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<h2>ADOdb Library for PHP</h2>
<p>V4.05 13 Dec 2003 (c) 2000-2003 John Lim (jlim#natsoft.com)</p>
<p><font size="1">This software is dual licensed using BSD-Style and LGPL. This 
  means you can use it in compiled proprietary and commercial products.</font></p>
	<p>Useful ADOdb links:  <a href=http://php.weblogs.com/adodb>Download</a> &nbsp; <a href=http://php.weblogs.com/adodb_manual>Other Docs</a>

<p><a href="#intro"><b>Introduction</b></a><b><br>
	<a href="#features">Unique Features</a><br>
	<a href="#users">How People are using ADOdb</a><br>
	<a href="#bugs">Feature Requests and Bug Reports</a><br>
	</b><b><a href="#install">Installation</a><br>
	<a href="#mininstall">Minimum Install</a><br>
	<a href="#coding">Initializing Code and Connection Examples</a><br>
	<font size="2"><a href=#adonewconnection>ADONewConnection</a></font> 
	<font size="2"><a href=#adonewconnection>NewADOConnection</a></font><br>
	<a href="#speed">High Speed ADOdb - tuning tips</a></b><br>
	<b><a href="#hack">Hacking and Modifying ADOdb Safely</a><br>
	<a href="#php5">PHP5 Features</a></b><br>
	<font size="2"><a href=#php5iterators>foreach iterators</a> <a href=#php5exceptions>exceptions</a></font><br>
	<b> <a href="#drivers">Supported Databases</a></b><br>
	<b> <a href="#quickstart">Tutorials</a></b><br>
	<a href="#ex1">Example 1: Select</a><br>
	<a href="#ex2">Example 2: Advanced Select</a><br>
	<a href="#ex3">Example 3: Insert</a><br>
	<a href="#ex4">Example 4: Debugging</a> &nbsp;<a href="#exrs2html">rs2html 
	example</a><br>
	<a href="#ex5">Example 5: MySQL and Menus</a><br>
	<a href="#ex6">Example 6: Connecting to Multiple Databases at once</a> <br>
	<a href="#ex7">Example 7: Generating Update and Insert SQL</a> <br>
	<a href="#ex8">Example 8: Implementing Scrolling with Next and Previous</a><br>
	<a href="#ex9">Example 9: Exporting in CSV or Tab-Delimited Format</a> <br>
	<a href="#ex10">Example 10: Custom filters</a><br>
	<a href="#ex11">Example 11: Smart Transactions</a><br>
	<br>
	<b> <a href="#errorhandling">Using Custom Error Handlers and PEAR_Error</a><br>
	<a href="#DSN">Data Source Names</a><br>
	<a href="#caching">Caching</a><br>
	<a href="#pivot">Pivot Tables</a></b> 
<p><a href="#ref"><b>REFERENCE</b></a>
<p> <font size="2">Variables: <a href="#adodb_countrecs">$ADODB_COUNTRECS</a> <a href=#adodb_ansi_padding_off>$ADODB_ANSI_PADDING_OFF</a>
  <a href="#adodb_cache_dir">$ADODB_CACHE_DIR</a> </font><font size="2"><a href=#adodb_fetch_mode>$ADODB_FETCH_MODE</a> 
  <a href=#adodb_lang>$ADODB_LANG</a><br>
  Constants: </font><font size="2"><a href=#adodb_assoc_case>ADODB_ASSOC_CASE</a> 
  </font><br>
  <a href="#ADOConnection"><b> ADOConnection</b></a><br>
  <font size="2">Connections: <a href="#connect">Connect</a> <a href="#pconnect">PConnect</a> 
  <a href="#nconnect">NConnect</a> <br>
  Executing SQL: <a href="#execute">Execute</a> <a href="#cacheexecute"><i>CacheExecute</i></a> 
  <a href="#SelectLimit">SelectLimit</a> <a href="#cacheSelectLimit"><i>CacheSelectLimit</i></a> 
  <a href="#param">Param</a> <a href="#prepare">Prepare</a> <a href=#preparesp>PrepareSP</a> 
  <a href="#parameter">Parameter</a><br>
  &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#getone">GetOne</a> 
  <a href="#cachegetone"><i>CacheGetOne</i></a> <a href="#getrow">GetRow</a> <a href="#cachegetrow"><i>CacheGetRow</i></a> 
  <a href="#getall">GetAll</a> <a href="#cachegetall"><i>CacheGetAll</i></a> <a href="#getcol">GetCol</a> 
  <a href="#cachegetcol"><i>CacheGetCol</i></a> <a href="#getassoc1">GetAssoc</a> <a href="#cachegetassoc"><i>CacheGetAssoc</i></a> <a href="#replace">Replace</a> 
  <br>
