are inside a transaction.
Check that $connection-&gt;transCnt &gt; 0. This variable is incremented whenever
BeginTrans() is called, and decremented whenever RollbackTrans() or
CommitTrans() is called. </p>

<p><b>CommitTrans<a name=committrans></a>($ok=true)</b></p>

<p>End a transaction successfully. Returns true if successful. If the database
does not support transactions, will return true also as data is always
committed. </p>

<p>If you pass the parameter $ok=false, the data is rolled back. See example in
BeginTrans().</p>

<p><b>RollbackTrans<a name=rollbacktrans></a>( )</b></p>

<p>End a transaction, rollback all changes. Returns true if successful. If the
database does not support transactions, will return false as data is never
rollbacked. </p>

<p><b>SetTransactionMode<a name=SetTransactionMode></a>($mode )</b></p>

<p>SetTransactionMode allows you to pass in the transaction mode to use for all
subsequent transactions. Note: if you have persistent connections and using
mssql or mysql, you might have to explicitly reset your transaction mode at the
beginning of each page request. This is only supported in postgresql, mssql,
mysql with InnoDB and oci8 currently. For example: </p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></pre><pre>$db-&gt;SetTransactionMode(&quot;SERIALIZABLE&quot;);</pre><pre>$db-&gt;BeginTrans();</pre><pre>$db-&gt;Execute(...); $db-&gt;Execute(...);</pre><pre>$db-&gt;CommiTrans();</pre><pre><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></pre><pre>$db-&gt;SetTransactionMode(&quot;&quot;); // restore to default</pre><pre>$db-&gt;StartTrans();</pre><pre>$db-&gt;Execute(...); $db-&gt;Execute(...);</pre><pre>$db-&gt;CompleteTrans();</pre></div>

<p>Supported values to pass in: </p>

<ul type=disc>
 <li class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto;
     mso-list:l1 level1 lfo10;tab-stops:list 36.0pt'>READ UNCOMMITTED (allows
     dirty reads, but fastest) </li>
 <li class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto;
     mso-list:l1 level1 lfo10;tab-stops:list 36.0pt'>READ COMMITTED (default
     postgres, mssql and oci8) </li>
 <li class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto;
     mso-list:l1 level1 lfo10;tab-stops:list 36.0pt'>REPEATABLE READ (default
     mysql) </li>
 <li class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto;
     mso-list:l1 level1 lfo10;tab-stops:list 36.0pt'>SERIALIZABLE (slowest and
     most restrictive) </li>
</ul>

<p>You can also pass in database specific values such as 'SNAPSHOT' for mssql
or 'READ ONLY' for oci8/postgres. </p>

<p>See transaction levels for <a
href="http://www.postgresql.org/docs/8.1/interactive/sql-set-transaction.html">PostgreSQL</a>,
<a
href="http://www.stanford.edu/dept/itss/docs/oracle/10g/server.101/b10759/statements_10005.htm">Oracle</a>,
<a href="http://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.0/en/set-transaction.html">MySQL</a>,
and <a href="http://msdn2.microsoft.com/en-US/ms173763.aspx">MS SQL Server</a>.
</p>

<p><b>GetAssoc<a name=getassoc1></a>($sql,$inputarr=false,$force_array=false,$first2cols=false)</b></p>

<p>Returns an associative array for the given query $sql with optional bind
parameters in $inputarr. If the number of columns returned is greater to two, a
2-dimensional array is returned, with the first column of the recordset becomes
the keys to the rest of the rows. If the columns is equal to two, a 1-dimensional
array is created, where the the keys directly map to the values (unless
$force_array is set to true, when an array is created for each value). </p>

<p>Examples:<a name=getassocex></a></p>

<p>We have the following data in a recordset:</p>

<p>row1: Apple, Fruit, Edible<br>
row2: Cactus, Plant, Inedible<br>
row3: Rose, Flower, Edible</p>

<p>GetAssoc will generate the following 2-dimensional associative array:</p>

<p>Apple =&gt; array[Fruit, Edible]<br>
Cactus =&gt; array[Plant, Inedible]<br>
Rose =&gt; array[Flower,Edible]</p>

<p>If the dataset is:</p>

<p>row1: Apple, Fruit<br>
row2: Cactus, Plant<br>
row3: Rose, Flower </p>

<p>GetAssoc will generate the following 1-dimensional associative array (with
$force_array==false):</p>

<p>Apple =&gt; Fruit<br>
Cactus=&gt;Plant<br>
Rose=&gt;Flower </p>

<p>The function returns:</p>

<p>The associative array, or false if an error occurs.</p>

<p><b>CacheGetAssoc<a name=cachegetassoc></a>([$secs2cache,] $sql,$inputarr=false,$force_array=false,$first2cols=false)</b></p>

<p>Caching version of <a href="#getassoc1">GetAssoc</a> function above. </p>

<p><b>GetMedian<a name=getmedian></a>($table, $field, $where='')</b></p>

<p>Returns the median value of $field for $table. The $where clause is
optional. If used, make sure the WHERE is included, as in &quot;WHERE name &gt;
'A'&quot;. If an error occurs, false is returned. Since ADOdb 5.06 and PHP
4.991. </p>

<p><b>GetOne<a name=getone></a>($sql,$inputarr=false)</b></p>

<p>Executes the SQL and returns the first field of the first row. The recordset
and remaining rows are discarded for you automatically. If an error occur,
false is returned; use ErrorNo() or ErrorMsg() to get the error details. Since
4.96/5.00, we return null if no records were found. And since 4.991/5.06, you
can have change the return value if no records are found using the global
variable $ADODB_GETONE_EOF: $ADODB_GETONE_EOF = false;</p>

<p><b>GetRow<a name=getrow></a>($sql,$inputarr=false)</b></p>

<p>Executes the SQL and returns the first row as an array. The recordset and
remaining rows are discarded for you automatically. If no records are returned,
an empty array is returned. If an error occurs, false is returned.</p>

<p><b>GetAll<a name=getall></a>($sql,$inputarr=false)</b></p>

<p>Executes the SQL and returns the all the rows as a 2-dimensional array. The
recordset is discarded for you automatically. If an error occurs, false is
returned. <i>GetArray</i> is a synonym for <i>GetAll</i>.</p>

<p><b>GetCol<a name=getcol></a>($sql,$inputarr=false,$trim=false)</b></p>

<p>Executes the SQL and returns all elements of the first column as a
1-dimensional array. The recordset is discarded for you automatically. If an
error occurs, false is returned.</p>

<p><b>CacheGetOne<a name=cachegetone></a>([$secs2cache,] $sql,$inputarr=false),
CacheGetRow<a name=cachegetrow></a>([$secs2cache,] $sql,$inputarr=false),
CacheGetAll<a name=cachegetall></a>([$secs2cache,] $sql,$inputarr=false),
CacheGetCol<a name=cachegetcol></a>([$secs2cache,]
$sql,$inputarr=false,$trim=false)</b></p>

<p>Similar to above Get* functions, except that the recordset is serialized and
cached in the $ADODB_CACHE_DIR directory for $secs2cache seconds. Good for
speeding up queries on rarely changing data. Note that the $secs2cache
parameter is optional. If omitted, we use the value in
$connection-&gt;cacheSecs (default is 3600 seconds, or 1 hour). </p>

<p><b>Prepare<a name=prepare></a>($sql )</b></p>

<p>Prepares (compiles) an SQL query for repeated execution. Bind parameters are
denoted by ?, except for the oci8 driver, which uses the traditional Oracle
:varname convention. </p>

<p>Returns an array containing the original sql statement in the first array
element; the remaining elements of the array are driver dependent. If there is
an error, or we are emulating Prepare( ), we return the original $sql string.
This is because all error-handling has been centralized in Execute( ).</p>

<p>Prepare( ) cannot be used with functions that use SQL query rewriting
techniques, e.g. PageExecute( ) and SelectLimit( ).</p>

<p>Example:</p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre
style='background:#EEEEEE'>$stmt = $DB-&gt;Prepare('insert into table (col1,col2) values (?,?)');<br>
for ($i=0; $i &lt; $max; $i++)<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$DB-&gt;Execute($stmt,array((string) rand(), $i));</pre></div>

<p>Also see InParameter(), OutParameter() and PrepareSP() below. Only supported
internally by interbase, oci8 and selected ODBC-based drivers, otherwise it is
emulated. There is no performance advantage to using Prepare() with emulation. </p>

<p>Important: Due to limitations or bugs in PHP, if you are getting errors when
you using prepared queries, try setting $ADODB_COUNTRECS = false before
preparing. This behaviour has been observed with ODBC. </p>

<p><b>IfNull<a name=ifnull></a>($field, $nullReplacementValue)</b></p>

<p>Portable IFNULL function (NVL in Oracle). Returns a string that represents
the function that checks whether a $field is null for the given database, and
if null, change the value returned to $nullReplacementValue. Eg.</p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre
style='background:#EEEEEE'>$sql = <span style='color:#993300'>'SELECT '</span>.$db-&gt;IfNull('name', <span
style='color:#993300'>&quot;'- unknown -'&quot;</span>).<span style='color:
#993300'> ' FROM table'</span>;</pre></div>

<p><b>length</b><a name=length></a></p>

<p>This is not a function, but a property. Some databases have
&quot;length&quot; and others &quot;len&quot; as the function to measure the
length of a string. To use this property: </p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre
style='background:#EEEEEE'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>$sql = <span
style='color:#993300'>&quot;SELECT &quot;</span>.$db-&gt;length.<span
style='color:#993300'>&quot;(field) from table&quot;</span>;<br>
<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>$rs = $db-&gt;Execute($sql);</pre></div>

<p><b>random</b><a name=random></a></p>

<p>This is not a function, but a property. This is a string that holds the sql
to generate a random number between 0.0 and 1.0 inclusive. </p>

<p><b>substr</b><a name=substr></a></p>

<p>This is not a function, but a property. Some databases have
&quot;substr&quot; and others &quot;substring&quot; as the function to retrieve
a sub-string. To use this property: </p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre
style='background:#EEEEEE'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>$sql = <span
style='color:#993300'>&quot;SELECT &quot;</span>.$db-&gt;substr.<span
style='color:#993300'>&quot;(field, $offset, $length) from table&quot;</span>;<br>
<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>$rs = $db-&gt;Execute($sql);</pre></div>

<p>For all databases, the 1st parameter of <i>substr</i> is the field, the 2nd
is the offset (1-based) to the beginning of the sub-string, and the 3rd is the
length of the sub-string. </p>

<p><b>Param<a name=param></a>($name)</b></p>

<p>Generates a bind placeholder portably. For most databases, the bind
placeholder is &quot;?&quot;. However some databases use named bind parameters
such as Oracle, eg &quot;:somevar&quot;. This allows us to portably define an
SQL statement with bind parameters: </p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre
style='background:#EEEEEE'>$sql = <span style='color:#993300'>'insert into table (col1,col2) values ('</span>.$DB-&gt;Param('a').<span
style='color:#993300'>','</span>.$DB-&gt;Param('b').<span style='color:#993300'>')'</span>;<br>
<span style='color:#006600'># generates 'insert into table (col1,col2) values (?,?)'<br>
# or<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>        </span>'insert into table (col1,col2) values (:a,:b)</span>'<br>
$stmt = $DB-&gt;Prepare($sql);<br>
$stmt = $DB-&gt;Execute($stmt,array('one','two'));</pre></div>

<p><b>PrepareSP<a name=preparesp></a>($sql, $cursor=false )</b></p>

<p>When calling stored procedures in mssql and oci8 (oracle), and you might
want to directly bind to parameters that return values, or for special LOB
handling. PrepareSP() allows you to do so. </p>

<p>Returns the same array or $sql string as Prepare( ) above. If you do not
need to bind to return values, you should use Prepare( ) instead.</p>

<p>The 2nd parameter, $cursor is not used except with oci8. Setting it to true
will force OCINewCursor to be called; this is to support output REF CURSORs. </p>

<p>For examples of usage of PrepareSP( ), see InParameter( ) below. </p>

<p>Note: in the mssql driver, preparing stored procedures requires a special
function call, mssql_init( ), which is called by this function. PrepareSP( ) is
available in all other drivers, and is emulated by calling Prepare( ). </p>

<p><b>InParameter<a name=inparameter></a>($stmt, $var, $name, $maxLen = 4000,
$type = false )</b></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>Binds a PHP variable as input to a stored procedure
variable. The parameter <i>$stmt</i> is the value returned by PrepareSP(), <i>$var</i>
is the PHP variable you want to bind, $name is the name of the stored procedure
variable. Optional is <i>$maxLen</i>, the maximum length of the data to bind,
and $type which is database dependant. Consult <a
href="http://php.net/mssql_bind">mssql_bind</a> and <a
href="http://php.net/ocibindbyname">ocibindbyname</a> docs at php.net for more
info on legal values for $type. </p>

<p>InParameter() is a wrapper function that calls Parameter() with
$isOutput=false. The advantage of this function is that it is self-documenting,
because the $isOutput parameter is no longer needed. Only for mssql and oci8
currently. </p>

<p>Here is an example using oci8: </p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre><span
style='color:green'># For oracle, Prepare and PrepareSP are identical</span></pre><pre>$stmt = $db-&gt;PrepareSP(</pre><pre
style='background:#EEEEEE'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span><span
style='color:#993300'>&quot;declare RETVAL integer; <br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>begin<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>:RETVAL := SP_RUNSOMETHING(:myid,:group);<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>end;&quot;</span>);<br>
$db-&gt;InParameter($stmt,$id,'myid');<br>
$db-&gt;InParameter($stmt,$group,'group',64);<br>
$db-&gt;OutParameter($stmt,$ret,'RETVAL');<br>
$db-&gt;Execute($stmt);</pre></div>

<p>The same example using mssql:</p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre><span
style='color:green'># @RETVAL = SP_RUNSOMETHING @myid,@group</span></pre><pre>$stmt = $db-&gt;PrepareSP(<span
style='color:#993333'>'</span><span style='color:#993300'>SP_RUNSOMETHING</span><span
style='color:#993333'>'</span>); <br>
<span style='color:green'># note that the parameter name does not have @ in front!</span></pre><pre>$db-&gt;InParameter($stmt,$id,'myid');</pre><pre>$db-&gt;InParameter($stmt,$group,'group',64);</pre><pre
style='background:#EEEEEE'><span style='color:green'># return value in mssql - RETVAL is hard-coded name</span> <br>
$db-&gt;OutParameter($stmt,$ret,'RETVAL');<br>
$db-&gt;Execute($stmt); </pre></div>

<p>Note that the only difference between the oci8 and mssql implementations is
$sql.</p>

<p>If $type parameter is set to false, in mssql, $type will be dynamicly
determined based on the type of the PHP variable passed <span style='font-family:
"Courier New"'>(string =&gt; SQLCHAR, boolean =&gt;SQLINT1, integer
=&gt;SQLINT4 or float/double=&gt;SQLFLT8)</span>. </p>

<p>In oci8, $type can be set to OCI_B_FILE (Binary-File), OCI_B_CFILE
(Character-File), OCI_B_CLOB (Character-LOB), OCI_B_BLOB (Binary-LOB) and
OCI_B_ROWID (ROWID). To pass in a null, use<span style='font-family:"Courier New"'>
$db-&gt;Parameter($stmt, $null=null, 'param')</span>. </p>

<p><b>OutParameter<a name=outparameter></a>($stmt, $var, $name, $maxLen = 4000,
$type = false )</b></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>Binds a PHP variable as output from a stored procedure
variable. The parameter <i>$stmt</i> is the value returned by PrepareSP(), <i>$var</i>
is the PHP variable you want to bind, <i>$name</i> is the name of the stored
procedure variable. Optional is <i>$maxLen</i>, the maximum length of the data
to bind, and <i>$type</i> which is database dependant. </p>

<p>OutParameter() is a wrapper function that calls Parameter() with
$isOutput=true. The advantage of this function is that it is self-documenting,
because the $isOutput parameter is no longer needed. Only for mssql and oci8
currently. </p>

<p>For an example, see <a href="#inparameter">InParameter</a>. </p>

<p><b>Parameter<a name=parameter></a>($stmt, $var, $name, $isOutput=false,
$maxLen = 4000, $type = false )</b></p>

<p>Note: This function is deprecated, because of the new InParameter() and
OutParameter() functions. These are superior because they are self-documenting,
unlike Parameter(). </p>

<p>Adds a bind parameter suitable for return values or special data handling
(eg. LOBs) after a statement has been prepared using PrepareSP(). Only for
mssql and oci8 currently. The parameters are:<br>
<br>
$<b><i>stmt</i></b> Statement returned by Prepare() or PrepareSP().<br>
$<b><i>var</i></b> PHP variable to bind to. Make sure you pre-initialize it!<br>
$<b><i>name</i></b> Name of stored procedure variable name to bind to.<br>
[$<b><i>isOutput</i></b>] Indicates direction of parameter 0/false=IN 1=OUT 2=
IN/OUT. This is ignored in oci8 as this driver auto-detects the direction.<br>
[$<b>maxLen</b>] Maximum length of the parameter variable.<br>
[$<b>type</b>] Consult <a href="http://php.net/mssql_bind">mssql_bind</a> and <a
href="http://php.net/ocibindbyname">ocibindbyname</a> docs at php.net for more
info on legal values for type.</p>