  &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#executecursor">ExecuteCursor</a> 
  (oci8 only)<br>
  Generates SQL strings: <a href="#getupdatesql">GetUpdateSQL</a> <a href="#getinsertsql">GetInsertSQL</a> 
  <a href="#concat">Concat</a> <a href="#ifnull">IfNull</a> <a href="#length">length</a> <a href="#random">random</a> <a href="#substr">substr</a> 
  <a href="#qstr">qstr</a> <a href="#param">Param</a> 
  <a href="#prepare"></a><a href="#OffsetDate">OffsetDate</a> <a href="#SQLDate">SQLDate</a> 
  <a href="#dbdate">DBDate</a> <a href="#dbtimestamp"></a> <a href="#dbtimestamp">DBTimeStamp</a>
  <br>
  Blobs: <a href="#updateblob">UpdateBlob</a> <a href="#updateclob">UpdateClob</a> 
  <a href="#updateblobfile">UpdateBlobFile</a> <a href="#blobencode">BlobEncode</a> 
  <a href="#blobdecode">BlobDecode</a><br>
  Paging/Scrolling: <a href="#pageexecute">PageExecute</a> <a href="#cachepageexecute">CachePageExecute</a><br>
  Cleanup: <a href="#cacheflush">CacheFlush</a> <a href="#Close">Close</a><br>
  Transactions: <a href="#starttrans">StartTrans</a> <a href="#completetrans">CompleteTrans</a> 
  <a href="#failtrans">FailTrans</a> <a href="#hasfailedtrans">HasFailedTrans</a> 
  <a href="#begintrans">BeginTrans</a> <a href="#committrans">CommitTrans</a> 
  <a href="#rollbacktrans">RollbackTrans</a> <br>
  Fetching Data: </font> <font size="2"><a href="#setfetchmode">SetFetchMode</a><br>
  Strings: <a href="#concat">concat</a> <a href="#length">length</a>  <a href="#qstr">qstr</a> <a href="#quote">quote</a> <a href="#substr">substr</a><br>
  Dates: <a href="#dbdate">DBDate</a> <a href="#dbtimestamp">DBTimeStamp</a> <a href="#unixdate">UnixDate</a> 
  <a href="#unixtimestamp">UnixTimeStamp</a> <a href="#OffsetDate">OffsetDate</a> 
  <a href="#SQLDate">SQLDate</a> <br>
  Row Management: <a href="#affected_rows">Affected_Rows</a> <a href="#inserted_id">Insert_ID</a>  <a href=#rowlock>RowLock</a>
  <a href="#genid">GenID</a> <a href=#createseq>CreateSequence</a> <a href=#dropseq>DropSequence</a> 
  <br>
  Error Handling: <a href="#errormsg">ErrorMsg</a> <a href="#errorno">ErrorNo</a> 
  <a href="#metaerror">MetaError</a> <a href="#metaerrormsg">MetaErrorMsg</a><br>
  Data Dictionary (metadata): <a href="#metadatabases">MetaDatabases</a> <a href="#metatables">MetaTables</a> 
  <a href="#metacolumns">MetaColumns</a> <a href="#metacolumnames">MetaColumnNames</a> 
  <a href="#metaprimarykeys">MetaPrimaryKeys</a> <a href="#metaforeignkeys">MetaForeignKeys</a> 
  <a href="#serverinfo">ServerInfo</a> <br>
  Statistics and Query-Rewriting: <a href="#logsql">LogSQL</a> <a href="#fnexecute">fnExecute 
  and fnCacheExecute</a><br>
  </font><font size="2">Deprecated: <a href="#bind">Bind</a> <a href="#blankrecordset">BlankRecordSet</a></font><br>
  <a href="#adorecordSet"><b><br>
  ADORecordSet</b></a><br>
  <font size="2">
  Returns one field: <a href="#fields">Fields</a><br>
 Returns one row:<a href="#fetchrow">FetchRow</a> <a href="#fetchinto">FetchInto</a> 
  <a href="#fetchobject">FetchObject</a> <a href="#fetchnextobject">FetchNextObject</a> 
  <a href="#fetchobj">FetchObj</a> <a href="#fetchnextobj">FetchNextObj</a>
 <a href="#getrowassoc">GetRowAssoc</a> <br>
  Returns all rows:<a href="#getarray">GetArray</a> <a href="#getrows">GetRows</a> 
  <a href="#getassoc">GetAssoc</a><br>
  Scrolling:<a href="#move">Move</a> <a href="#movenext">MoveNext</a> <a href="#movefirst">MoveFirst</a> 
  <a href="#movelast">MoveLast</a> <a href="#abspos">AbsolutePosition</a> <a href="#currentrow">CurrentRow</a> 
  <a href="#atfirstpage">AtFirstPage</a> <a href="#atlastpage">AtLastPage</a> 
  <a href="#absolutepage">AbsolutePage</a> </font> <font size="2"><br>
  Menu generation:<a href="#getmenu">GetMenu</a> <a href="#getmenu2">GetMenu2</a><br>
  Dates:<a href="#userdate">UserDate</a> <a href="#usertimestamp">UserTimeStamp</a> 
  <a href="#unixdate">UnixDate</a> <a href="#unixtimestamp">UnixTimeStamp<br>
  </a>Recordset Info:<a href="#recordcount">RecordCount</a> <a href="#po_recordcount">PO_RecordSet</a> 
  <a href="#nextrecordset">NextRecordSet</a><br>
  Field Info:<a href="#fieldcount">FieldCount</a> <a href="#fetchfield">FetchField</a> 
  <a href="#metatype">MetaType</a><br>
  Cleanup: <a href="#rsclose">Close</a></font> <font size="2"></font> 
<p><font size="2"><a href="#rs2html"><b>rs2html</b></a>&nbsp; <a href="#exrs2html">example</a></font><br>
  <a href="#adodiff">Differences between ADOdb and ADO</a><br>
  <a href="#driverguide"><b>Database Driver Guide<br>
  </b></a><b><a href="#changes">Change Log</a></b><br>
</p>
<h2>Introduction<a name="intro"></a></h2>
<p>PHP's database access functions are not standardised. This creates a need for 
  a database class library to hide the differences between the different database 
  API's (encapsulate the differences) so we can easily switch databases. PHP 4.0.5 or later
  is now required (because we use array-based str_replace).</p>
<p>We currently support MySQL, Oracle, Microsoft SQL Server, Sybase, Sybase SQL Anywhere, Informix, 
  PostgreSQL, FrontBase,  SQLite, Interbase (Firebird and Borland variants), Foxpro, Access, ADO, DB2, SAP DB and ODBC. 
  We have had successful reports of connecting to Progress and CacheLite via ODBC. We hope more people 
  will contribute drivers to support other databases.</p>
<p>PHP4 supports session variables. You can store your session information using 
  ADOdb for true portability and scalability. See adodb-session.php for more information.</p>
<p>Also read <a href="http://php.weblogs.com/portable_sql">http://php.weblogs.com/portable_sql</a> 
  (also available as tips_portable_sql.htm in the release) for tips on writing 
  portable SQL.</p>
<h2>Unique Features of ADOdb<a name="features"></a></h2>
<ul>
  <li><b>Easy for Windows programmers</b> to adapt to because many of the conventions 
	are similar to Microsoft's ADO.</li>
  <li>Unlike other PHP database classes which focus only on select statements, 
	<b>we provide support code to handle inserts and updates which can be adapted 
	to multiple databases quickly.</b> Methods are provided for date handling, 
	string concatenation and string quoting characters for differing databases.</li>
  <li>A<b> metatype system </b>is built in so that we can figure out that types 
	such as CHAR, TEXT and STRING are equivalent in different databases.</li>
  <li><b>Easy to port</b> because all the database dependant code are stored in 
	stub functions. You do not need to port the core logic of the classes.</li>
  <li><b>Portable table and index creation</b> with the <a href=docs-datadict.htm>datadict</a> classes.
  <li><b>Database performance monitoring and SQL tuning</b> with the <a href=docs-perf.htm>performance monitoring</a> classes.
  <li><b>Database-backed sessions</b> with the <a href=docs-session.htm>session management</a> classes. Supports session expiry notification.
</ul>
<h2>How People are using ADOdb<a name="users"></a></h2>
Here are some examples of how people are using ADOdb (for a much longer list, 
visit <a href="http://php.weblogs.com/adodb-cool-applications">http://php.weblogs.com/adodb-cool-applications</a>): 
<ul>
<li><a href="http://phplens.com/">PhpLens</a> is a commercial data grid component that allows both cool Web designers and serious unshaved programmers to develop and maintain databases on the Web easily. Developed by the author of ADOdb.<p>