<p>Lastly, in oci8, bind parameters can be reused without calling PrepareSP( ) or
Parameters again. This is not possible with mssql. An oci8 example:</p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre>$id = 0; $i = 0;<br>
$stmt = $db-&gt;PrepareSP( <span style='color:#993300'>&quot;update table set val=:i where id=:id&quot;</span>);<br>
$db-&gt;Parameter($stmt,$id,'id');<br>
$db-&gt;Parameter($stmt,$i, 'i');<br>
for ($cnt=0; $cnt &lt; 1000; $cnt++) {<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$id = $cnt; <br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$i = $cnt * $cnt; <span
style='color:green'># works with oci8!</span></pre><pre style='background:#EEEEEE'><span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$db-&gt;Execute($stmt); <br>
}</pre></div>

<p><b>Bind<a name=bind></a>($stmt, $var, $size=4001, $type=false, $name=false)</b></p>

<p>This is a low-level function supported only by the oci8 driver. <b>Avoid
using</b> unless you only want to support Oracle. The Parameter( ) function is
the recommended way to go with bind variables.</p>

<p>Bind( ) allows you to use bind variables in your sql statement. This binds a
PHP variable to a name defined in an Oracle sql statement that was previously
prepared using Prepare(). Oracle named variables begin with a colon, and ADOdb
requires the named variables be called :0, :1, :2, :3, etc. The first
invocation of Bind() will match :0, the second invocation will match :1, etc.
Binding can provide 100% speedups for insert, select and update statements. </p>

<p>The other variables, $size sets the buffer size for data storage, $type is
the optional descriptor type OCI_B_FILE (Binary-File), OCI_B_CFILE
(Character-File), OCI_B_CLOB (Character-LOB), OCI_B_BLOB (Binary-LOB) and
OCI_B_ROWID (ROWID). Lastly, instead of using the default :0, :1, etc names,
you can define your own bind-name using $name. </p>

<p>The following example shows 3 bind variables being used: p1, p2 and p3.
These variables are bound to :0, :1 and :2.</p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre
style='background:#EEEEEE'>$stmt = $DB-&gt;Prepare(&quot;insert into table (col0, col1, col2) values (:0, :1, :2)&quot;);<br>
$DB-&gt;Bind($stmt, $p1);<br>
$DB-&gt;Bind($stmt, $p2);<br>
$DB-&gt;Bind($stmt, $p3);<br>
for ($i = 0; $i &lt; $max; $i++) { <br>
<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>   </span>$p1 = ?; $p2 = ?; $p3 = ?;<br>
<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>   </span>$DB-&gt;Execute($stmt);<br>
}</pre></div>

<p>You can also use named variables:</p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre
style='background:#EEEEEE'>$stmt = $DB-&gt;Prepare(&quot;insert into table (col0, col1, col2) values (:name0, :name1, :name2)&quot;);<br>
$DB-&gt;Bind($stmt, $p1, &quot;name0&quot;);<br>
$DB-&gt;Bind($stmt, $p2, &quot;name1&quot;);<br>
$DB-&gt;Bind($stmt, $p3, &quot;name2&quot;);<br>
for ($i = 0; $i &lt; $max; $i++) { <br>
<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>   </span>$p1 = ?; $p2 = ?; $p3 = ?;<br>
<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>   </span>$DB-&gt;Execute($stmt);<br>
}</pre></div>

<p><b>LogSQL($enable=true)</b><a name=logsql></a></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>Call this method to install a SQL logging and timing
function (using fnExecute). Then all SQL statements are logged into an
adodb_logsql table in a database. If the adodb_logsql table does not exist,
ADOdb will create the table if you have the appropriate permissions. Returns
the previous logging value (true for enabled, false for disabled). Here are
samples of the DDL for selected databases: </p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:2'>                 </span><b>mysql:</b></pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:2'>                 </span>CREATE TABLE adodb_logsql (</pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:2'>                 </span><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>created datetime NOT NULL,</pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:2'>                 </span><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>sql0 varchar(250) NOT NULL,</pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:2'>                 </span><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>sql1 text NOT NULL,</pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:2'>                 </span><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>params text NOT NULL,</pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:2'>                 </span><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>tracer text NOT NULL,</pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:2'>                 </span><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>timer decimal(16,6) NOT NULL</pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:2'>                 </span>)</pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:2'>                 </span></pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:2'>                 </span><b>postgres:</b></pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:2'>                 </span>CREATE TABLE adodb_logsql (</pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:2'>                 </span><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>created timestamp NOT NULL,</pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:2'>                 </span><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>sql0 varchar(250) NOT NULL,</pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:2'>                 </span><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>sql1 text NOT NULL,</pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:2'>                 </span><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>params text NOT NULL,</pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:2'>                 </span><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>tracer text NOT NULL,</pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:2'>                 </span><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>timer decimal(16,6) NOT NULL</pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:2'>                 </span>)</pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:2'>                 </span></pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:2'>                 </span><b>mssql:</b></pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:2'>                 </span>CREATE TABLE adodb_logsql (</pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:2'>                 </span><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>created datetime NOT NULL,</pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:2'>                 </span><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>sql0 varchar(250) NOT NULL,</pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:2'>                 </span><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>sql1 varchar(4000) NOT NULL,</pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:2'>                 </span><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>params varchar(3000) NOT NULL,</pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:2'>                 </span><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>tracer varchar(500) NOT NULL,</pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:2'>                 </span><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>timer decimal(16,6) NOT NULL</pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:2'>                 </span>)</pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:2'>                 </span></pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:2'>                 </span><b>oci8:</b></pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:2'>                 </span>CREATE TABLE adodb_logsql (</pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:2'>                 </span><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>created date NOT NULL,</pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:2'>                 </span><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>sql0 varchar(250) NOT NULL,</pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:2'>                 </span><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>sql1 varchar(4000) NOT NULL,</pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:2'>                 </span><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>params varchar(4000),</pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:2'>                 </span><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>tracer varchar(4000),</pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:2'>                 </span><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>timer decimal(16,6) NOT NULL</pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:2'>                 </span>)</pre></div>

<p class=MsoNormal>Usage: </p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre
style='background:#EEEEEE'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$conn-&gt;LogSQL(); // turn on logging<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>:<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$conn-&gt;Execute(...);<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>:<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$conn-&gt;LogSQL(false); // turn off logging<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span><br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span># output summary of SQL logging results<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$perf = NewPerfMonitor($conn);<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>echo $perf-&gt;SuspiciousSQL();<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>echo $perf-&gt;ExpensiveSQL();</pre></div>

<p>One limitation of logging is that rollback also prevents SQL from being
logged. </p>

<p>If you prefer to use another name for the table used to store the SQL, you
can override it by calling adodb_perf::table($tablename), where $tablename is
the new table name (you will still need to manually create the table yourself).
An example: </p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre
style='background:#EEEEEE'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>include('adodb.inc.php');<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>include('adodb-perf.inc.php');<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>adodb_perf::table('my_logsql_table');</pre></div>

<p class=MsoNormal>Also see <a href="docs-perf.htm">Performance Monitor</a>. </p>

<p><b>fnExecute and fnCacheExecute properties</b><a name=fnexecute
id=fnexecute></a></p>

<p>These two properties allow you to define bottleneck functions for all sql
statements processed by ADOdb. This allows you to perform statistical analysis
and query-rewriting of your sql. </p>

<p><b>Examples of fnExecute</b></p>

<p>Here is an example of using fnExecute, to count all cached queries and
non-cached queries, you can do this:</p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre><span
style='color:#006600'># $db is the connection object</span></pre><pre>function &amp;CountExecs($db, $sql, $inputarray)</pre><pre>{</pre><pre>global $EXECS;</pre><pre><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>if (!is_array(inputarray)) $EXECS++;</pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span><span style='color:#006600'># handle 2-dimensional input arrays</span></pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>else if (is_array(reset($inputarray))) $EXECS += sizeof($inputarray);</pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>else $EXECS++;</pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span></pre><pre><span style='mso-tab-count:
1'>         </span><span style='color:#006600'># in PHP4.4 and PHP5, we need to return a value by reference</span></pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$null = null;</pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>return $null;</pre><pre>}</pre><pre><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></pre><pre><span
style='color:#006600'># $db is the connection object</span></pre><pre>function CountCachedExecs($db, $secs2cache, $sql, $inputarray)</pre><pre
style='background:#EEEEEE'>{<br>
global $CACHED; $CACHED++;<br>
}<br>
<br>
$db = NewADOConnection('mysql');<br>
$db-&gt;Connect(...);<br>
$db-&gt;<strong><span style='font-family:"Courier New"'>fnExecute</span></strong> = 'CountExecs';<br>
$db-&gt;<strong><span style='font-family:"Courier New"'>fnCacheExecute</span></strong> = 'CountCachedExecs';<br>
<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>:<br>
<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>:<br>
<span style='color:#006600'># After many sql statements:</span>`<br>
printf(&quot;&lt;p&gt;Total queries=%d; total cached=%d&lt;/p&gt;&quot;,$EXECS+$CACHED, $CACHED);</pre></div>

<p>The fnExecute function is called before the sql is parsed and executed, so
you can perform a query rewrite. If you are passing in a prepared statement,
then $sql is an array (see <a href="#prepare">Prepare</a>). The fnCacheExecute
function is only called if the recordset returned was cached. The function
parameters match the Execute and CacheExecute functions respectively, except
that $this (the connection object) is passed as the first parameter.</p>

<p>Since ADOdb 3.91, the behaviour of fnExecute varies depending on whether the
defined function returns a value. If it does not return a value, then the $sql
is executed as before. This is useful for query rewriting or counting sql
queries. </p>

<p>On the other hand, you might want to replace the Execute function with one
of your own design. If this is the case, then have your function return a
value. If a value is returned, that value is returned immediately, without any
further processing. This is used internally by ADOdb to implement LogSQL()
functionality. </p>

<div class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'>

<hr size=2 width="100%" align=center>

</div>

<h3>ADOConnection Utility Functions</h3>

<p><b>BlankRecordSet<a name=blankrecordset></a>([$queryid])</b></p>

<p>No longer available - removed since 1.99.</p>

<p><b>Concat<a name=concat></a>($s1,$s2,....)</b></p>

<p>Generates the sql string used to concatenate $s1, $s2, etc together. Uses
the string in the concat_operator field to generate the concatenation. Override
this function if a concatenation operator is not used, eg. MySQL.</p>

<p>Returns the concatenated string.</p>

<p><b>DBDate<a name=dbdate></a>($date)</b></p>

<p>Format the $<b>date</b> in the format the database accepts - the return
string is also quoted. This is used when you are sending dates to the database
(eg INSERT, UPDATE or where clause of SELECT statement). The $<b>date</b>
parameter can be a PHP DateTime object (since ADOdb 5.09), a Unix integer timestamp or an ISO format Y-m-d. Uses the
fmtDate field, which holds the format to use. If null or false or '' is passed
in, it will be converted to an SQL null.</p>

<p>Returns the date as a quoted string.</p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$sql = &quot;select * from atable where created &gt; &quot;.$db-&gt;DBDate(&quot;$year-$month-$day&quot;);</pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$db-&gt;Execute($sql);</pre></div>

<p>Note to retrieve a date column in a specific format, use <a href="#sqldate">SQLDate</a>.
</p>

<p><b>BindDate<a name=binddate></a>($date)</b></p>

<p>Format the $<b>date</b> in the bind format the database accepts. Normally
this means that the date string is not quoted, unlike DBDate, which quotes the
string. </p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$sql = &quot;select * from atable where created &gt; &quot;.$db-&gt;Param('0');</pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>// or</pre><pre><span style='mso-tab-count:
1'>         </span>$sql = &quot;select * from atable where created &gt; ?&quot;;</pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$db-&gt;Execute($sql,array($db-&gt;BindDate(&quot;$year-$month-$day&quot;));</pre></div>

<p><b>DBTimeStamp<a name=dbtimestamp></a>($ts)</b></p>

<p>Format the timestamp $<b>ts</b> in the format the database accepts; this can
be a PHP DateTime object (since ADOdb 5.09), a Unix integer timestamp or an ISO format Y-m-d H:i:s. Uses the fmtTimeStamp
field, which holds the format to use. If null or false or '' is passed in, it
will be converted to an SQL null.</p>

<p>Returns the timestamp as a quoted string.</p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$sql = &quot;select * from atable where created &gt; &quot;.$db-&gt;DBTimeStamp(&quot;$year-$month-$day $hr:$min:$secs&quot;);</pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$db-&gt;Execute($sql);</pre></div>

<p><b>BindTimeStamp<a name=bindtimestamp></a>($ts)</b></p>

<p>Format the timestamp $<b>ts</b> in the bind format the database accepts.
Normally this means that the timestamp string is not quoted, unlike
DBTimeStamp, which quotes the string. </p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$sql = &quot;select * from atable where created &gt; &quot;.$db-&gt;Param('0');</pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>// or</pre><pre><span style='mso-tab-count:
1'>         </span>$sql = &quot;select * from atable where created &gt; ?&quot;;</pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$db-&gt;Execute($sql,array($db-&gt;BindTimeStamp(&quot;$year-$month-$day $hr:$min:$secs&quot;));</pre></div>

<p><b>qstr<a name=qstr></a>($s,[$magic_quotes_enabled</b>=false]<b>)</b></p>

<p>Quotes a string to be sent to the database. The $<b>magic_quotes_enabled</b>
parameter may look funny, but the idea is if you are quoting a string extracted
from a POST/GET variable, then pass get_magic_quotes_gpc() as the second
parameter. This will ensure that the variable is not quoted twice, once by <i>qstr</i>
and once by the <i>magic_quotes_gpc</i>.</p>

<p>Eg.<span style='font-family:"Courier New"'> $s = $db-&gt;qstr(HTTP_GET_VARS['name'],get_magic_quotes_gpc());</span></p>

<p>Returns the quoted string.</p>

<p><b>Quote<a name=quote></a>($s)</b></p>

<p>Quotes the string $s, escaping the database specific quote character as
appropriate. Formerly checked magic quotes setting, but this was disabled since
3.31 for compatibility with PEAR DB. </p>

<p><b>Affected_Rows<a name="affected_rows"></a>( )</b></p>

<p>Returns the number of rows affected by a update or delete statement. Returns
false if function not supported.</p>

<p>Not supported by interbase/firebird currently. </p>

<p><b>Insert_ID<a name="inserted_id"></a>( )</b></p>

<p>Returns the last autonumbering ID inserted. Returns false if function not
supported. </p>

<p>Only supported by databases that support auto-increment or object id's, such
as PostgreSQL, MySQL and MS SQL Server currently. PostgreSQL returns the OID,
which can change on a database reload.</p>

<p><b>RowLock<a name=rowlock></a>($table,$where)</b></p>

<p>Lock a table row for the duration of a transaction. For example to lock
record $id in table1: </p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre
style='background:#EEEEEE'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$DB-&gt;StartTrans();<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$DB-&gt;RowLock(&quot;table1&quot;,&quot;rowid=$id&quot;);<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$DB-&gt;Execute($sql1);<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$DB-&gt;Execute($sql2);<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$DB-&gt;CompleteTrans();</pre></div>

<p>Supported in db2, interbase, informix, mssql, oci8, postgres, sybase. </p>

<p><b>MetaDatabases<a name=metadatabases></a>()</b></p>

<p>Returns a list of databases available on the server as an array. You have to
connect to the server first. Only available for ODBC, MySQL and ADO.</p>

<p><b>MetaTables<a name=metatables></a>($ttype = false, $showSchema = false,
$mask=false)</b></p>

<p>Returns an array of tables and views for the current database as an array.
The array should exclude system catalog tables if possible. To only show
tables, use $db-&gt;MetaTables('TABLES'). To show only views, use
$db-&gt;MetaTables('VIEWS'). The $showSchema parameter currently works only for
DB2, and when set to true, will add the schema name to the table, eg.
&quot;SCHEMA.TABLE&quot;. </p>

<p>You can define a mask for matching. For example, setting $mask = 'TMP%' will
match all tables that begin with 'TMP'. Currently only mssql, oci8, odbc_mssql
and postgres* support $mask. </p>

<p><b>MetaColumns<a name=metacolumns></a>($table,$notcasesensitive=true)</b></p>

<p>Returns an array of ADOFieldObject's, one field object for every column of
$table. A field object is a class instance with (name, type, max_length)
defined. Currently Sybase does not recognise date types, and ADO cannot
identify the correct data type (so we default to varchar). </p>

<p>The $notcasesensitive parameter determines whether we uppercase or lowercase
the table name to normalize it (required for some databases). Does not work
with MySQL ISAM tables. </p>

<p>For schema support, pass in the $table parameter,
&quot;$schema.$tablename&quot;. This is only supported for selected databases. </p>

<p><b>MetaColumnNames<a name=metacolumnames></a>($table,$numericIndex=false)</b></p>

<p>Returns an array of column names for $table. Since ADOdb 4.22, this is an
associative array, with the keys in uppercase. Set $numericIndex=true if you
want the old behaviour of numeric indexes (since 4.23). </p>

<p>e.g. array('FIELD1' =&gt; 'Field1', 'FIELD2'=&gt;'Field2') </p>

<p><b>MetaPrimaryKeys<a name=metaprimarykeys></a>($table, $owner=false)</b> </p>

<p>Returns an array containing column names that are the primary keys of
$table. Supported by mysql, odbc (including db2, odbc_mssql, etc), mssql,
postgres, interbase/firebird, oci8 currently. </p>

<p>Views (and some tables) have primary keys, but sometimes this information is
not available from the database. You can define a function
ADODB_View_PrimaryKeys($databaseType, $database, $view, $owner) that should
return an array containing the fields that make up the primary key. If that
function exists, it will be called when MetaPrimaryKeys() cannot find a primary
key for a table or view. </p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre
style='background:#EEEEEE'>// In this example: dbtype = 'oci8', $db = 'mydb', $view = 'dataView', $owner = false <br>
function ADODB_View_PrimaryKeys($dbtype,$db,$view,$owner)<br>
{<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>switch(strtoupper($view)) {<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>case 'DATAVIEW': return array('DATAID');<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>default: return false;<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>}<br>
}<br>
<br>
$db = NewADOConnection('oci8');<br>
$db-&gt;Connect('localhost','root','','mydb'); <br>
$db-&gt;MetaPrimaryKeys('dataView');</pre></div>