<li><a href="http://www.interakt.ro/phakt/">PHAkt: PHP Extension for DreamWeaver Ultradev</a> allows you to script PHP in the popular Web page editor. Database handling provided by ADOdb.<p>

<li><a href="http://www.andrew.cmu.edu/~rdanyliw/snort/snortacid.html">Analysis Console for Intrusion Databases</a> (ACID): PHP-based analysis engine to search and process a database of security incidents generated by security-related software such as IDSes and firewalls (e.g. Snort, ipchains). By Roman Danyliw.<p>

<li><a href="http://www.postnuke.com/">PostNuke</a> is a very popular free content management
 system and weblog system. It offers full CSS support, HTML 4.01 transitional compliance throughout, an advanced blocks system, and is fully multi-lingual enabled. <p>

<li><a href=http://www.auto-net.no/easypublish.php?page=index&lang_id=2>EasyPublish CMS</a>  is another free content management system for managing information and integrated modules on your internet, intranet- and extranet-sites. From Norway.<p>

<li><a href="http://nola.noguska.com/">NOLA</a> is a full featured accounting, inventory, and job tracking application. It is licensed under the GPL, and developed by Noguska.
</ul><p>

<h2>Feature Requests and Bug Reports<a name="bugs"></a></h2>
<p>Feature requests and bug reports can be emailed to <a href="mailto:jlim#natsoft.com.my">jlim#natsoft.com.my</a> 
  or posted to the ADOdb Help forums at <a href="http://phplens.com/lens/lensforum/topics.php?id=4">http://phplens.com/lens/lensforum/topics.php?id=4</a>.</p>
<h2>Installation Guide<a name="install"></a></h2>
<p>Make sure you are running PHP 4.0.4 or later. 
  Unpack all the files into a directory accessible by your webserver.</p>
<p>To test, try modifying some of the tutorial examples. Make sure you customize 
  the connection settings correctly. You can debug using <i>$db->debug = true</i> as shown below:</p>
<pre>&lt;?php
	include('adodb/adodb.inc.php');
	$db = <a href="#adonewconnection">ADONewConnection</a>($dbdriver); # eg 'mysql' or 'postgres'
	$db->debug = true;
	$db-><a href="#connect">Connect</a>($server, $user, $password, $database);
	$rs = $db-><a href="#execute">Execute</a>('select * from some_small_table');
	print &quot;&lt;pre&gt;&quot;;
	print_r($rs-><a href="#getrows">GetRows</a>());
	print &quot;&lt;/pre&gt;&quot;;
?&gt;</pre>

 <h3>Minimum Install<a name=mininstall></a></h3>
<p>For developers who want to release a minimal install of ADOdb, you will need:
<ul>
<li>adodb.inc.php
<li>adodb-lib.inc.php
<li>adodb-time.inc.php
<li>adodb-csvlib.inc.php (if you use cached recordsets - CacheExecute(), etc)
<li>adodb-error.inc.php (if you use MetaError())
<li>drivers/adodb-$database.inc.php
<li>license.txt (for legal reasons)
</ul>

<h3>Code Initialization Examples<a name="coding"></a></h3>
<p>When running ADOdb, at least two files are loaded. First is adodb/adodb.inc.php, 
 which contains all functions used by all database classes. The code specific 
 to a particular database is in the adodb/driver/adodb-????.inc.php file.</p>
 <a name="adonewconnection">
<p>For example, to connect to a mysql database:</p>
<pre>
include('/path/to/set/here/adodb.inc.php');
$conn = &amp;ADONewConnection('mysql');
</pre>
<p>Whenever you need to connect to a database, you create a Connection object 
  using the <b>ADONewConnection</b></a>($driver) function. 
  <b>NewADOConnection</b>($driver) is an alternative name for the same function.</p>

<p>At this point, you are not connected to the database. You will first need to decide
whether to use <i>persistent</i> or <i>non-persistent</i> connections. The advantage of <i>persistent</i>
connections is that they are faster, as the database connection is never closed (even 
when you call Close()). <i>Non-persistent </i>connections take up much fewer resources though,
reducing the risk of your database and your web-server becoming overloaded. 
<p>For persistent connections,
use $conn-&gt;<a href="reference.functions.pconnect.html">PConnect()</a>,
 or $conn-&gt;<a href="reference.functions.connect.html">Connect()</a> for non-persistent connections.
Some database drivers also support <a href="reference.functions.nconnect.html">NConnect()</a>, which forces 
the creation of a new connection. 
<a name=connection_gotcha></a>
<p><i>Connection Gotcha</i>:  If you create two connections, but both use the same userid and password,
PHP will share the same connection. This can cause problems if the connections are meant to 
different databases. The solution is to always use different userid's for different databases,
 or use NConnect().

<h3>Examples of Connecting to Databases</h3>
<h4>MySQL and Most Other Database Drivers</h4>
<p>MySQL connections are very straightforward, and the parameters are identical 
  to mysql_connect:</p>
<pre>
	$conn = &amp;ADONewConnection('mysql'); 
	$conn-&gt;PConnect('localhost','userid','password','database');
 </pre>
<p> Most other database drivers use a similar convention: Connect($server, $user, $password, $database). Exceptions are listed below.
<h4>PostgreSQL</h4>
<p>PostgreSQL accepts connections using: </p>
<p>a. the standard connection string:</p>
<pre>
	$conn = &amp;ADONewConnection('postgres7'); 
	$conn-&gt;PConnect('host=localhost port=5432 dbname=mary');</pre>
<p> b. the classical 4 parameters:</p>
 <pre>
	$conn-&gt;PConnect('localhost','userid','password','database');
 </pre>
<h4>Interbase/Firebird</h4>
You define the database in the $host parameter:
<pre>
	$conn = &ADONewConnection('ibase'); 
	$conn->PConnect('localhost:c:\ibase\employee.gdb','sysdba','masterkey');
</pre>

<h4>Oracle</h4>
<p>With Oracle, you can connect in multiple ways.</p>
<p>a. PHP and Oracle reside on the same machine, use default SID.</p>
<pre>	$conn-&gt;Connect(false, 'scott', 'tiger');</pre>
<p>b. TNS Name defined, eg. 'myTNS'</p>
<pre>	$conn-&gt;PConnect(false, 'scott', 'tiger', 'myTNS');
</pre>
<p>or</p>
<pre> 	$conn-&gt;PConnect('myTNS', 'scott', 'tiger');</pre>
<p>c. Host Address and SID</p>
<pre>	$conn-&gt;Connect('192.168.0.1', 'scott', 'tiger', 'SID');</pre>
<p>d. Host Address and Service Name</p>
<pre>	$conn-&gt;Connect('192.168.0.1', 'scott', 'tiger', 'servicename');</pre>
<a name=dsnless></a>
<h4>DSN-less ODBC (access and mssql examples)</h4>
<p>ODBC DSN's can be created in the ODBC control panel, or you can use a DSN-less 
  connection.To use DSN-less connections with ODBC you need PHP 4.3 or later. 
</p>
<p>For Microsoft Access:</a></p>
<pre>
	$db =& ADONewConnection('access');
	$dsn = <strong>"Driver=&#123;Microsoft Access Driver (*.mdb)&#125;;Dbq=d:\northwind.mdb;Uid=Admin;Pwd=;";</strong>
	$db->Connect($dsn);
</pre>
For Microsoft SQL Server: 
<pre>
	$db =& ADONewConnection('odbc_mssql');
	$dsn = <strong>"Driver=&#123;SQL Server&#125;;Server=localhost;Database=northwind;"</strong>;
	$db->Connect($dsn,'userid','password');
</pre>
<b>DSN-less Connections with ADO</b><br>
If you are using versions of PHP earlier than PHP 4.3.0, DSN-less connections 
only work with Microsoft's ADO, which is Microsoft's COM based API. An example 
using the ADOdb library and Microsoft's ADO: 
<pre>
&lt;?php
	include('adodb.inc.php'); 
	$db = &ADONewConnection("ado_mssql");
	print "&lt;h1>Connecting DSN-less $db->databaseType...&lt;/h1>";
		