<p><b>ServerInfo<a name=serverinfo id=serverinfo></a>()</b> </p>

<p>Returns an array of containing two elements 'description' and 'version'. The
'description' element contains the string description of the database. The
'version' naturally holds the version number (which is also a string).</p>

<p><b>MetaForeignKeys<a name=metaforeignkeys></a>($table, $owner=false,
$upper=false)</b> </p>

<p>Returns an associate array of foreign keys, or false if not supported. For
example, if table employee has a foreign key where employee.deptkey points to
dept_table.deptid, and employee.posn=posn_table.postionid and
employee.poscategory=posn_table.category, then
$conn-&gt;MetaForeignKeys('employee') will return </p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre
style='background:#EEEEEE'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>array(<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:2'>                 </span>'dept_table' =&gt; array('deptkey=deptid'),<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:2'>                 </span>'posn_table' =&gt; array('posn=positionid','poscategory=category')<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>)</pre></div>

<p>The optional schema or owner can be defined in $owner. If $upper is true,
then the table names (array keys) are upper-cased. </p>

<div class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'>

<hr size=2 width="100%" align=center>

</div>

<h2>ADORecordSet<a name=adorecordset></a></h2>

<p>When an SQL statement successfully is executed by <span style='font-family:
"Courier New"'>ADOConnection-&gt;Execute($sql),</span>an ADORecordSet object is
returned. This object contains a virtual cursor so we can move from row to row,
functions to obtain information about the columns and column types, and helper
functions to deal with formating the results to show to the user.</p>

<h3>ADORecordSet Fields</h3>

<p><b>fields: </b>Array containing the current row. This is not associative,
but is an indexed array from 0 to columns-1. See also the function <b><a
href="#fields">Fields</a></b>, which behaves like an associative array.</p>

<p><b>dataProvider</b>: The underlying mechanism used to connect to the
database. Normally set to <b>native</b>, unless using <b>odbc</b> or <b>ado</b>.</p>

<p><b>blobSize</b>: Maximum size of a char, string or varchar object before it
is treated as a Blob (Blob's should be shown with textarea's). See the <a
href="#metatype">MetaType</a> function.</p>

<p><b>sql</b>: Holds the sql statement used to generate this record set.</p>

<p><b>canSeek</b>: Set to true if Move( ) function works.</p>

<p><b>EOF</b>: True if we have scrolled the cursor past the last record.</p>

<h3>ADORecordSet Functions</h3>

<p><b>ADORecordSet( )</b></p>

<p>Constructer. Normally you never call this function yourself.</p>

<p><b>GetAssoc<a name=getassoc></a>([$force_array])</b></p>

<p>Generates an associative array from the recordset. Note that is this
function is also <a href="#getassoc1">available</a> in the connection object.
More details can be found there.</p>

<p><b>GetArray<a name=getarray></a>([$number_of_rows])</b></p>

<p>Generate a 2-dimensional array of records from the current cursor position,
indexed from 0 to $number_of_rows - 1. If $number_of_rows is undefined, till
EOF.</p>

<p><b>GetRows<a name=getrows></a>([$number_of_rows])</b></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>Generate a 2-dimensional array of records from the current
cursor position. Synonym for GetArray() for compatibility with Microsoft ADO. </p>

<p><b>GetMenu<a name=getmenu></a>($name, [$default_str=''],
[$blank1stItem=true], [$multiple_select=false], [$size=0], [$moreAttr=''])</b></p>

<p>Generate a HTML menu
(&lt;select&gt;&lt;option&gt;&lt;option&gt;&lt;/select&gt;). The first column
of the recordset (fields[0]) will hold the string to display in the option
tags. If the recordset has more than 1 column, the second column (fields[1]) is
the value to send back to the web server.. The menu will be given the name $<i>name</i>.
</p>

<p>If $<i>default_str</i> is defined, then if $<i>default_str</i> == fields[0],
that field is selected. If $<i>blank1stItem</i> is true, the first option is
empty. You can also set the first option strings by setting $blank1stItem =
&quot;$value:$text&quot;.</p>

<p>$<i>Default_str</i> can be array for a multiple select listbox.</p>

<p>To get a listbox, set the $<i>size</i> to a non-zero value (or pass
$default_str as an array). If $<i>multiple_select</i> is true then a listbox
will be generated with $<i>size</i> items (or if $size==0, then 5 items)
visible, and we will return an array to a server. Lastly use $<i>moreAttr </i>to
add additional attributes such as javascript or styles. </p>

<p>Menu Example 1: <code><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>GetMenu('menu1','A',true)</span></code>
will generate a menu: <SELECT NAME="menu1">
<OPTION>
<OPTION SELECTED VALUE="1">A
<OPTION VALUE="2">B
<OPTION VALUE="3">C
</SELECT>for
the data (A,1), (B,2), (C,3). Also see <a href="#ex5">example 5</a>.</p>

<p>Menu Example 2: For the same data, <code><span style='font-size:10.0pt'>GetMenu('menu1',array('A','B'),false)</span></code>
will generate a menu with both A and B selected: <br>
<SELECT MULTIPLE NAME="menu1" SIZE="3">
<OPTION SELECTED VALUE="1">A
<OPTION SELECTED VALUE="2">B
<OPTION VALUE="3">C
</SELECT></p>

<p><b>GetMenu2<a name=getmenu2></a>($name, [$default_str=''],
[$blank1stItem=true], [$multiple_select=false], [$size=0], [$moreAttr=''])</b></p>

<p>This is nearly identical to GetMenu, except that the $<i>default_str</i> is
matched to fields[1] (the option values).</p>

<p>Menu Example 3: Given the data in menu example 2, <code><span
style='font-size:10.0pt'>GetMenu2('menu1',array('1','2'),false)</span></code>
will generate a menu with both A and B selected in menu example 2, but this
time the selection is based on the 2nd column, which holds the values to return
to the Web server. </p>

<p><b>UserDate<a name=userdate></a>($str, [$fmt])</b></p>

<p>Converts the date string $<i>str</i> to another format. The date format is
Y-m-d, or Unix timestamp format. The default $<i>fmt</i> is Y-m-d.</p>

<p><b>UserTimeStamp<a name=usertimestamp></a>($str, [$fmt])</b></p>

<p>Converts the timestamp string $<b>str</b> to another format. The timestamp
format is Y-m-d H:i:s, as in '2002-02-28 23:00:12', or Unix timestamp format.
UserTimeStamp calls UnixTimeStamp to parse $<i>str</i>, and $<i>fmt</i>
defaults to Y-m-d H:i:s if not defined. </p>

<p><b>UnixDate<a name=unixdate></a>($str)</b></p>

<p>Parses the date string $<b>str</b> and returns it in unix mktime format (eg.
a number indicating the seconds after January 1st, 1970). Expects the date to
be in Y-m-d H:i:s format, except for Sybase and Microsoft SQL Server, where M d
Y is also accepted (the 3 letter month strings are controlled by a global
array, which might need localisation).</p>

<p>This function is available in both ADORecordSet and ADOConnection since
1.91.</p>

<p><b>UnixTimeStamp<a name=unixtimestamp></a>($str)</b></p>

<p>Parses the timestamp string $<b>str</b> and returns it in unix mktime format
(eg. a number indicating the seconds after January 1st, 1970). Expects the date
to be in &quot;Y-m-d, H:i:s&quot; (1970-12-24, 00:00:00) or &quot;Y-m-d
H:i:s&quot; (1970-12-24 00:00:00) or &quot;YmdHis&quot; (19701225000000)
format, except for Sybase and Microsoft SQL Server, where &quot;M d Y
h:i:sA&quot; (Dec 25 1970 00:00:00AM) is also accepted (the 3 letter month
strings are controlled by a global array, which might need localisation).</p>

<p>This function is available in both ADORecordSet and ADOConnection since
1.91. </p>

<p><b>OffsetDate<a name=OffsetDate></a>($dayFraction, $basedate=false)</b></p>

<p>Returns a string with the native SQL functions to calculate future and past
dates based on $basedate in a portable fashion. If $basedate is not defined,
then the current date (at 12 midnight) is used. Returns the SQL string that
performs the calculation when passed to Execute(). </p>

<p>For example, in Oracle, to find the date and time that is 2.5 days from
today, you can use:</p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre
style='background:#EEEEEE'># get date one week from now<br>
$fld = $conn-&gt;OffsetDate(7); // returns &quot;(trunc(sysdate)+7&quot;)</pre><pre># get date and time that is 60 hours from current date and time<br>
$fld = $conn-&gt;OffsetDate(2.5, $conn-&gt;sysTimeStamp);<span
style='mso-tab-count:1'> </span>// returns &quot;(sysdate+2.5)&quot;<br>
<br>
$conn-&gt;Execute(&quot;UPDATE TABLE SET dodate=$fld WHERE ID=$id&quot;);</pre></div>

<p>This function is available for mysql, mssql, oracle, oci8 and postgresql
drivers since 2.13. It might work with other drivers provided they allow
performing numeric day arithmetic on dates.</p>

<p><b>SQLDate<a name=sqldate></a>($dateFormat, $basedate=false)</b></p>

<p class=MsoNormal>Returns a string which contains the native SQL functions to
format a date or date column $basedate. This is used when retrieving date
columns in SELECT statements. For sending dates to the database (eg. in UPDATE,
INSERT or the where clause of SELECT statements) use <a href="#dbdate">DBDate</a>.
It uses a case-sensitive $dateFormat, which supports: </p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span></pre><pre><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>Y: 4-digit Year</pre><pre><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>Q: Quarter (1-4)</pre><pre><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>M: Month (Jan-Dec)</pre><pre><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>m: Month (01-12)</pre><pre><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>d: Day (01-31)</pre><pre><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>H: Hour (00-23)</pre><pre><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>h: Hour (1-12)</pre><pre><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>i: Minute (00-59)</pre><pre><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>s: Second (00-60)</pre><pre><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>A: AM/PM indicator</pre><pre><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>w: day of week (0-6 or 1-7 depending on DB)</pre><pre><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>l: day of week (as string - lowercase L)</pre><pre><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>W: week in year (0..53 for MySQL, 1..53 for PostgreSQL and Oracle)</pre><pre
style='background:#EEEEEE'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span></pre></div>

<p>All other characters are treated as strings. You can also use \ to escape
characters. Available on selected databases, including mysql, postgresql,
mssql, oci8 and DB2. </p>

<p>This is useful in writing portable sql statements that GROUP BY on dates.
For example to display total cost of goods sold broken by quarter (dates are
stored in a field called postdate): </p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre
style='background:#EEEEEE'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>$sqlfn = $db-&gt;SQLDate('Y-\QQ','postdate'); # get sql that formats postdate to output 2002-Q1<br>
<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>$sql = &quot;SELECT $sqlfn,SUM(cogs) FROM table GROUP BY $sqlfn ORDER BY 1 desc&quot;;<br>
<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span></pre></div>

<p><b>MoveNext<a name=movenext></a>( )</b></p>

<p>Move the internal cursor to the next row. The <i>$this-&gt;fields</i> array
is automatically updated. Returns false if unable to do so (normally because
EOF has been reached), otherwise true. </p>

<p>If EOF is reached, then the $this-&gt;fields array is set to false (this was
only implemented consistently in ADOdb 3.30). For the pre-3.30 behaviour of
$this-&gt;fields (at EOF), set the global variable $ADODB_COMPAT_FETCH = true.</p>

<p>Example:</p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre
style='background:#EEEEEE'>$rs = $db-&gt;Execute($sql);<br>
if ($rs) <br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>while (!$rs-&gt;EOF) {<br>
<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span><span style='mso-tab-count:2'>                </span>ProcessArray($rs-&gt;fields);<span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span><br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:2'>                 </span>$rs-&gt;MoveNext();<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>} </pre></div>

<p><b>Move<a name=move></a>($to)</b></p>

<p>Moves the internal cursor to a specific row $<b>to</b>. Rows are zero-based
eg. 0 is the first row. The <b>fields</b> array is automatically updated. For
databases that do not support scrolling internally, ADOdb will simulate forward
scrolling. Some databases do not support backward scrolling. If the $<b>to</b>
position is after the EOF, $<b>to</b> will move to the end of the RecordSet for
most databases. Some obscure databases using odbc might not behave this way.</p>

<p>Note: This function uses <i>absolute positioning</i>, unlike Microsoft's
ADO.</p>

<p>Returns true or false. If false, the internal cursor is not moved in most
implementations, so AbsolutePosition( ) will return the last cursor position
before the Move( ). </p>

<p><b>MoveFirst<a name=movefirst></a>()</b></p>

<p>Internally calls Move(0). Note that some databases do not support this function.</p>

<p><b>MoveLast<a name=movelast></a>()</b></p>

<p>Internally calls Move(RecordCount()-1). Note that some databases do not
support this function.</p>

<p><b>GetRowAssoc</b><a name=getrowassoc></a>($toUpper=true)</p>

<p>Returns an associative array containing the current row. The keys to the
array are the column names. The column names are upper-cased for easy access.
To get the next row, you will still need to call MoveNext(). </p>

<p>For example:<br>
Array ( [ID] =&gt; 1 [FIRSTNAME] =&gt; Caroline [LASTNAME] =&gt; Miranda
[CREATED] =&gt; 2001-07-05 ) </p>

<p>Note: do not use GetRowAssoc() with $ADODB_FETCH_MODE = ADODB_FETCH_ASSOC.
Because they have the same functionality, they will interfere with each other.</p>

<p><b>AbsolutePage<a name=absolutepage></a>($page=-1) </b></p>

<p>Returns the current page. Requires PageExecute()/CachePageExecute() to be
called. See <a href="#ex8">Example 8</a>.</p>

<p><b>AtFirstPage<a name=atfirstpage>($status='')</a></b><span
style='mso-bookmark:atfirstpage'></span></p>

<p>Returns true if at first page (1-based). Requires
PageExecute()/CachePageExecute() to be called. See <a href="#ex8">Example 8</a>.</p>

<p><b>AtLastPage<a name=atlastpage>($status='')</a></b><span style='mso-bookmark:
atlastpage'></span></p>

<p>Returns true if at last page (1-based). Requires
PageExecute()/CachePageExecute() to be called. See <a href="#ex8">Example 8</a>.</p>

<p><b>Fields</b><a name=fields></a>(<b>$colname</b>)</p>

<p>Returns the value of the associated column $<b>colname</b> for the current
row. The column name is case-insensitive.</p>

<p>This is a convenience function. For higher performance, use <a
href="#adodb_fetch_mode">$ADODB_FETCH_MODE</a>. </p>

<p><b>FetchRow</b><a name=fetchrow></a>()</p>

<p>Returns array containing current row, or false if EOF. FetchRow( )
internally moves to the next record after returning the current row. </p>

<p>Warning: Do not mix using FetchRow() with MoveNext().</p>

<p>Usage:</p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre
style='background:#EEEEEE'>$rs = $db-&gt;Execute($sql);<br>
if ($rs)<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>while ($arr = $rs-&gt;FetchRow()) {<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>   </span>&nbsp;&nbsp;# process $arr<span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>       </span><br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>}</pre></div>

<p><b>FetchInto</b><a name=fetchinto></a>(<b>&amp;$array</b>)</p>

<p>Sets $array to the current row. Returns PEAR_Error object if EOF, 1 if ok
(DB_OK constant). If PEAR is undefined, false is returned when EOF. FetchInto(
) internally moves to the next record after returning the current row. </p>

<p>FetchRow() is easier to use. See above.</p>

<p><b>FetchField<a name=fetchfield></a>($column_number)</b></p>

<p>Returns an object containing the <b>name</b>, <b>type</b> and <b>max_length</b>
of the associated field. If the max_length cannot be determined reliably, it
will be set to -1. The column numbers are zero-based. See <a href="#ex2">example
2.</a></p>

<p><b>FieldCount<a name=fieldcount></a>( )</b></p>

<p>Returns the number of fields (columns) in the record set.</p>

<p><b>RecordCount<a name=recordcount></a>( )</b></p>

<p>Returns the number of rows in the record set. If the number of records
returned cannot be determined from the database driver API, we will buffer all
rows and return a count of the rows after all the records have been retrieved.
This buffering can be disabled (for performance reasons) by setting the global
variable $ADODB_COUNTRECS = false. When disabled, RecordCount( ) will return -1
for certain databases. See the supported databases list above for more details.
</p>

<p>RowCount is a synonym for RecordCount.</p>

<p><b>PO_RecordCount<a name="po_recordcount"></a>($table, $where)</b></p>

<p>Returns the number of rows in the record set. If the database does not
support this, it will perform a SELECT COUNT(*) on the table $table, with the
given $where condition to return an estimate of the recordset size.</p>

<p>$numrows = $rs-&gt;PO_RecordCount(&quot;articles_table&quot;,
&quot;group=$group&quot;);</p>

<p class=MsoNormal><b>NextRecordSet<a name=nextrecordset id=nextrecordset></a>()</b>
</p>

<p>For databases that allow multiple recordsets to be returned in one query,
this function allows you to switch to the next recordset. Currently only
supported by mssql driver.</p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre
style='background:#EEEEEE'>$rs = $db-&gt;Execute('execute return_multiple_rs');<br>
$arr1 = $rs-&gt;GetArray();<br>
$rs-&gt;NextRecordSet();<br>
$arr2 = $rs-&gt;GetArray();</pre></div>

<p><b>FetchObject<a name=fetchobject></a>($toupper=true)</b></p>

<p>Returns the current row as an object. If you set $toupper to true, then the
object fields are set to upper-case. Note: The newer FetchNextObject() is the
recommended way of accessing rows as objects. See below.</p>

<p><b>FetchNextObject<a name=fetchnextobject></a>($toupper=true)</b></p>

<p>Gets the current row as an object and moves to the next row automatically.
Returns false if at end-of-file. If you set $toupper to true, then the object
fields are set to upper-case. Note that for some drivers such as mssql, you
need to SetFetchMode(ADODB_FETCH_ASSOC) or SetFetchMode(ADODB_FETCH_BOTH).</p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre
style='background:#EEEEEE'>$rs = $db-&gt;Execute('select firstname,lastname from table');<br>
if ($rs) {<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>while ($o = $rs-&gt;FetchNextObject()) {<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:2'>                 </span>print &quot;$o-&gt;FIRSTNAME, $o-&gt;LASTNAME&lt;BR&gt;&quot;;<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>}<br>
}</pre></div>

<p>There is some trade-off in speed in using FetchNextObject(). If performance
is important, you should access rows with the <code><span style='font-size:
10.0pt'>fields[]</span></code> array. <b>FetchObj<a name=fetchobj id=fetchobj></a>()</b>
</p>

<p>Returns the current record as an object. Fields are not upper-cased, unlike
FetchObject. </p>

<p><b>FetchNextObj<a name=fetchnextobj id=fetchnextobj></a>()</b> </p>

<p>Returns the current record as an object and moves to the next record. If
EOF, false is returned. Fields are not upper-cased, unlike FetctNextObject. </p>

<p><b>CurrentRow<a name=currentrow></a>( )</b></p>

<p>Returns the current row of the record set. 0 is the first row.</p>

<p><b>AbsolutePosition<a name=abspos></a>( )</b></p>

<p>Synonym for <b>CurrentRow</b> for compatibility with ADO. Returns the
current row of the record set. 0 is the first row.</p>

<p><b>MetaType<a name=metatype></a>($nativeDBType[,$field_max_length],[$fieldobj])</b></p>

<p>Determine what <i>generic</i> meta type a database field type is given its
native type $<b>nativeDBType</b> as a string and the length of the field $<b>field_max_length</b>.
Note that field_max_length can be -1 if it is not known. The field object
returned by FetchField() can be passed in $<b>fieldobj</b> or as the 1st
parameter <b>$nativeDBType</b>. This is useful for databases such as <i>mysql</i>
which has additional properties in the field object such as <i>primary_key</i>.
</p>

<p>Uses the field <b>blobSize</b> and compares it with $<b>field_max_length</b>
to determine whether the character field is actually a blob.</p>

<p class=MsoNormal>For example, $db-&gt;MetaType('char') will return 'C'. </p>

<p>Returns:</p>

<ul type=disc>
 <li class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto;
     mso-list:l7 level1 lfo11;tab-stops:list 36.0pt'><b>C</b>: Character fields
     that should be shown in a &lt;input type=&quot;text&quot;&gt; tag. </li>
 <li class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto;
     mso-list:l7 level1 lfo11;tab-stops:list 36.0pt'><b>X</b>: Clob (character
     large objects), or large text fields that should be shown in a
     &lt;textarea&gt;</li>
 <li class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto;
     mso-list:l7 level1 lfo11;tab-stops:list 36.0pt'><b>D</b>: Date field</li>
 <li class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto;
     mso-list:l7 level1 lfo11;tab-stops:list 36.0pt'><b>T</b>: Timestamp field</li>
 <li class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto;
     mso-list:l7 level1 lfo11;tab-stops:list 36.0pt'><b>L</b>: Logical field
     (boolean or bit-field)</li>
 <li class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto;
     mso-list:l7 level1 lfo11;tab-stops:list 36.0pt'><b>N</b>: Numeric field.
     Includes decimal, numeric, floating point, and real. </li>
 <li class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto;
     mso-list:l7 level1 lfo11;tab-stops:list 36.0pt'><b>I</b>:&nbsp; Integer
     field. </li>
 <li class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto;
     mso-list:l7 level1 lfo11;tab-stops:list 36.0pt'><b>R</b>: Counter or
     Autoincrement field. Must be numeric.</li>
 <li class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto;
     mso-list:l7 level1 lfo11;tab-stops:list 36.0pt'><b>B</b>: Blob, or binary
     large objects. </li>
</ul>

<p>Since ADOdb 3.0, MetaType accepts $fieldobj as the first parameter, instead
of $nativeDBType. </p>

<p><b>Close( )</b><a name=rsclose></a></p>

<p>Closes the recordset, cleaning all memory and resources associated with the
recordset. </p>

<p>If memory management is not an issue, you do not need to call this function
as recordsets are closed for you by PHP at the end of the script. SQL
statements such as INSERT/UPDATE/DELETE do not really return a recordset, so you
do not have to call Close() for such SQL statements.</p>

<div class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'>

<hr size=2 width="100%" align=center>

</div>

<h3>function rs2html<a name=rs2html></a>($adorecordset,[$tableheader_attributes],
[$col_titles])</h3>

<p>This is a standalone function (rs2html = recordset to html) that is similar
to PHP's <i>odbc_result_all</i> function, it prints a ADORecordSet, $<b>adorecordset</b>
as a HTML table. $<b>tableheader_attributes</b> allow you to control the table <i>cellpadding</i>,
<i>cellspacing</i> and <i>border</i> attributes. Lastly you can replace the
database column names with your own column titles with the array $<b>col_titles</b>.
This is designed more as a quick debugging mechanism, not a production table
recordset viewer.</p>

<p>You will need to include the file <i>tohtml.inc.php</i>.</p>

<p>Example of rs2html:<a name=exrs2html></a></p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre
style='background:#EEEEEE'><b><span style='color:#336600'>&lt;?<br>
include('tohtml.inc.php')</span></b>; # load code common to ADOdb <br>
<b>include</b>('adodb.inc.php'); # load code common to ADOdb <br>
$<span style='color:#663300'>conn</span> = &amp;ADONewConnection('mysql');<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>   </span># create a connection <br>
$<span style='color:#663300'>conn</span>-&gt;PConnect('localhost','userid','','agora');# connect to MySQL, agora db<br>
$<span style='color:#663300'>sql</span> = 'select CustomerName, CustomerID from customers'; <br>
$<span style='color:#663300'>rs</span><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>   </span>= $<span
style='color:#663300'>conn</span>-&gt;Execute($sql); <br>
<b><span style='color:#336600'>rs2html</span>($</b><b><span style='color:#663300'>rs</span>,'<i>border=2 cellpadding=3</i>',array('<i>Customer Name','Customer ID</i>'));<br>
?&gt;</b></pre></div>

<div class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'>

<hr size=2 width="100%" align=center>

</div>

<h3>Differences between this ADOdb library and Microsoft ADO<a name=adodiff></a></h3>

<ol start=1 type=1>
 <li class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto;
     mso-list:l10 level1 lfo12;tab-stops:list 36.0pt'>ADOdb only supports
     recordsets created by a connection object. Recordsets cannot be created
     independently.</li>
 <li class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto;
     mso-list:l10 level1 lfo12;tab-stops:list 36.0pt'>ADO properties are implemented
     as functions in ADOdb. This makes it easier to implement any enhanced ADO
     functionality in the future.</li>
 <li class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto;
     mso-list:l10 level1 lfo12;tab-stops:list 36.0pt'>ADOdb's <span
     style='font-family:"Courier New"'>ADORecordSet-&gt;Move()</span> uses
     absolute positioning, not relative. Bookmarks are not supported.</li>
 <li class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto;
     mso-list:l10 level1 lfo12;tab-stops:list 36.0pt'><span style='font-family:
     "Courier New"'>ADORecordSet-&gt;AbsolutePosition() </span>cannot be used
     to move the record cursor.</li>
 <li class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto;
     mso-list:l10 level1 lfo12;tab-stops:list 36.0pt'>ADO Parameter objects are
     not supported. Instead we have the ADOConnection::<a href="#parameter">Parameter</a>(
     ) function, which provides a simpler interface for calling preparing
     parameters and calling stored procedures.</li>
 <li class=MsoNormal style='mso-margin-top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto;
     mso-list:l10 level1 lfo12;tab-stops:list 36.0pt'>Recordset properties for
     paging records are available, but implemented as in <a href="#ex8">Example
     8</a>.</li>
</ol>

<div class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'>

<hr size=2 width="100%" align=center>

</div>

<h1>Database Driver Guide<a name=driverguide></a></h1>

<p>This describes how to create a class to connect to a new database. To ensure
there is no duplication of work, kindly email me at jlim#natsoft.com if you
decide to create such a class.</p>

<p>First decide on a name in lower case to call the database type. Let's say we
call it xbase. </p>

<p>Then we need to create two classes ADODB_xbase and ADORecordSet_xbase in the
file adodb-xbase.inc.php.</p>

<p>The simplest form of database driver is an adaptation of an existing ODBC
driver. Then we just need to create the class <i>ADODB_xbase extends ADODB_odbc</i>
to support the new <b>date</b> and <b>timestamp</b> formats, the <b>concatenation</b>
operator used, <b>true</b> and <b>false</b>. For the<i> ADORecordSet_xbase
extends ADORecordSet_odbc </i>we need to change the <b>MetaType</b> function.
See<b> adodb-vfp.inc.php</b> as an example.</p>

<p>More complicated is a totally new database driver that connects to a new PHP
extension. Then you will need to implement several functions. Fortunately, you
do not have to modify most of the complex code. You only need to override a few
stub functions. See <b>adodb-mysql.inc.php</b> for example.</p>

<p>The default date format of ADOdb internally is YYYY-MM-DD (Ansi-92). All
dates should be converted to that format when passing to an ADOdb date
function. See Oracle for an example how we use ALTER SESSION to change the
default date format in _pconnect _connect.</p>

<p><b>ADOConnection Functions to Override</b></p>

<p>Defining a constructor for your ADOConnection derived function is optional.
There is no need to call the base class constructor.</p>

<p>_<b>connect</b>: Low level implementation of Connect. Returns true or false.
Should set the _<b>connectionID</b>.</p>

<p>_<b>pconnect:</b> Low level implemention of PConnect. Returns true or false.
Should set the _<b>connectionID</b>.</p>

<p>_<b>query</b>: Execute a query. Returns the queryID, or false.</p>

<p>_<b>close: </b>Close the connection -- PHP should clean up all recordsets. </p>

<p><b>ErrorMsg</b>: Stores the error message in the private variable _errorMsg.
</p>

<p><b>ADOConnection Fields to Set</b></p>

<p>_<b>bindInputArray</b>: Set to true if binding of parameters for SQL inserts
and updates is allowed using ?, eg. as with ODBC.</p>

<p><b>fmtDate</b></p>

<p><b>fmtTimeStamp</b></p>

<p><b>true</b></p>

<p><b>false</b></p>

<p><b>concat_operator</b></p>

<p><b>replaceQuote</b></p>

<p><b>hasLimit</b> support SELECT * FROM TABLE LIMIT 10 of MySQL.</p>

<p><b>hasTop</b> support Microsoft style SELECT TOP 10 * FROM TABLE.</p>

<p><b>ADORecordSet Functions to Override</b></p>

<p>You will need to define a constructor for your ADORecordSet derived class
that calls the parent class constructor.</p>

<p><b>FetchField: </b>as documented above in ADORecordSet</p>

<p>_<b>initrs</b>: low level initialization of the recordset: setup the _<b>numOfRows</b>
and _<b>numOfFields</b> fields -- called by the constructor.</p>

<p>_<b>seek</b>: seek to a particular row. Do not load the data into the fields
array. This is done by _fetch. Returns true or false. Note that some
implementations such as Interbase do not support seek. Set canSeek to false.</p>

<p>_<b>fetch</b>: fetch a row using the database extension function and then
move to the next row. Sets the <b>fields</b> array. If the parameter
$ignore_fields is true then there is no need to populate the <b>fields</b>
array, just move to the next row. then Returns true or false.</p>

<p>_<b>close</b>: close the recordset</p>

<p><b>Fields</b>: If the array row returned by the PHP extension is not an
associative one, you will have to override this. See adodb-odbc.inc.php for an
example. For databases such as MySQL and MSSQL where an associative array is
returned, there is no need to override this function.</p>

<p><b>ADOConnection Fields to Set</b></p>

<p>canSeek: Set to true if the _seek function works.</p>

<h2>Optimizing PHP</h2>

<p class=MsoNormal>For info on tuning PHP, read this article on <a
href="http://phplens.com/lens/php-book/optimizing-debugging-php.php">Optimizing
PHP</a>. </p>

<h2>Change Log<a name=changes></a><a name=changelog></a></h2>
<p><a name=5.10></a><b>5.10 10 Nov 2009</b> </p>
<p>Fixed memcache to properly support $rs->timeCreated.
<p>adodb-ado.inc.php: Added BigInt support for PHP5. Will return float instead to support large numbers. Thx nasb#mail.goo.ne.jp.
<p>adodb-mysqli.inc.php: mysqli_multi_query is now turned off by default. To turn it on, use $conn->multiQuery = true; This is because of the risks of sql injection. See http://phplens.com/lens/lensforum/msgs.php?id=18144
<p>New db2oci driver for db2 9.7 when using PL/SQL mode. Allows oracle style :0, :1, :2 bind parameters which are remapped to ? ? ?.
<p>adodb-db2.inc.php: fixed bugs in MetaTables. SYS owner field not checked properly. Also in $conn->Connect($dsn, null, null, $schema) and PConnect($dsn, null, null, $schema), we do a SET SCHEMA=$schema if successful connection.
<p>adodb-mysqli.inc.php: Now $rs->Close() closes all pending next resultsets. Thx Clifton mesmackgod#gmail.com
<p>Moved _CreateCache() from PConnect()/Connect() to CacheExecute(). Suggested by Dumka.
<p>Many bug fixes to adodb-pdo_sqlite.inc.php and new datadict-sqlite.inc.php. Thx Andrei B. [andreutz#mymail.ro]
<p>Removed usage of split (deprecated in php 5.3). Thx david#horizon-nigh.org.
<p>Fixed RowLock() parameters to comply with PHP5 strict mode in multiple drivers.
<p><a name=5.09></a><b>5.09 25 June 2009</b> </p>
<p>Active Record: You can force column names to be quoted in INSERT and UPDATE statements, typically because you are using reserved words as column names by setting
ADODB_Active_Record::$_quoteNames = true;
<p>Added memcache and cachesecs to DSN. e.g.
<pre>
	# we have a memcache servers mem1,mem2 on port 8888, compression=off and cachesecs=120
	$dsn = 'mysql://user:hide@address.com/mydb?memcache=mem1,mem2:8888:0&cachesecs=120';
</pre>
<p>Fixed up MetaColumns and MetaPrimaryIndexes() for php 5.3 compat. Thx http://adodb.pastebin.com/m52082b16
<p>The postgresql driver's OffsetDate() apparently does not work with postgres 8.3. Fixed.
<p>Added support for magic_quotes_sybase in qstr() and addq(). Thanks Eloy and Sam Moffat.
<p>The oci8 driver did not handle LOBs properly when binding. Fixed. See http://phplens.com/lens/lensforum/msgs.php?id=17991.
<p>Datadict: In order to support TIMESTAMP with subsecond accuracy, added to datadict the new TS type. Supported by mssql, postgresql and oci8 (oracle).
Also changed oci8 $conn->sysTimeStamp to use 'SYSTIMESTAMP' instead of 'SYSDATE'. Should be backwards compat.
<p>Added support for PHP 5.1+ DateTime objects in DBDate and DBTimeStamp. This means that dates and timestamps will be managed by DateTime objects if you are running PHP 5.1+.
<p>Added new property to postgres64 driver to support returning I if type is unique int called $db->uniqueIisR, defaulting to true. See http://phplens.com/lens/lensforum/msgs.php?id=17963
<p>Added support for bindarray in adodb_GetActiveRecordsClass with SelectLimit in adodb-active-record.inc.php.
<p>Transactions now allowed in ado_access driver. Thx to  petar.petrov.georgiev#gmail.com.
<p>Sessions2 garbage collection is now much more robust. We perform ORDER BY to prevent deadlock in adodb-sessions2.inc.php.
<p>Fixed typo in pdo_sqlite driver.
<p><a name=5.08a></a><b>5.08a 17 Apr 2009</b> </p>
<p>Fixes wrong version number string.
<p>Incorrect + in adodb-datadict.inc.php removed.
<p>Fixes missing OffsetDate() function in pdo. Thx paul#mantisforge.org. 
<p><a name=5.08></a><b>5.08 17 Apr 2009</b> </p>
<p>adodb-sybase.inc.php driver. Added $conn->charSet support. Thx Luis Henrique Mulinari (luis.mulinari#gmail.com)
<p>adodb-ado5.inc.php. Fixed some bind param issues. Thx Jirka Novak. 
<p>adodb-ado5.inc.php. Now has improved error handling.
<p>Fixed typo in adodb-xmlschema03.inc.php. See XMLS_EXISTING_DATA, line 1501. Thx james johnson.
<p>Made $inputarr optional for _query() in all drivers.
<p>Fixed spelling mistake in flushall() in adodb.inc.ophp.
<p>Fixed handling of quotes in adodb_active_record::doquote. Thx Jonathan Hohle (jhohle#godaddy.com).
<p>Added new index parameter to adodb_active_record::setdatabaseadaptor. Thx Jonathan Hohle
<p>Fixed & readcache() reference compat problem with php 5.3 in adodb.Thx Jonathan Hohle.
<p>Some minor $ADODB_CACHE_CLASS definition issues in adodb.inc.php.
<p>Added Reset() function to adodb_active_record. Thx marcus.
<p>Minor dsn fix for pdo_sqlite in adodb.inc.php. Thx Sergey Chvalyuk.
<p>Fixed adodb-datadict _CreateSuffix() inconsistencies. Thx Chris Miller.
<p>Option to delete old fields $dropOldFlds in datadict ChangeTableSQL($table, $flds, $tableOptions, $dropOldFlds=false) added. Thx  Philipp Niethammer.
<p>Memcache caching did not expire properly. Fixed.
<p>MetaForeignKeys for postgres7 driver changed from adodb_movenext to $rs->MoveNext (also in 4.99)
<p>Added support for ldap and ldaps url format in ldap driver. E.g. ldap://host:port/dn?attributes?scope?filter?extensions
<p><a name=5.07></a><b>5.07 26 Dec 2008</b> </p>