	<b>$myDSN="PROVIDER=MSDASQL;DRIVER=&#123;SQL Server&#125;;"
		. "SERVER=flipper;DATABASE=ai;UID=sa;PWD=;"  ;</b>
	$db->Connect($myDSN);
	
	$rs = $db->Execute("select * from table");
	$arr = $rs->GetArray();
	print_r($arr);
?>
</pre><a name=speed></a>
<h2>High Speed ADOdb - tuning tips</h2>
<p>ADOdb is a big class library, yet it <a href=http://phplens.com/lens/adodb/>consistently beats</a> all other PHP class 
  libraries in performance. This is because it is designed in a layered fashion, 
  like an onion, with the fastest functions in the innermost layer. Stick to the 
  following functions for best performance:</p>
<table width="40%" border="1" align="center">
  <tr>
    <td><div align="center"><b>Innermost Layer</b></div></td>
  </tr>
  <tr> 
    <td><p align="center">Connect, PConnect, NConnect<br>
        Execute, CacheExecute<br>
        SelectLimit, SelectLimit<br>
        MoveNext, Close </p></td>
  </tr>
</table>
<p>The fastest way to access the fields is by accessing the array $recordset->fields 
  directly. Also set the global variables <a href="#adodb_fetch_mode">$ADODB_FETCH_MODE</a> 
  = ADODB_FETCH_NUM, and <a href="#adodb_countrecs">$ADODB_COUNTRECS</a> = false 
  before you connect to your database.</p>
<p>Consider using bind parameters if your database supports it, as it improves 
  query plan reuse. Use ADOdb's performance tuning system to identify bottlenecks 
  quickly.</p>
<p>Lastly make sure you have a PHP accelerator cache installed such as APC, Turck 
  MMCache, Zend Accelerator or ionCube.</p>
<p><a name=hack></a> </p>
<h2>Hacking ADOdb Safely</h2>
<p>You might want to modify ADOdb for your own purposes. Luckily you can
still maintain backward compatibility by sub-classing ADOdb and using the $ADODB_NEWCONNECTION
variable. $ADODB_NEWCONNECTION allows you to override the behaviour of ADONewConnection().
ADOConnection() checks for this variable and will call
the function-name stored in this variable if it is defined.
<p>In the following example, new functionality for the connection object 
is placed in the <i>hack_mysql</i> and <i>hack_postgres7</i> classes. The recordset class naming convention
can be controlled using $rsPrefix. Here we set it to 'hack_rs_', which will make ADOdb use
<i>hack_rs_mysql</i> and <i>hack_rs_postgres7</i> as the recordset classes.
If you want to use the default ADOdb drivers return false.

<pre>
class hack_mysql extends adodb_mysql {
var $rsPrefix = 'hack_rs_';
  /* Your mods here */
}

class hack_rs_mysql extends ADORecordSet_mysql {
 /* Your mods here */
}

class hack_postgres7 extends adodb_postgres7 {
var $rsPrefix = 'hack_rs_';
  /* Your mods here */
}

class hack_rs_postgres7 extends ADORecordSet_postgres7 {
 /* Your mods here */
}

$ADODB_NEWCONNECTION = 'hack_factory';

function& hack_factory($driver)
{
	if ($driver !== 'mysql' && $driver !== 'postgres7') return false;
	
	$driver = 'hack_'.$driver;
	$obj = new $driver();
	return $obj;
}

include_once('adodb.inc.php');

</pre>
<p>Don't forget to call the constructor of the parent class.
<a name="php5">
<h2>PHP5 Features</h2>
 ADOdb 4.02 or later will transparently determine which version of PHP you are using.
If PHP5 is detected, the following features become available:
<ul>
<a name="php5iterators">
<li><b>Foreach iterators</b>: This is a very natural way of going through a recordset:
<pre>
	$ADODB_FETCH_MODE = ADODB_FETCH_NUM;
	$rs = $db->Execute($sql);
	foreach($rs as $k => $row) {
		echo "r1=".$row[0]." r2=".$row[1]."&lt;br>";
	}
</pre>
<p>
<a name="php5exceptions">
<li><b>Exceptions</b>: Just include <i>adodb-exceptions.inc.php</i> and you can now 
catch exceptions on errors as they occur.
<pre>
	<b>include("../adodb-exceptions.inc.php");</b> 
	include("../adodb.inc.php");	 
	try { 
		$db = NewADOConnection("oci8"); 
		$db->Connect('','scott','bad-password'); 
	} catch (exception $e) { 
		var_dump($e); 
	} 
</pre>
</ul> 
<h3><a name="drivers"></a>Databases Supported</h3>
<table width="100%" border="1">
  <tr valign="top"> 
    <td><b>Name</b></td>
    <td><b>Tested</b></td>
    <td><b>Database</b></td>
    <td><b><font size="2">RecordCount() usable</font></b></td>
    <td><b>Prerequisites</b></td>
    <td><b>Operating Systems</b></td>
  </tr>
  <tr valign="top"> 
    <td><b><font size="2">access</font></b></td>
    <td><font size="2">B</font></td>
    <td><font size="2">Microsoft Access/Jet. You need to create an ODBC DSN.</font></td>
    <td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
    <td><font size="2">ODBC </font></td>
    <td><font size="2">Windows only</font></td>
  </tr>
  <tr valign="top"> 
    <td><b><font size="2">ado</font></b></td>
    <td><font size="2">B</font></td>
    <td><p><font size="2">Generic ADO, not tuned for specific databases. Allows 
        DSN-less connections. For best performance, use an OLEDB provider. This 
        is the base class for all ado drivers.</font></p>
      <p><font size="2">You can set $db-&gt;codePage before connecting.</font></p></td>
    <td><font size="2">? depends on database</font></td>
    <td><font size="2">ADO or OLEDB provider</font></td>
    <td><font size="2">Windows only</font></td>
  </tr>
  <tr valign="top"> 
    <td><b><font size="2">ado_access</font></b></td>
    <td><font size="2">B</font></td>
    <td><font size="2">Microsoft Access/Jet using ADO. Allows DSN-less connections. 
      For best performance, use an OLEDB provider.</font></td>
    <td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
    <td><font size="2">ADO or OLEDB provider</font></td>
    <td><font size="2">Windows only</font></td>
  </tr>
  <tr valign="top"> 
    <td><b><font size="2">ado_mssql</font></b></td>
    <td><font size="2">B</font></td>
    <td><font size="2">Microsoft SQL Server using ADO. Allows DSN-less connections. 
      For best performance, use an OLEDB provider.</font></td>
    <td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
    <td><font size="2">ADO or OLEDB provider</font></td>
    <td><font size="2">Windows only</font></td>
  </tr>
  <tr valign="top"> 
    <td height="54"><b><font size="2">db2</font></b></td>
    <td height="54"><font size="2">A</font></td>
    <td height="54"><font size="2">DB2. Should work reliably as based on ODBC 
      driver.</font></td>
    <td height="54"><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
    <td height="54"><font size="2">DB2 CLI/ODBC interface</font></td>
    <td height="54"> <p><font size="2">Unix and Windows. <a href="http://www.faqts.com/knowledge_base/view.phtml/aid/6283/fid/14">Unix 
        install hints</a>.</font></p></td>
  </tr>
  <tr valign="top"> 