<p>BeginTrans/CommitTrans/RollbackTrans return true/false correctly on
success/failure now for mssql, odbc, oci8, mysqlt, mysqli, postgres, pdo. </p>

<p>Replace() now quotes all non-null values including numeric ones. </p>

<p>Postgresql qstr() now returns booleans as <b>true</b> and <b>false</b>
without quotes. </p>

<p>MetaForeignKeys in mysql and mysqli drivers had this problem: A table can
have two foreign keys pointing to the same column in the same table. The
original code will incorrectly report only the last column. Fixed.
https://sourceforge.net/tracker/index.php?func=detail&amp;aid=2287278&amp;group_id=42718&amp;atid=433976
</p>

<p>Passing in full ado connection string in $argHostname with ado drivers was
failing in adodb5 due to bug. Fixed. </p>

<p>Fixed memcachelib flushcache and flushall bugs. Also fixed possible
timeCreated = 0 problem in readcache. (Also in adodb 4.992). Thanks AlexB_UK
(alexbarnes#hotmail.com). </p>

<p>Fixed a notice in adodb-sessions2.inc.php, in _conn(). Thx bober
m.derlukiewicz#rocktech.remove_me.pl; </p>

<p>ADOdb Active Record: Fixed some issues with incompatible fetch modes
(ADODB_FETCH_ASSOC) causing problems in UpdateActiveTable(). </p>

<p>ADOdb Active Record: Added support for functions that support predefining
one-to-many relationships:<br>
&nbsp; <i>ClassHasMany ClassBelongsTo TableHasMany TableBelongsTo
TableKeyHasMany TableKeyBelongsTo</i>. <br>
You can also define your child/parent class in these functions, instead of the
default ADODB_Active_Record. Thx Arialdo Martini &amp; Chris R for idea. </p>

<p>ADOdb Active Record: HasMany hardcoded primary key to &quot;id&quot;. Fixed.
</p>

<p>Many pdo and pdo-sqlite fixes from Sid Dunayer [sdunayer#interserv.com]. </p>

<p>CacheSelectLimit not working for mssql. Fixed. Thx AlexB. </p>

<p>The rs2html function did not display hours in timestamps correctly. Now 24hr
clock used.</p>

<p>Changed ereg* functions to use preg* functions as ereg* is deprecated in PHP 5.3. Modified sybase and postgresql drivers.</p>

<p><a name=5.06></a><b>5.06 16 Oct 2008</b> </p>

<p>Added driver adodb-pdo_sqlite.inc.php. Thanks Diogo Toscano
(diogo#scriptcase.net) for the code. </p>

<p>Added support for <a href="docs-active-record.htm#onetomany">one-to-many relationships</a>
with BelongsTo() and HasMany() in adodb_active_record. </p>

<p>Added BINARY type to mysql.inc.php (also in 4.991). </p>

<p>Added support for SelectLimit($sql,-1,100) in oci8. (also in 4.991). </p>

<p>New $conn-&gt;GetMedian($table, $field, $where='') to get median account no.
(also in 4.991) </p>

<p>The rs2html() function in tohtml.inc.php did not handle dates with ':' in it
properly. Fixed. (also in 4.991) </p>

<p>Added support for connecting to oci8 using $DB-&gt;Connect($ip, $user, $pwd,
&quot;SID=$sid&quot;); (also in 4.991) </p>

<p>Added mysql type 'VAR_STRING' to MetaType(). (also in 4.991) </p>

<p>The session and session2 code supports setfetchmode assoc properly now (also
in 4.991). </p>

<p>Added concat support to pdo. Thx Andrea Baron. </p>

<p>Changed db2 driver to use format &quot;Y-m-d H-i-s&quot; for datetime
instead of &quot;Y-m-d-H-i-s&quot; which was legacy from odbc_db2 conversion. </p>

<p>Removed vestigal break on adodb_tz_offset in adodb-time.inc.php. </p>

<p>MetaForeignKeys did not work for views in MySQL 5. Fixed. </p>

<p>Changed error handling in GetActiveRecordsClass. </p>

<p>Added better support for using existing driver when $ADODB_NEWCONNECTION
function returns false. </p>

<p>In _CreateSuffix in adodb-datadict.inc.php, adding unsigned variable for
mysql. </p>

<p>In adodb-xmlschema03.inc.php, changed addTableOpt to include db name. </p>

<p>If bytea blob in postgresql is null, empty string was formerly returned. Now
null is returned. </p>

<p>Changed db2 driver CreateSequence to support $start parameter. </p>

<p>rs2html() now does not add nbsp to end if length of string &gt; 0 </p>

<p>The oci8po FetchField() now only lowercases field names if ADODB_ASSOC_CASE
is set to 0. </p>

<p>New mssqlnative drivers for php. TQ Garrett Serack of M'soft. <a
href="http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/details.aspx?FamilyId=61BF87E0-D031-466B-B09A-6597C21A2E2A&amp;displaylang=en">Download</a>
mssqlnative extension. Note that this is still in beta. </p>

<p>Fixed bugs in memcache support. </p>

<p>You can now change the return value of GetOne if no records are found using
the global variable $ADODB_GETONE_EOF. The default is null. To change it back
to the pre-4.99/5.00 behaviour of false, set $ADODB_GETONE_EOF = false; </p>

<p>In Postgresql 8.2/8.3 MetaForeignkeys did not work. Fixed William Kolodny
William.Kolodny#gt-t.net </p>

<p><a name=5.05></a><b>4.990/5.05 11 Jul 2008</b> </p>

<p>Added support for multiple recordsets in mysqli &quot;Geisel Sierote&quot;
geisel#4up.com.br. See http://phplens.com/lens/lensforum/msgs.php?id=15917 </p>

<p>Malcolm Cook added new Reload() function to Active Record. See
http://phplens.com/lens/lensforum/msgs.php?id=17474 </p>

<p>Thanks Zoltan Monori [monzol#fotoprizma.hu] for bug fixes in iterator,
SelectLimit, GetRandRow, etc. </p>

<p>Under heavy loads, the performance monitor for oci8 disables Ixora views. </p>

<p>Fixed sybase driver SQLDate to use str_replace(). Also for adodb5, changed
sybase driver UnixDate and UnixTimeStamp calls to static. </p>

<p>Changed oci8 lob handler to use &amp; reference
$this-&gt;_refLOBs[$numlob]['VAR'] = &amp;$var. </p>

<p>We now strtolower the get_class() function in PEAR::isError() for php5
compat. </p>

<p>CacheExecute did not retrieve cache recordsets properly for 5.04 (worked in
4.98). Fixed. </p>

<p>New ADODB_Cache_File class for file caching defined in adodb.inc.php. </p>

<p>Farsi language file contribution by Peyman Hooshmandi Raad
(phooshmand#gmail.com) </p>

<p>New API for creating your custom caching class which is stored in
$ADODB_CACHE: </p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></pre><pre>include &quot;/path/to/adodb.inc.php&quot;;</pre><pre>$ADODB_CACHE_CLASS = 'MyCacheClass';</pre><pre><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></pre><pre>class MyCacheClass extends ADODB_Cache_File</pre><pre>{</pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>function writecache($filename, $contents,$debug=false){...}</pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>function &amp;readcache($filename, &amp;$err, $secs2cache, $rsClass){ ...}</pre><pre><span
style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span> :</pre><pre>}</pre><pre><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></pre><pre>$DB = NewADOConnection($driver);</pre><pre>$DB-&gt;Connect(...);<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>## MyCacheClass created here and stored in $ADODB_CACHE global variable.</pre><pre><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></pre><pre>$data = $rs-&gt;CacheGetOne($sql); ## MyCacheClass is used here for caching...</pre></div>

<p>Memcache supports multiple pooled hosts now. Only if none of the pooled
servers can be contacted will a connect error be generated. Usage example
below: </p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></pre><pre>$db = NewADOConnection($driver);</pre><pre>$db-&gt;memCache = true; /// should we use memCache instead of caching in files</pre><pre>$db-&gt;memCacheHost = array($ip1, $ip2, $ip3); /// $db-&gt;memCacheHost = $ip1; still works</pre><pre>$db-&gt;memCachePort = 11211; /// this is default memCache port</pre><pre>$db-&gt;memCacheCompress = false; /// Use 'true' to store the item compressed (uses zlib)</pre><pre><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></pre><pre>$db-&gt;Connect(...);</pre><pre>$db-&gt;CacheExecute($sql);</pre></div>

<p><a name=4.98></a><b>4.98/5.04 13 Feb 2008</b> </p>

<p>Fixed adodb_mktime problem which causes a performance bottleneck in $hrs. </p>

<p>Added mysqli support to adodb_getcount(). </p>

<p>Removed MYSQLI_TYPE_CHAR from MetaType(). </p>

<p><a name=4.97></a><b>4.97/5.03 22 Jan 2008</b> </p>

<p>Active Record: $ADODB_ASSOC_CASE=1 did not work properly. Fixed. </p>

<p>Modified Fields() in recordset class to support display null fields in
FetchNextObject(). </p>

<p>In ADOdb5, active record implementation, we now support column names with
spaces in them - we autoconvert the spaces to _ using __set(). Thx Daniel Cook.
http://phplens.com/lens/lensforum/msgs.php?id=17200 </p>

<p>Removed $arg3 from mysqli SelectLimit. See
http://phplens.com/lens/lensforum/msgs.php?id=16243. Thx Zsolt Szeberenyi. </p>

<p>Changed oci8 FetchField, which returns the max_length of BLOB/CLOB/NCLOB as
4000 (incorrectly) to -1. </p>

<p>CacheExecute would sometimes return an error on Windows if it was unable to
lock the cache file. This is harmless and has been changed to a warning that
can be ignored. Also adodb_write_file() code revised. </p>

<p>ADOdb perf code changed to only log sql if execution time &gt;= 0.05
seconds. New $ADODB_PERF_MIN variable holds min sql timing. Any SQL with timing
value below this and is not causing an error is not logged. </p>

<p>Also adodb_backtrace() now traces 1 level deeper as sometimes actual culprit
function is not displayed. </p>

<p>Fixed a group by problem with adodb_getcount() for db's which are not
postgres/oci8 based. </p>

<p>Changed mssql driver Parameter() from SQLCHAR to SQLVARCHAR: case 'string':
$type = SQLVARCHAR; break. </p>

<p>Problem with mssql driver in php5 (for adodb 5.03) because some functions
are not static. Fixed. </p>

<p><a name=4.96></a><b>4.96/5.02 24 Sept 2007</b> </p>

<p>ADOdb perf for oci8 now has non-table-locking code when clearing the sql.
Slower but better transparency. Added in 4.96a and 5.02a. </p>

<p>Fix adodb count optimisation. Preg_match did not work properly. Also rewrote
the ORDER BY stripping code in _adodb_getcount(), adodb-lib.inc.php. </p>

<p>SelectLimit for oci8 not optimal for large recordsets when offset=0. Changed
$nrows check. </p>

<p>Active record optimizations. Added support for assoc arrays in Set(). </p>

<p>Now GetOne returns null if EOF (no records found), and false if error
occurs. Use ErrorMsg()/ErrorNo() to get the error. </p>

<p>Also CacheGetRow and CacheGetCol will return false if error occurs, or empty
array() if EOF, just like GetRow and GetCol. </p>

<p>Datadict now allows changing of types which are not resizable, eg. VARCHAR
to TEXT in ChangeTableSQL. -- Mateo Tibaquirá </p>

<p>Added BIT data type support to adodb-ado.inc.php and adodb-ado5.inc.php. </p>

<p>Ldap driver did not return actual ldap error messages. Fixed. </p>

<p>Implemented GetRandRow($sql, $inputarr). Optimized for Oci8. </p>

<p>Changed adodb5 active record to use static SetDatabaseAdapter() and removed
php4 constructor. Bas van Beek bas.vanbeek#gmail.com. </p>

<p>Also in adodb5, changed adodb-session2 to use static function declarations
in class. Thx Daniel <st1:State w:st="on"><st1:place w:st="on">Berlin</st1:place></st1:State>.
</p>

<p>Added &quot;Clear SQL Log&quot; to bottom of Performance screen. </p>

<p>Sessions2 code echo'ed directly to the screen in debug mode. Now uses
ADOConnection::outp(). </p>

<p>In mysql/mysqli, qstr(null) will return the string &quot;null&quot; instead
of empty quoted string &quot;''&quot;. </p>

<p>postgresql optimizeTable in perf-postgres.inc.php added by Daniel Berlin
(mail#daniel-berlin.de) </p>

<p>Added 5.2.1 compat code for oci8. </p>

<p>Changed @@identity to SCOPE_IDENTITY() for multiple mssql drivers. Thx
Stefano Nari. </p>

<p>Code sanitization introduced in 4.95 caused problems in European locales (as
float 3.2 was typecast to 3,2). Now we only sanitize if is_numeric fails. </p>

<p>Added support for customizing ADORecordset_empty using
$this-&gt;rsPrefix.'empty'. By Josh Truwin. </p>

<p>Added proper support for ALterColumnSQL for Postgresql in datadict code.
Thx. Josh Truwin. </p>

<p>Added better support for MetaType() in mysqli when using an array recordset.
</p>

<p>Changed parser for pgsql error messages in adodb-error.inc.php to
case-insensitive regex. </p>

<p><a name=4.95></a><b>4.95/5.01 17 May 2007</b> </p>

<p>CacheFlush debug outp() passed in invalid parameters. Fixed. </p>

<p>Added Thai language file for adodb. Thx Trirat Petchsingh rosskouk#gmail.com
and Marcos Pont</p>

<p>Added zerofill checking support to MetaColumns for mysql and mysqli. </p>

<p>CacheFlush no longer deletes all files/directories. Only *.cache files
deleted.</p>

<p>DB2 timestamp format changed to var $fmtTimeStamp =
&quot;'Y-m-d-H:i:s'&quot;;</p>

<p>Added some code sanitization to AutoExecute in adodb-lib.inc.php.</p>

<p>Due to typo, all connections in adodb-oracle.inc.php would become
persistent, even non-persistent ones. Fixed.</p>

<p>Oci8 DBTimeStamp uses 24 hour time for input now, so you can perform string
comparisons between 2 DBTimeStamp values.</p>

<p>Some PHP4.4 compat issues fixed in adodb-session2.inc.php</p>

<p>For ADOdb 5.01, fixed some adodb-datadict.inc.php MetaType compat issues
with PHP5. </p>

<p>The $argHostname was wiped out in adodb-ado5.inc.php. Fixed. </p>

<p>Adodb5 version, added iterator support for adodb_recordset_empty. </p>

<p>Adodb5 version,more error checking code now will use exceptions if
available. </p>

<p><a name=4.94></a><b>4.94 23 Jan 2007</b> </p>

<p>Active Record: $ADODB_ASSOC_CASE=2 did not work properly. Fixed. Thx
gmane#auxbuss.com. </p>

<p>mysqli had bugs in BeginTrans() and EndTrans(). Fixed.</p>

<p>Improved error handling when no database is connected for oci8. Thx Andy
Hassall.</p>

<p>Names longer than 30 chars in oci8 datadict will be changed to random name.
Thx Eugenio. http://phplens.com/lens/lensforum/msgs.php?id=16182 </p>

<p>Added var $upperCase = 'ucase' to access and ado_access drivers. Thx Renato
De Giovanni renato#cria.org.br</p>

<p>Postgres64 driver, if preparing plan failed in _query, did not handle error
properly. Fixed. See http://phplens.com/lens/lensforum/msgs.php?id=16131. </p>

<p>Fixed GetActiveRecordsClass() reference bug. See
http://phplens.com/lens/lensforum/msgs.php?id=16120 </p>

<p>Added handling of nulls in adodb-ado_mssql.inc.php for qstr(). Thx to Felix
Rabinovich. </p>

<p>Adodb-dict contributions by Gaetano: <br>
+ Support for INDEX in data-dict. Example: idx_ev1. The ability to define
indexes using the INDEX keyword was added in ADOdb 4.94. The following example
features mutiple indexes, including a compound index idx_ev1. </p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></pre><pre><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>event_id I(11) NOTNULL AUTOINCREMENT PRIMARY,</pre><pre><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>event_type I(4) NOTNULL<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><b>INDEX idx_evt</b>,</pre><pre><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>event_start_date T DEFAULT NULL <b>INDEX id_esd</b>,</pre><pre><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>event_end_date T DEFAULT '0000-00-00 00:00:00' <b>INDEX id_eted</b>,</pre><pre><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>event_parent I(11) UNSIGNED NOTNULL DEFAULT 0 <b>INDEX id_evp</b>,</pre><pre><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>event_owner I(11) DEFAULT 0 <b>INDEX idx_ev1</b>,</pre><pre><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>event_project I(11) DEFAULT 0 <b>INDEX idx_ev1</b>,</pre><pre><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>event_times_recuring I(11) UNSIGNED NOTNULL DEFAULT 0,</pre><pre><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>event_icon C(20) DEFAULT 'obj/event',</pre><pre><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>event_description X</pre></div>

<p class=MsoNormal><br>
+ Prevents the generated SQL from including double drop-sequence statements for
REPLACE case of tables with autoincrement columns (on those dbs that emulate it
via sequences) <br>
+ makes any date defined as DEFAULT value for D and T columns work
cross-database, not just the &quot;sysdate&quot; value (as long as it is
specified using adodb standard format). See above example. </p>

<p>Fixed pdo's GetInsertID() support. Thx Ricky Su. </p>

<p>oci8 Prepare() now sets error messages if an error occurs. </p>

<p>Added 'PT_BR' to SetDateLocale() -- brazilian portugese. </p>

<p>charset in oci8 was not set correctly on *Connect() </p>

<p>ADOConnection::Transpose() now appends as first column the field names. </p>

<p>Added $ADODB_QUOTE_FIELDNAMES. If set to true, will autoquote field names in
AutoExecute(),GetInsertSQL(), GetUpdateSQL(). </p>

<p>Transpose now adds the field names as the first column after transposition. </p>

<p>Added === check in ADODB_SetDatabaseAdapter for $db,
adodb-active-record.inc.php. Thx Christian Affolter. </p>

<p>Added ErrorNo() to adodb-active-record.inc.php. Thx ante#novisplet.com. </p>

<p><a name=4.93></a><b>4.93 10 Oct 2006</b> </p>

<p>Added support for multiple database connections in performance monitoring
code (adodb-perf.inc.php). Now all sql in multiple database connections can be
saved into one database ($ADODB_LOG_CONN). </p>

<p>Added MetaIndexes() to odbc_mssql. </p>

<p>Added connection property $db-&gt;null2null = 'null'. In
autoexecute/getinsertsql/getupdatesql, this value will be converted to a null.
Set this to a funny invalid value if you do not want null conversion. See
http://phplens.com/lens/lensforum/msgs.php?id=15902. </p>

<p>Path disclosure problem in mysqli fixed. Thx Andy. </p>

<p>Fixed typo in session_schema2.xml. </p>

<p>Changed INT in oci8 to return correct precision in $fld-&gt;max_length,
MetaColumns(). <st1:place w:st="on"><st1:PlaceName w:st="on">Thx</st1:PlaceName>
 <st1:PlaceName w:st="on">Eloy</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceName w:st="on">Lafuente</st1:PlaceName>
 <st1:PlaceType w:st="on">Plaza</st1:PlaceType></st1:place>. </p>

<p>Patched postgres64 _connect to handle serverinfo(). see http://phplens.com/lens/lensforum/msgs.php?id=15887.
</p>

<p>Added pdo fix for null columns. See
http://phplens.com/lens/lensforum/msgs.php?id=15889 </p>

<p>For stored procedures, missing connection id now passed into mssql_query().
Thx Ecsy (ecsy#freemail.hu). </p>

<p><a name=4.92a></a><b>4.92a 30 Aug 2006</b> </p>

<p>Syntax error in postgres7 driver. <st1:place w:st="on"><st1:PlaceName w:st="on">Thx</st1:PlaceName>
 <st1:PlaceName w:st="on">Eloy</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceName w:st="on">Lafuente</st1:PlaceName>
 <st1:PlaceType w:st="on">Plaza</st1:PlaceType></st1:place>. </p>

<p>Minor bug fixes - adodb informix 10 types added to adodb.inc.php. Thx
Fernando Ortiz. </p>

<p><a name=4.92></a><b>4.92 29 Aug 2006</b> </p>

<p>Better odbtp date support. </p>

<p>Added IgnoreErrors() to bypass default error handling. </p>

<p>The _adodb_getcount() function in adodb-lib.inc.php, some ORDER BY bug
fixes. </p>

<p>For ibase and firebird, set $sysTimeStamp = &quot;CURRENT_TIMESTAMP&quot;. </p>

<p>Fixed postgres connection bug:
http://phplens.com/lens/lensforum/msgs.php?id=11057. </p>

<p>Changed CacheSelectLimit() to flush cache when $secs2cache==-1 due to
complaints from other users. </p>

<p>Added support for using memcached with CacheExecute/CacheSelectLimit.
Requires memcache module PECL extension. Usage: </p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></pre><pre>$db = NewADOConnection($driver);</pre><pre>$db-&gt;memCache = true; /// should we use memCache instead of caching in files</pre><pre>$db-&gt;memCacheHost = &quot;126.0.1.1&quot;; /// memCache host</pre><pre>$db-&gt;memCachePort = 11211; /// this is default memCache port</pre><pre>$db-&gt;memCacheCompress = false; /// Use 'true' to store the item compressed (uses zlib)</pre><pre><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></pre><pre>$db-&gt;Connect(...);</pre><pre>$db-&gt;CacheExecute($sql);</pre></div>

<p>Implemented Transpose() for recordsets. Recordset must be retrieved using
ADODB_FETCH_NUM. First column becomes the column name. </p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></pre><pre>$DB = NewADOConnection('mysql');</pre><pre>$DB-&gt;Connect(...);</pre><pre>$DB-&gt;SetFetchMode(ADODB_FETCH_NUM);</pre><pre>$rs = $DB-&gt;Execute('select productname,productid,unitprice from products limit 10');</pre><pre>$rs2 = $DB-&gt;Transpose($rs);</pre><pre>rs2html($rs2);</pre></div>

<p><a name=4.91></a><b>4.91 2 Aug 2006</b> </p>

<p>Major session code rewrite .... See session docs. </p>

<p>PDO bindinputarray was not set properly for MySQL (changed from true to
false). </p>

<p>Changed CacheSelectLimit() to re-cache when $secs2cache==0. This is one way
to flush the cache when SelectLimit is called. </p>

<p>Added to quotes to mysql and mysqli: &quot;SHOW COLUMNS FROM `%s`&quot;; </p>

<p>Removed accidental optgroup handling in GetMenu(). Fixed ibase _BlobDecode
for php5 compat, and also mem alloc issues for small blobs, thx
salvatori#interia.pl </p>

<p>Mysql driver OffsetDate() speedup, useful for adodb-sessions. </p>

<p>Fix for GetAssoc() PHP5 compat. See
http://phplens.com/lens/lensforum/msgs.php?id=15425 </p>

<p>Active Record - If inserting a record and the value of a primary key field
is null, then we do not insert that field in as we assume it is an
auto-increment field. Needed by mssql. </p>

<p>Changed postgres7 MetaForeignKeys() see http://phplens.com/lens/lensforum/msgs.php?id=15531
</p>

<p>DB2 will now return db2_conn_errormsg() when it is a connection error. </p>

<p><a name=4.90></a><b>4.90 8 June 2006</b> </p>

<p>Changed adodb_countrec() in adodb-lib.inc.php to allow LIMIT to be used as a
speedup to reduce no of records counted. </p>

<p>Added support for transaction modes for postgres and oci8 with
SetTransactionMode(). These transaction modes affect all subsequent
transactions of that connection. </p>

<p>Thanks to Halmai Csongor for suggestion. </p>

<p>Removed $off = $fieldOffset - 1 line in db2 driver, FetchField(). Tx Larry
Menard. </p>

<p>Added support for PHP5 objects as Execute() bind parameters using __toString
(eg. Simple-XML). Thx Carl-Christian Salvesen. </p>

<p>Rounding in tohtml.inc.php did not work properly. Fixed. </p>

<p>MetaIndexes in postgres fails when fields are deleted then added in again
because the attnum has gaps in it. See
http://sourceforge.net/tracker/index.php?func=detail&amp;aid=1451245&amp;group_id=42718&amp;atid=433976.
Fixed. </p>

<p>MetaForeignkeys in mysql and mysqli did not work when
fetchMode==ADODB_FETCH_ASSOC used. Fixed. </p>

<p>Reference error in AutoExecute() fixed. </p>

<p>Added macaddr postgres type to MetaType. Maps to 'C'. </p>

<p>Added to _connect() in adodb-ado5.inc.php support for $database and
$dataProvider parameters. Thx Larry Menard. </p>

<p>Added support for sequences in adodb-ado_mssql.inc.php. Thx Larry Menard. </p>

<p>Added ADODB_SESSION_READONLY. </p>

<p>Added session expiryref support to crc32 mode, and in LOB code. </p>

<p>Clear _errorMsg in postgres7 driver, so that ErrorMsg() displays properly
when no error occurs. </p>

<p>Added BindDate and BindTimeStamp </p>

<p><a name=4.81></a><b>4.81 3 May 2006</b> </p>

<p>Fixed variable ref errors in adodb-ado5.inc.php in _query(). </p>

<p>Mysqli setcharset fix using method_exists(). </p>

<p>The adodb-perf.inc.php CreateLogTable() code now works for user-defined
table names. </p>

<p>Error in ibase_blob_open() fixed. See
http://phplens.com/lens/lensforum/msgs.php?id=14997 </p>

<p><a name=4.80></a><b>4.80 8 Mar 2006</b> </p>

<p>Added activerecord support. </p>

<p>Added mysql $conn-&gt;compat323 = true if you want MySQL 3.23 compat
enabled. Fixes GetOne() Select-Limit problems. </p>

<p>Added adodb-xmlschema03.inc.php to support XML Schema version 3 and updated
adodb-datadict.htm docs. </p>

<p>Better memory management in Execute. Thx Mike Fedyk. </p>

<p><a name=4.72></a><b>4.72 21 Feb 2006</b> </p>

<p>Added 'new' DSN parameter for NConnect(). </p>

<p>Pager now sanitizes $PHP_SELF to protect against XSS. Thx to James Bercegay
and others. </p>

<p>ADOConnection::MetaType changed to setup $rs-&gt;connection correctly. </p>

<p>New native DB2 driver contributed by Larry Menard, Dan Scott, Andy
Staudacher, Bharat Mediratta. </p>

<p>The mssql CreateSequence() did not BEGIN TRANSACTION correctly. Fixed. Thx
Sean Lee. </p>

<p>The _adodb_countrecs() function in adodb-lib.inc.php has been revised to
handle more ORDER BY variations. </p>

<p><a name=4.71></a><b>4.71 24 Jan 2006</b> </p>

<p>Fixes postgresql security issue related to binary strings. Thx to Andy
Staudacher. </p>

<p>Several DSN bugs found: </p>

<p>1. Fix bugs in DSN connections introduced in 4.70 when underscores are found
in the DSN. </p>

<p>2. DSN with _ did not work properly in PHP5 (fine in PHP4). Fixed. </p>

<p>3. Added support for PDO DSN connections in NewADOConnection(), and database
parameter in PDO::Connect(). </p>

<p>The oci8 datetime flag not correctly implemented in ADORecordSet_array.
Fixed. </p>

<p>Added BlobDelete() to postgres, as a counterpoint to UpdateBlobFile(). </p>

<p>Fixed GetInsertSQL() to support oci8po. </p>

<p>Fixed qstr() issue with postgresql with \0 in strings. </p>

<p>Fixed some datadict driver loading issues in _adodb_getdriver(). </p>

<p>Added register shutdown function session_write_close in
adodb-session.inc.php for PHP 5 compat. See
http://phplens.com/lens/lensforum/msgs.php?id=14200. </p>

<p><a name=4.70></a><b>4.70 6 Jan 2006</b> </p>

<p>Many fixes from Danila Ulyanov to ibase, oci8, postgres, mssql, odbc_oracle,
odbtp, etc drivers. </p>

<p>Changed usage of binary hint in adodb-session.inc.php for mysql. See
http://phplens.com/lens/lensforum/msgs.php?id=14160 </p>

<p>Fixed invalid variable reference problem in undomq(), adodb-perf.inc.php. </p>

<p>Fixed http://phplens.com/lens/lensforum/msgs.php?id=14254 in
adodb-perf.inc.php, _DBParameter() settings of fetchmode was wrong. </p>

<p>Fixed security issues in server.php and tmssql.php discussed by Andreas
Sandblad in a Secunia security advisory. Added $ACCEPTIP = 127.0.0.1 and
changed suggested root password to something more secure. </p>

<p>Changed pager to close recordset after RenderLayout(). </p>

<p><a name=4.68></a><b>4.68 25 Nov 2005</b> </p>

<p>PHP 5 compat for mysqli. MetaForeignKeys repeated twice and
MYSQLI_BINARY_FLAG missing. </p>

<p>PHP 5.1 support for postgresql bind parameters using ? did not work if &gt;=
10 parameters. Fixed. Thx to Stanislav Shramko. </p>

<p>Lots of PDO improvements. </p>

<p>Spelling error fixed in mysql MetaForeignKeys, $associative parameter. </p>

<p><a name=4.67></a><b>4.67 16 Nov 2005</b> </p>

<p>Postgresql not_null flag not set to false correctly. Thx Cristian MARIN. </p>

<p>We now check in Replace() if key is in fieldArray. Thx Sébastien Vanvelthem.
</p>

<p>_file_get_contents() function was missing in xmlschema. fixed. </p>

<p>Added week in year support to SQLDate(), using 'W' flag. Thx Spider. </p>

<p>In sqlite metacolumns was repeated twice, causing PHP 5 problems. Fixed. </p>

<p>Made debug output XHTML compliant. </p>

<p><a name=4.66></a><b>4.66 28 Sept 2005</b> </p>

<p>ExecuteCursor() in oci8 did not clean up properly on failure. Fixed. </p>

<p>Updated xmlschema.dtd, by &quot;Alec Smecher&quot; asmecher#smecher.bc.ca </p>

<p>Hardened SelectLimit, typecasting nrows and offset to integer. </p>

<p>Fixed misc bugs in AutoExecute() and GetInsertSQL(). </p>

<p>Added $conn-&gt;database as the property holding the database name. The
older $conn-&gt;databaseName is retained for backward compat. </p>

<p>Changed _adodb_backtrace() compat check to use function_exists(). </p>

<p>Bug in postgresql MetaIndexes fixed. Thx Kevin Jamieson. </p>

<p>Improved OffsetDate for MySQL, reducing rounding error. </p>

<p>Metacolumns added to sqlite. Thx Mark Newnham. </p>

<p>PHP 4.4 compat fixes for GetAssoc(). </p>

<p>Added postgresql bind support for php 5.1. Thx Cristiano da Cunha Duarte </p>

<p>OffsetDate() fixes for postgresql, typecasting strings to date or timestamp.
</p>

<p>DBTimeStamp formats for mssql, odbc_mssql and postgresql made to conform
with other db's. </p>

<p>Changed PDO constants from PDO_ to PDO:: to support latest spec. </p>

<p><a name=4.65></a><b>4.65 22 July 2005</b> </p>

<p>Reverted 'X' in mssql datadict to 'TEXT' to be compat with mssql driver.
However now you can set $datadict-&gt;typeX = 'varchar(4000)' or 'TEXT' or
'CLOB' for mssql and oci8 drivers. </p>

<p>Added charset support when using DSN for Oracle. </p>

<p>_adodb_getmenu did not use fieldcount() to get number of fields. Fixed. </p>

<p>MetaForeignKeys() for mysql/mysqli contributed by Juan Carlos Gonzalez. </p>

<p>MetaDatabases() now correctly returns an array for mysqli driver. Thx
Cristian MARIN. </p>

<p>CompleteTrans(false) did not return false. Fixed. Thx to JMF. </p>

<p>AutoExecute() did not work with Oracle. Fixed. Thx José Moreira. </p>

<p>MetaType() added to connection object. </p>

<p>More PHP 4.4 reference return fixes. Thx Ryan C Bonham and others. </p>

<p><a name=4.64></a><b>4.64 20 June 2005</b> </p>

<p>In datadict, if the default field value is set to '', then it is not applied
when the field is created. Fixed by Eugenio. </p>

<p>MetaPrimaryKeys for postgres did not work because of true/false change in
4.63. Fixed. </p>

<p>Tested ocifetchstatement in oci8. Rejected at the end. </p>

<p>Added port to dsn handling. Supported in postgres, mysql, mysqli,ldap. </p>

<p>Added 'w' and 'l' to mysqli SQLDate(). </p>

<p>Fixed error handling in ldap _connect() to be more consistent. Also added
ErrorMsg() handling to ldap. </p>

<p>Added support for union in _adodb_getcount, adodb-lib.inc.php for postgres
and oci8. </p>

<p>rs2html() did not work with null dates properly. </p>

<p>PHP 4.4 reference return fixes. </p>

<p><a name=4.63></a><b>4.63 18 May 2005</b> </p>

<p>Added $nrows<0 check to mysqli's SelectLimit().
<p>Added OptimizeTable() and OptimizeTables() in adodb-perf.inc.php. By Markus Staab.
<p>PostgreSQL inconsistencies fixed. true and false set to TRUE and FALSE, and boolean type in datadict-postgres.inc.php set
to 'L' => 'BOOLEAN'. Thx Kevin Jamieson.
<p>New adodb_session_create_table() function in adodb-session.inc.php. By Markus Staab.
<p>Added null check to UserTimeStamp().
<p>Fixed typo in mysqlt driver in adorecordset. Thx to Andy Staudacher.
<p>GenID() had a bug in the raiseErrorFn handling. Fixed. Thx Marcos Pont.
<p>Datadict name quoting now handles ( ) in index fields correctly - they aren't part of the index field. ></p>

<p>Performance monitoring: (1) oci8 Ixora checks moved down; (2) expensive sql
changed so that only those sql with count(*)&gt;1 are shown; (3) changed sql1
field to a length+crc32 checksum - this breaks backward compat. </p>

<p>We remap firebird15 to firebird in data dictionary. </p>

<p><a name=4.62></a><b>4.62 2 Apr 2005</b> </p>

<p>Added 'w' (dow as 0-6 or 1-7) and 'l' (dow as string) for SQLDate for oci8,
postgres and mysql. </p>

<p>Rolled back MetaType() changes for mysqli done in prev version. </p>

<p>Datadict change by chris, cblin#tennaxia.com data mappings from: </p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></pre><pre>oci8:<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>X-&gt;varchar(4000) XL-&gt;CLOB</pre><pre>mssql: X-&gt;XL-&gt;TEXT</pre><pre>mysql: X-&gt;XL-&gt;LONGTEXT</pre><pre>fbird: X-&gt;XL-&gt;varchar(4000)</pre></div>

<p>to: </p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></pre><pre>oci8:<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span>X-&gt;varchar(4000) XL-&gt;CLOB</pre><pre>mssql: X-&gt;VARCHAR(4000) XL-&gt;TEXT</pre><pre>mysql: X-&gt;TEXT<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>          </span>XL-&gt;LONGTEXT</pre><pre>fbird: X-&gt;VARCHAR(4000) XL-&gt;VARCHAR(32000)</pre></div>

<p>Added $connection-&gt;disableBlobs to postgresql to improve performance when
no bytea is used (2-5% improvement). </p>

<p>Removed all HTTP_* vars. </p>

<p>Added $rs-&gt;tableName to be set before calling AutoExecute(). </p>

<p>Alex Rootoff rootoff#pisem.net contributed ukrainian language file. </p>

<p>Added new mysql_option() support using $conn-&gt;optionFlags array. </p>

<p>Added support for ldap_set_option() using the $LDAP_CONNECT_OPTIONS global
variable. Contributed by Josh Eldridge. </p>

<p>Added LDAP_* constant definitions to ldap. </p>

<p>Added support for boolean bind variables. We use $conn-&gt;false and
$conn-&gt;true to hold values to set false/true to. </p>

<p>We now do not close the session connection in adodb-session.inc.php as other
objects could be using this connection. </p>

<p>We now strip off \0 at end of Ixora SQL strings in $perf-&gt;tohtml() for
oci8. </p>

<p><a name=4.61></a><b>4.61 23 Feb 2005</b> </p>

<p>MySQLi added support for mysqli_connect_errno() and mysqli_connect_error(). </p>

<p>Massive improvements to alpha PDO driver. </p>

<p>Quote string bind parameters logged by performance monitor for easy type
checking. Thx Jason Judge. </p>

<p>Added support for $role when connecting with Interbase/firebird. </p>

<p>Added support for enum recognition in MetaColumns() mysql and mysqli. Thx
Amedeo Petrella. </p>

<p>The sybase_ase driver contributed by Interakt Online. Thx Cristian Marin
cristic#interaktonline.com. </p>

<p>Removed not_null, has_default, and default_value from ADOFieldObject. </p>

<p>Sessions code, fixed quoting of keys when handling LOBs in session write()
function. </p>

<p>Sessions code, added adodb_session_regenerate_id(), to reduce risk of
session hijacking by changing session cookie dynamically. Thx Joe Li. </p>

<p>Perf monitor, polling for CPU did not work for PHP 4.3.10 and 5.0.0-5.0.3
due to PHP bugs, so we special case these versions. </p>

<p>Postgresql, UpdateBlob() added code to handle type==CLOB. </p>

<p><a name=4.60></a><b>4.60 24 Jan 2005</b> </p>

<p>Implemented PEAR DB's autoExecute(). Simplified design because I don't like
using constants when strings work fine. </p>

<p>_rs2serialize will now update $rs-&gt;sql and $rs-&gt;oldProvider. </p>

<p>Added autoExecute(). </p>

<p>Added support for postgres8 driver. Currently just remapped to postgres7
driver. </p>

<p>Changed oci8 _query(), so that OCIBindByName() sets the length to -1 if
element size is &gt; 4000. This provides better support for LONGs. </p>

<p>Added SetDateLocale() support for <st1:country-region w:st="on"><st1:place
 w:st="on">netherlands</st1:place></st1:country-region> (Nl). </p>

<p>Spelling error in pivot code ($iff should be $iif). </p>

<p>mysql insert_id() did not work with mysql 3.x. Fixed. </p>

<p>&quot;\r\n&quot; not converted to spaces correctly in exporting data. Fixed.
</p>

<p>_nconnect() in mysqli did not return value correctly. Fixed. </p>

<p>Arne Eckmann contributed danish language file. </p>

<p>Added clone() support to FetchObject() for PHP5.</p>

<p>Removed SQL_CUR_USE_ODBC from odbc_mssql.</p>

<p><a name=4.55></a><b>4.55 5 Jan 2005</b> </p>

<p>Found bug in Execute() with bind params for db's that do not support binding
natively. </p>

<p>DropSequence() now correctly uses default parameter. </p>

<p>Now Execute() ignores locale for floats, so 1.23 is NEVER converted to 1,23.
</p>

<p>SetFetchMode() not properly saved in adodb-perf, suspicious sql and
expensive sql. Fixed. </p>

<p>Added INET to postgresql metatypes. Thx motzel. </p>

<p>Allow oracle hints to work when counting with _adodb_getcount in
adodb-lib.inc.php. Thx Chris Wrye. </p>

<p>Changed mysql insert_id() to use SELECT LAST_INSERT_ID(). </p>

<p>If alter col in datadict does not modify col type/size of actual col, then
it is removed from alter col code. By Mark Newham. Not perfect as MetaType()
!== ActualType(). </p>

<p>Added handling of view fields in metacolumns() for postgresql. Thx Renato De
Giovanni. </p>

<p>Added to informix MetaPrimaryKeys and MetaColumns fixes for null bit. Thx to
Cecilio Albero. </p>

<p>Removed obsolete connection_timeout() from perf code. </p>

<p>Added support for arrayClass in adodb-csv.inc.php. </p>

<p>RSFilter now accepts methods of the form $array($obj, 'methodname'). Thx to
blake#near-time.com. </p>

<p>Changed CacheFlush to $cmd = 'rm -rf
'.$ADODB_CACHE_DIR.'/[0-9a-f][0-9a-f]/'; </p>

<p>For better cursor concurrency, added code to free ref cursors in oci8 when
$rs-&gt;Close() is called. Note that CLose() is called internally by the Get*
functions too. </p>

<p>Added IIF support for access when pivoting. Thx Volodia Krupach. </p>

<p>Added mssql datadict support for timestamp. Thx Alexios. </p>

<p>Informix pager fix. By Mario Ramirez. </p>

<p>ADODB_TABLE_REGEX now includes ':'. By Mario Ramirez. </p>

<p>Mark Newnham contributed MetaIndexes for oci8 and db2. </p>

<p><a name=4.54></a><b>4.54 5 Nov 2004</b> </p>

<p>Now you can set $db-&gt;charSet = ?? before doing a Connect() in oci8. </p>

<p>Added adodbFetchMode to sqlite. </p>

<p>Perf code, added a string typecast to substr in adodb_log_sql(). </p>

<p>Postgres: Changed BlobDecode() to use po_loread, added new $maxblobsize
parameter, and now it returns the blob instead of sending it to stdout - make
sure to mention that as a compat warning. Also added $db-&gt;IsOID($oid)
function; uses a heuristic, not guaranteed to work 100%. </p>

<p>Contributed arabic language file by &quot;El-Shamaa, Khaled&quot;
k.el-shamaa#cgiar.org </p>

<p>PHP5 exceptions did not handle @ protocol properly. Fixed. </p>

<p>Added ifnull handling for postgresql (using coalesce). </p>

<p>Added metatables() support for Postgresql 8.0 (no longer uses pg_%
dictionary tables). </p>

<p>Improved Sybase ErrorMsg() function. By Gaetano Giunta. </p>

<p>Improved oci8 SelectLimit() to use Prepare(). By Cristiano Duarte. </p>

<p>Type-cast $row parameter in ifx_fetch_row() to int. Thx stefan bodgan. </p>

<p>Ralf becker contributed improvements in postgresql, sapdb, mysql data
dictionary handling:<br>
- MySql and Postgres MetaType was reporting every int column which was part of
a primary key and unique as serial<br>
- Postgres was not reporting the scale of decimal types<br>
- MaxDB was padding the defaults of none-string types with spaces<br>
- MySql now correctly converts enum columns to varchar </p>

<p>Ralf also changed Postgresql datadict:<br>
- you cant add NOT NULL columns in postgres in one go, they need to be added as
NULL and then altered to NOT NULL<br>
- AlterColumnSQL could not change a varchar column with numbers into an integer
column, postgres need an explicit conversation<br>
- a re-created sequence was not set to the correct value, if the name was the
old name (no implicit sequence), now always the new name of the implicit
sequence is used</p>

<p>Sergio Strampelli added extra $intoken check to Lens_ParseArgs() in datadict
code. </p>

<p><a name=4.53></a><b>4.53 28 Sept 2004</b> </p>

<p>FetchMode cached in recordset is sometimes mapped to native db fetchMode.
Normally this does not matter, but when using cached recordsets, we need to
switch back to using adodb fetchmode. So we cache this in
$rs-&gt;adodbFetchMode if it differs from the db's fetchMode. </p>

<p>For informix we now set canSeek = false driver because stefan bodgan tells
me that seeking doesn't work. </p>

<p>SetDateLocale() never worked till now ;-) Thx david#tomato.it </p>

<p>Set $_bindInputArray = true in sapdb driver. Required for clob support. </p>

<p>Fixed some PEAR::DB emulation issues with isError() and isWarning. Thx to
Gert-Rainer Bitterlich. </p>

<p>Empty() used in getupdatesql without strlen() check. Fixed.</p>

<p>Added unsigned detection to mysql and mysqli drivers. Thx to dan cech. </p>

<p>Added hungarian language file. Thx to Halászvári Gábor. </p>

<p>Improved fieldname-type formatting of datadict SQL generated (adding
$widespacing parameter to _GenField). </p>

<p>Datadict oci8 DROP CONSTRAINTS misspelt. Fixed. Thx Mark Newnham. </p>

<p>Changed odbtp to dynamically change databaseType based on connection, eg.
from 'odbtp' to 'odbtp_mssql' when connecting to mssql database. </p>

<p>In datadict, MySQL I4 was wrongly mapped to MEDIUMINT, which is actually I3.
Fixed. </p>

<p>Fixed mysqli MetaType() recognition. Mysqli returns numeric types unlike
mysql extension. Thx Francesco Riosa. </p>

<p>VFP odbc driver curmode set wrongly, causing problems with memo fields.
Fixed. </p>

<p>Odbc driver did not recognize odbc version 2 driver date types properly.
Fixed. Thx Bostjan. </p>

<p>ChangeTableSQL() fixes to datadict-db2.inc.php by Mark Newnham. </p>

<p>Perf monitoring with odbc improved. Now we try in perf code to manually set
the sysTimeStamp using date() if sysTimeStamp is empty. </p>

<p>All <st1:City w:st="on"><st1:place w:st="on">ADO</st1:place></st1:City>
errors are thrown as exceptions in PHP5. So we added exception handling to ado
in PHP5 by creating new adodb-ado5.inc.php driver. </p>

<p>Added IsConnected(). Returns true if connection object connected. By
Luca.Gioppo. </p>

<p>&quot;Ralf Becker&quot; RalfBecker#digitalROCK.de contributed new sapdb
data-dictionary driver and a large patch that implements field and table
renaming for oracle, mssql, postgresql, mysql and sapdb. See the new RenameTableSQL()
and RenameColumnSQL() functions. </p>

<p>We now check ExecuteCursor to see if PrepareSP was initially called. </p>

<p>Changed oci8 datadict to use MODIFY for $dd-&gt;alterCol. Thx Mark Newnham. </p>

<p><a name=4.52></a><b>4.52 10 Aug 2004</b> </p>

<p>Bug found in Replace() when performance logging enabled, introduced in ADOdb
4.50. Fixed. </p>

<p>Replace() checks update stmt. If update stmt fails, we now return
immediately. Thx to alex. </p>

<p>Added support for $ADODB_FORCE_TYPE in GetUpdateSQL/GetInsertSQL. Thx to
niko. </p>

<p>Added ADODB_ASSOC_CASE support to postgres/postgres7 driver. </p>

<p>Support for DECLARE stmt in oci8. Thx Lochbrunner. </p>

<p><a name=4.51></a><b>4.51 29 July 2004</b> </p>

<p>Added adodb-xmlschema 1.0.2. Thx dan and richard. </p>

<p>Added new adorecordset_ext_* classes. If ADOdb extension installed for
mysql, mysqlt and oci8 (but not oci8po), we use the superfast ADOdb extension
code for movenext. </p>

<p>Added schema support to mssql and odbc_mssql MetaPrimaryKeys(). </p>

<p>Patched MSSQL driver to support PHP NULL and Boolean values while binding
the input array parameters in the _query() function. By Stephen Farmer. </p>

<p>Added support for clob's for mssql, UpdateBlob(). Thx to
gfran#directa.com.br </p>

<p>Added normalize support for postgresql (true=lowercase table name, or
false=case-sensitive table names) to MetaColumns($table, $normalize=true). </p>

<p>PHP5 variant dates in <st1:City w:st="on"><st1:place w:st="on">ADO</st1:place></st1:City>
not working. Fixed in adodb-ado.inc.php. </p>

<p>Constant ADODB_FORCE_NULLS was not working properly for many releases (for
GetUpdateSQL). Fixed. Also GetUpdateSQL strips off ORDER BY now - thx Elieser
Leão. </p>

<p>Perf Monitor for oci8 now dynamically highlights optimizer_* params if too
high/low. </p>

<p>Added dsn support to NewADOConnection/ADONewConnection. </p>

<p>Fixed out of page bounds bug in _adodb_pageexecute_all_rows() Thx to
&quot;Sergio Strampelli&quot; sergio#rir.it </p>

<p>Speedup of movenext for mysql and oci8 drivers. </p>

<p>Moved debugging code _adodb_debug_execute() to adodb-lib.inc.php. </p>

<p>Fixed postgresql bytea detection bug. See
http://phplens.com/lens/lensforum/msgs.php?id=9849. </p>

<p>Fixed ibase datetimestamp typo in PHP5. Thx stefan. </p>

<p>Removed whitespace at end of odbtp drivers. </p>

<p>Added db2 metaprimarykeys fix. </p>

<p>Optimizations to MoveNext() for mysql and oci8. Misc speedups to Get*
functions. </p>

<p><a name=4.50></a><b>4.50 6 July 2004</b> </p>

<p>Bumped it to 4.50 to avoid confusion with PHP 4.3.x series. </p>

<p>Added db2 metatables and metacolumns extensions. </p>

<p>Added alpha PDO driver. Very buggy, only works with odbc. </p>

<p>Tested mysqli. Set poorAffectedRows = true. Cleaned up movenext() and
_fetch(). </p>

<p>PageExecute does not work properly with php5 (return val not a variable).
Reported Dmytro Sychevsky sych#php.com.ua. Fixed. </p>

<p>MetaTables() for mysql, $showschema parameter was not backward compatible
with older versions of adodb. Fixed. </p>

<p>Changed mysql GetOne() to work with mysql 3.23 when using with non-select
stmts (e.g. SHOW TABLES). </p>

<p>Changed TRIG_ prefix to a variable in datadict-oci8.inc.php. Thx to
Luca.Gioppo#csi.it. </p>

<p>New to adodb-time code. We allow you to define your own daylights savings
function, adodb_daylight_sv for pre-1970 dates. If the function is defined
(somewhere in an include), then you can correct for daylights savings. See
http://phplens.com/phpeverywhere/node/view/16#daylightsavings for more info. </p>

<p>New sqlitepo driver. This is because assoc mode does not work like other
drivers in sqlite. Namely, when selecting (joining) multiple tables, in assoc
mode the table names are included in the assoc keys in the &quot;sqlite&quot;
driver. In &quot;sqlitepo&quot; driver, the table names are stripped from the
returned column names. When this results in a conflict, the first field get
preference. Contributed by Herman Kuiper herman#ozuzo.net </p>

<p>Added $forcenull parameter to GetInsertSQL/GetUpdateSQL. Idea by Marco
Aurelio Silva. </p>

<p>More XHTML changes for GetMenu. By Jeremy Evans. </p>

<p>Fixes some ibase date issues. Thx to stefan bogdan. </p>

<p>Improvements to mysqli driver to support $ADODB_COUNTRECS. </p>

<p>Fixed adodb-csvlib.inc.php problem when reading stream from socket. We need
to poll stream continiously. </p>

<p><a name=4.23></a><b>4.23 16 June 2004</b> </p>

<p>New interbase/firebird fixes thx to Lester Caine. Driver fixes a problem
with getting field names in the result array, and corrects a couple of data
conversions. Also we default to dialect3 for firebird. Also ibase sysDate
property was wrong. Changed to cast as timestamp. </p>

<p>The datadict driver is set up to give quoted tables and fields as this was
the only way round reserved words being used as field names in TikiWiki.
TikiPro is tidying that up, and I hope to be able to produce a build of THAT
which uses what I consider proper UPPERCASE field and table names. The
conversion of TikiWiki to ADOdb helped in that, but until the database is
completely tidied up in TikiPro ... </p>

<p>Modified _gencachename() to include fetchmode in name hash. This means you
should clear your cache directory after installing this release as the cache
name algorithm has changed. </p>

<p>Now Cache* functions work in safe mode, because we do not create
sub-directories in the $ADODB_CACHE_DIR in safe mode. In non-safe mode we still
create sub-directories. Done by modifying _gencachename(). </p>

<p>Added $gmt parameter (true/false) to UserDate and UserTimeStamp in
connection class, to force conversion of input (in local time) to be converted
to UTC/GMT. </p>

<p>Mssql datadict did not support INT types properly (no size param allowed).
Added _GetSize() to datadict-mssql.inc.php. </p>

<p>For borland_ibase, BeginTrans(), changed:</p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre
style='background:#EEEEEE'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>   </span>$this-&gt;_transactionID = $this-&gt;_connectionID;</pre></div>

<p class=MsoNormal>to</p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre
style='background:#EEEEEE'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>   </span>$this-&gt;_transactionID = ibase_trans($this-&gt;ibasetrans, $this-&gt;_connectionID);</pre></div>

<p>Fixed typo in mysqi_field_seek(). Thx to Sh4dow (sh4dow#php.pl). </p>

<p>LogSQL did not work with Firebird/Interbase. Fixed. </p>

<p>Postgres: made errorno() handling more consistent. Thx to Michael Jahn,
Michael.Jahn#mailbox.tu-dresden.de. </p>

<p>Added informix patch to better support metatables, metacolumns by
&quot;Cecilio Albero&quot; c-albero#eos-i.com </p>

<p>Cyril Malevanov contributed patch to oci8 to support passing of LOB
parameters: </p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre
style='background:#EEEEEE'><span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$text = 'test test test';<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$sql = &quot;declare rs clob; begin :rs := lobinout(:sa0); end;&quot;;<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$stmt = $conn -&gt; PrepareSP($sql);<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$conn -&gt; InParameter($stmt,$text,'sa0', -1, OCI_B_CLOB);<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$rs = '';<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$conn -&gt; OutParameter($stmt,$rs,'rs', -1, OCI_B_CLOB);<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>$conn -&gt; Execute($stmt);<br>
<span style='mso-tab-count:1'>         </span>echo &quot;return = &quot;.$rs.&quot;&lt;br&gt;&quot;;</pre></div>

<p class=MsoNormal>As he says, the LOBs limitations are: </p>

<div style='mso-element:para-border-div;border:solid #DDDDDD 1.0pt;mso-border-alt:
solid #DDDDDD .75pt;padding:9.0pt 18.0pt 9.0pt 18.0pt;background:#EEEEEE'><pre
style='background:#EEEEEE'><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>- use OCINewDescriptor before binding<br>
<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>- if Param is IN, uses save() before each execute. This is done automatically for you.<br>
<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>- if Param is OUT, uses load() after each execute. This is done automatically for you.<br>
<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>- when we bind $var as LOB, we create new descriptor and return it as a<br>
<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>  </span><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>Bind Result, so if we want to use OUT parameters, we have to store<br>
<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'>   </span>somewhere &amp;$var to load() data from LOB to it.<br>
<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>- IN OUT params are not working now (should not be a big problem to fix it)<br>
<span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>- now mass binding not working too (I've wrote about it before)</pre></div>

<p>Simplified Connect() and PConnect() error handling. </p>

<p>When extension not loaded, Connect() and PConnect() will return null. On
connect error, the fns will return false. </p>

<p>CacheGetArray() added to code. </p>

<p>Added Init() to adorecordset_empty(). </p>

<p>Changed postgres64 driver, MetaColumns() to not strip off quotes in default
value if :: detected (type-casting of default). </p>

<p>Added test: if (!defined('ADODB_DIR')) die(). Useful to prevent hackers from
detecting file paths. </p>

<p>Changed metaTablesSQL to ignore Postgres 7.4 information schemas (sql_*). </p>

<p>New polish language file by Grzegorz Pacan </p>

<p>Added support for <st1:place w:st="on">UNION</st1:place> in
_adodb_getcount(). </p>

<p>Added security check for ADODB_DIR to limit path disclosure issues.
Requested by postnuke team. </p>

<p>Added better error message support to oracle driver. Thx to Gaetano Giunta. </p>

<p>Added showSchema support to mysql. </p>

<p>Bind in oci8 did not handle $name=false properly. Fixed. </p>

<p>If extension not loaded, Connect(), PConnect(), NConnect() will return null.
</p>

<p><b>4.22 15 Apr 2004</b> </p>

<p>Moved docs to own adodb/docs folder. </p>

<p>Fixed session bug when quoting compressed/encrypted data in Replace(). </p>

<p>Netezza Driver and LDAP drivers contributed by Josh Eldridge. </p>

<p>GetMenu now uses rtrim() on values instead of trim(). </p>

<p>Changed MetaColumnNames to return an associative array, keys being the field
names in uppercase. </p>

<p>Suggested fix to adodb-ado.inc.php affected_rows to support PHP5 variants.
Thx to Alexios Fakos. </p>

<p>Contributed bulgarian language file by Valentin Sheiretsky
valio#valio.eu.org. </p>

<p>Contributed romanian language file by stefan bogdan. </p>

<p>GetInsertSQL now checks for table name (string) in $rs, and will create a
recordset for that table automatically. Contributed by Walt Boring. Also added
OCI_B_BLOB in bind on Walt's request - hope it doesn't break anything :-) </p>

<p>Some minor postgres speedups in _initrs(). </p>

<p>ChangeTableSQL checks now if MetaColumns returns empty. Thx Jason Judge. </p>

<p>Added ADOConnection::Time(), returns current database time in unix timestamp
format, or false. </p>

<p><b>4.21 20 Mar 2004</b> </p>

<p>We no longer in SelectLimit for VFP driver add SELECT TOP X unless an ORDER
BY exists. </p>

<p>Pim Koeman contributed dutch language file adodb-nl.inc.php. </p>

<p>Rick Hickerson added CLOB support to db2 datadict. </p>

<p>Added odbtp driver. Thx to &quot;stefan bogdan&quot; sbogdan#rsb.ro. </p>

<p>Changed PrepareSP() 2nd parameter, $cursor, to default to true (formerly
false). Fixes oci8 backward compat problems with OUT params. </p>

<p>Fixed month calculation error in adodb-time.inc.php. 2102-June-01 appeared
as 2102-May-32. </p>

<p>Updated PHP5 RC1 iterator support. API changed, hasMore() renamed to
valid(). </p>

<p>Changed internal format of serialized cache recordsets. As we store a
version number, this should be backward compatible. </p>

<p>Error handling when driver file not found was flawed in ADOLoadCode().
Fixed. </p>

<p><b>4.20 27 Feb 2004</b> </p>

<p>Updated to AXMLS 1.01. </p>

<p>MetaForeignKeys for postgres7 modified by Edward Jaramilla, works on pg 7.4.
</p>

<p>Now numbers accepts function calls or sequences for
GetInsertSQL/GetUpdateSQL numeric fields. </p>

<p>Changed quotes of 'delete from $perf_table' to &quot;&quot;. Thx Kehui
(webmaster#kehui.net) </p>

<p>Added ServerInfo() for ifx, and putenv trim fix. Thx Fernando Ortiz. </p>

<p>Added addq(), which is analogous to addslashes(). </p>

<p>Tested with php5b4. Fix some php5 compat problems with exceptions and
sybase. </p>

<p>Carl-Christian Salvesen added patch to mssql _query to support binds greater
than 4000 chars. </p>

<p>Mike suggested patch to PHP5 exception handler. $errno must be numeric. </p>

<p>Added double quotes (&quot;) to ADODB_TABLE_REGEX. </p>

<p>For oci8, Prepare(...,$cursor), $cursor's meaning was accidentally inverted
in 4.11. This causes problems with ExecuteCursor() too, which calls Prepare()
internally. Thx to William Lovaton. </p>

<p>Now dateHasTime property in connection object renamed to datetime for
consistency. This could break bc. </p>

<p>Csongor Halmai reports that db2 SelectLimit with input array is not working.
Fixed.. </p>

<p><b>4.11 27 Jan 2004</b> </p>

<p>Csongor Halmai reports db2 binding not working. Reverted back to emulated
binding. </p>

<p>Dan Cech modifies datadict code. Adds support for DropIndex. Minor cleanups.
</p>

<p>Table misspelt in perf-oci8.inc.php. Changed v$conn_cache_advice to
v$db_cache_advice. Reported by Steve W. </p>

<p>UserTimeStamp and DBTimeStamp did not handle YYYYMMDDHHMMSS format properly.
Reported by Mike Muir. Fixed. </p>

<p>Changed oci8 Prepare(). Does not auto-allocate OCINewCursor automatically,
unless 2nd param is set to true. This will break backward compat, if
Prepare/Execute is used instead of ExecuteCursor. Reported by Chris Jones. </p>

<p>Added InParameter() and OutParameter(). Wrapper functions to Parameter(),
but nicer because they are self-documenting. </p>

<p>Added 'R' handling in ActualType() to datadict-mysql.inc.php </p>

<p>Added ADOConnection::SerializableRS($rs). Returns a recordset that can be
serialized in a session. </p>

<p>Added &quot;Run SQL&quot; to performance UI(). </p>

<p>Misc spelling corrections in adodb-mysqli.inc.php, adodb-oci8.inc.php and
datadict-oci8.inc.php, from Heinz Hombergs. </p>

<p>MetaIndexes() for ibase contributed by Heinz Hombergs. </p>

<p><b>4.10 12 Jan 2004</b> </p>

<p>Dan Cech contributed extensive changes to data dictionary to support name
quoting (with `), and drop table/index. </p>

<p>Informix added cursorType property. Default remains IFX_SCROLL, but you can
change to 0 (non-scrollable cursor) for performance. </p>

<p>Added ADODB_View_PrimaryKeys() for returning view primary keys to
MetaPrimaryKeys(). </p>

<p>Simplified chinese file, adodb-cn.inc.php from cysoft. </p>

<p>Added check for ctype_alnum in adodb-datadict.inc.php. Thx to Jason Judge. </p>

<p>Added connection parameter to ibase Prepare(). Fix by Daniel Hassan. </p>

<p>Added nameQuote for quoting identifiers and names to connection obj.
Requested by Jason Judge. Also the data dictionary parser now detects `field
name` and generates column names with spaces correctly. </p>

<p>BOOL type not recognised correctly as L. Fixed. </p>

<p>Fixed paths in ADODB_DIR for session files, and back-ported it to 4.05 (15
Dec 2003) </p>

<p>Added Schema to postgresql MetaTables. Thx to col#gear.hu </p>

<p>Empty postgresql recordsets that had blob fields did not set EOF properly.
Fixed. </p>

<p>CacheSelectLimit internal parameters to SelectLimit were wrong. Thx to Nio. </p>

<p>Modified adodb_pr() and adodb_backtrace() to support command-line usage (eg.
no html). </p>

<p>Fixed some fr and it lang errors. Thx to Gaetano G. </p>

<p>Added contrib directory, with adodb rs to xmlrpc convertor by Gaetano G. </p>

<p>Fixed array recordset bugs when _skiprow1 is true. Thx to Gaetano G. </p>

<p>Fixed pivot table code when count is false. </p>

<p><b>4.05 13 Dec 2003 </b></p>

<p>Added MetaIndexes to data-dict code - thx to Dan Cech. </p>

<p>Rewritten session code by Ross Smith. Moved code to adodb/session directory.
</p>

<p>Added function exists check on connecting to most drivers, so we don't crash
with the unknown function error. </p>

<p>Smart Transactions failed with GenID() when it no seq table has been created
because the sql statement fails. Fix by Mark Newnham. </p>

<p>Added $db-&gt;length, which holds name of function that returns strlen. </p>

<p>Fixed error handling for bad driver in ADONewConnection - passed too few
params to error-handler. </p>

<p>Datadict did not handle types like 16.0 properly in _GetSize. Fixed. </p>

<p>Oci8 driver SelectLimit() bug &amp;= instead of =&amp; used. Thx to Swen
Thümmler. </p>

<p>Jesse Mullan suggested not flushing outp when output buffering enabled. Due
to Apache 2.0 bug. Added. </p>

<p>MetaTables/MetaColumns return ref bug with PHP5 fixed in
adodb-datadict.inc.php. </p>

<p>New mysqli driver contributed by Arjen de Rijke. Based on adodb 3.40 driver.
Then jlim added BeginTrans, CommitTrans, RollbackTrans, IfNull, SQLDate. Also
fixed return ref bug. </p>

<p>$ADODB_FLUSH added, if true then force flush in debugging outp. Default is
false. In earlier versions, outp defaulted to flush, which is not compat with
apache 2.0. </p>

<p>Mysql driver's GenID() function did not work when when sql logging is on.
Fixed. </p>

<p>$ADODB_SESSION_TBL not declared as global var. Not available if
adodb-session.inc.php included in function. Fixed. </p>

<p>The input array not passed to Execute() in _adodb_getcount(). Fixed. </p>

<p><b>4.04 13 Nov 2003 </b></p>

<p>Switched back to foreach - faster than list-each. </p>

<p>Fixed bug in ado driver - wiping out $this-&gt;fields with date fields. </p>

<p>Performance Monitor, View SQL, Explain Plan did not work if
strlen($SQL)&gt;max($_GET length). Fixed. </p>

<p>Performance monitor, oci8 driver added memory sort ratio. </p>

<p>Added random property, returns SQL to generate a floating point number
between 0 and 1; </p>

<p><b>4.03 6 Nov 2003 </b></p>

<p>The path to adodb-php4.inc.php and adodb-iterators.inc.php was not setup
properly. </p>

<p>Patched SQLDate in interbase to support hours/mins/secs. Thx to ari
kuorikoski. </p>

<p>Force autorollback for pgsql persistent connections - apparently pgsql did
not autorollback properly before 4.3.4. See http://bugs.php.net/bug.php?id=25404
</p>

<p><b>4.02 5 Nov 2003 </b></p>

<p>Some errors in adodb_error_pg() fixed. Thx to Styve. </p>

<p>Spurious Insert_ID() error was generated by LogSQL(). Fixed. </p>

<p>Insert_ID was interfering with Affected_Rows() and Replace() when LogSQL()
enabled. Fixed. </p>

<p>More foreach loops optimized with list/each. </p>

<p>Null dates not handled properly in <st1:City w:st="on"><st1:place w:st="on">ADO</st1:place></st1:City>
driver (it becomes 31 Dec 1969!). </p>

<p>Heinz Hombergs contributed patches for mysql MetaColumns - adding scale,
made interbase MetaColumns work with firebird/interbase, and added
lang/adodb-de.inc.php. </p>

<p>Added INFORMIXSERVER environment variable. </p>

<p>Added $ADODB_ANSI_PADDING_OFF for interbase/firebird. </p>

<p>PHP 5 beta 2 compat check. Foreach (Iterator) support. Exceptions support. </p>

<p><b>4.01 23 Oct 2003 </b></p>

<p>Fixed bug in rs2html(), tohtml.inc.php, that generated blank table cells. </p>

<p>Fixed insert_id() incorrectly generated when logsql() enabled. </p>

<p>Modified PostgreSQL _fixblobs to use list/each instead of foreach. </p>

<p>Informix ErrorNo() implemented correctly. </p>

<p>Modified several places to use list/each, including GetRowAssoc(). </p>

<p>Added UserTimeStamp() to connection class. </p>

<p>Added $ADODB_ANSI_PADDING_OFF for oci8po. </p>

<p><b>4.00 20 Oct 2003 </b></p>

<p>Upgraded adodb-xmlschema to 1 Oct 2003 snapshot. </p>

<p>Fix to rs2html warning message. Thx to Filo. </p>

<p>Fix for odbc_mssql/mssql SQLDate(), hours was wrong. </p>

<p>Added MetaColumns and MetaPrimaryKeys for sybase. Thx to Chris Phillipson. </p>

<p>Added autoquoting to datadict for MySQL and PostgreSQL. Suggestion by
Karsten Dambekalns </p>

<p><b>3.94 11 Oct 2003 </b></p>

<p>Create trigger in datadict-oci8.inc.php did not work, because all cr/lf's
must be removed. </p>

<p>ErrorMsg()/ErrorNo() did not work for many databases when logging enabled.
Fixed. </p>

<p>Removed global variable $ADODB_LOGSQL as it does not work properly with
multiple connections. </p>

<p>Added SQLDate support for sybase. Thx to Chris Phillipson </p>

<p>Postgresql checking of pgsql resultset resource was incorrect. Fix by Bharat
Mediratta bharat#menalto.com. Same patch applied to _insertid and _affectedrows
for adodb-postgres64.inc.php. </p>

<p>Added support for NConnect for postgresql. </p>

<p>Added Sybase data dict support. Thx to Chris Phillipson </p>

<p>Extensive improvements in $perf-&gt;UI(), eg. Explain now opens in new
window, we show scripts which call sql, etc. </p>

<p>Perf Monitor UI works with magic quotes enabled. </p>

<p>rsPrefix was declared twice. Removed. </p>

<p>Oci8 stored procedure support, eg. &quot;begin func(); end;&quot; was
incorrect in _query. Fixed. </p>

<p>Tiraboschi Massimiliano contributed italian language file. </p>

<p>Fernando Ortiz, fortiz#lacorona.com.mx, contributed informix performance
monitor. </p>

<p>Added _varchar (varchar arrays) support for postgresql. Reported by PREVOT
Stéphane.</p>

<div class=MsoNormal align=center style='text-align:center'>

<hr size=2 width="100%" align=center>

</div>

<p><strong>0.10 Sept 9 2000</strong> First release </p>

<h3><strong>Old change log history moved to <a href="old-changelog.htm">old-changelog.htm</a>.
</strong></h3>

<p>&nbsp;</p>

</div>

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