    <td><b><font size="2">vfp</font></b></td>
    <td><font size="2">A</font></td>
    <td><font size="2">Microsoft Visual FoxPro. You need to create an ODBC DSN.</font></td>
    <td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
    <td><font size="2">ODBC</font></td>
    <td><font size="2">Windows only</font></td>
  </tr>
  <tr valign="top"> 
    <td><b><font size="2">fbsql</font></b></td>
    <td><font size="2">C</font></td>
    <td><font size="2">FrontBase. </font></td>
    <td><font size="2">Y</font></td>
    <td><font size="2">?</font></td>
    <td> <p><font size="2">Unix and Windows</font></p></td>
  </tr>
  <tr valign="top"> 
    <td><b><font size="2">ibase</font></b></td>
    <td><font size="2">B</font></td>
    <td><font size="2">Interbase 6 or earlier. Some users report you might need 
      to use this<br>
      $db->PConnect('localhost:c:/ibase/employee.gdb', "sysdba", "masterkey") 
      to connect. Lacks Affected_Rows currently.<br>
      <br>
      You can set $db->dialect, $db-&gt;buffers and $db->charSet before connecting.</font></td>
    <td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
    <td><font size="2">Interbase client</font></td>
    <td><font size="2">Unix and Windows</font></td>
  </tr>
  <tr valign="top"> 
    <td><b><i><font size="2">firebird</font></i></b></td>
    <td><font size="2">C</font></td>
    <td><font size="2">Firebird version of interbase.</font></td>
    <td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
    <td><font size="2">Interbase client</font></td>
    <td><font size="2">Unix and Windows</font></td>
  </tr>
  <tr valign="top"> 
    <td><b><i><font size="2">borland_ibase</font></i></b></td>
    <td><font size="2">C</font></td>
    <td><font size="2">Borland version of Interbase 6.5 or later. Very sad that 
      the forks differ.</font></td>
    <td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
    <td><font size="2">Interbase client</font></td>
    <td><font size="2">Unix and Windows</font></td>
  </tr>
  <tr valign="top"> 
    <td><b><font size="2">informix72</font></b></td>
    <td><font size="2">C</font></td>
    <td><font size="2"> Informix databases before Informix 7.3 that do no support 
      SELECT FIRST.</font></td>
    <td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
    <td><font size="2">Informix client</font></td>
    <td><font size="2">Unix and Windows</font></td>
  </tr>
  <tr valign="top"> 
    <td><b><font size="2">informix</font></b></td>
    <td><font size="2">C</font></td>
    <td><font size="2">Generic informix driver.</font></td>
    <td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
    <td><font size="2">Informix client</font></td>
    <td><font size="2">Unix and Windows</font></td>
  </tr>
  <tr valign="top"> 
    <td height="73"><b><font size="2">mssql</font></b></td>
    <td height="73"><font size="2">A</font></td>
    <td height="73"> <p><font size="2">Microsoft SQL Server 7 and later. Works 
        with Microsoft SQL Server 2000 also. Note that date formating is problematic 
        with this driver. For example, the PHP mssql extension does not return 
        the seconds for datetime!</font></p></td>
    <td height="73"><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
    <td height="73"><font size="2">Mssql client</font></td>
    <td height="73"> <p><font size="2">Unix and Windows. <br>
        <a href="http://phpbuilder.com/columns/alberto20000919.php3">Unix install 
        howto</a> and <a href=http://linuxjournal.com/article.php?sid=6636&mode=thread&order=0>another 
        one</a>. </font></p></td>
  </tr>
  <tr valign="top"> 
    <td height="73"><b><font size="2">mssqlpo</font></b></td>
    <td height="73"><font size="2">A</font></td>
    <td height="73"> <p><font size="2">Portable mssql driver. Identical to above 
        mssql driver, except that '||', the concatenation operator, is converted 
        to '+'. Useful for porting scripts from most other sql variants that use 
        ||.</font></p></td>
    <td height="73"><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
    <td height="73"><font size="2">Mssql client</font></td>
    <td height="73"> <p><font size="2">Unix and Windows. <a href="http://phpbuilder.com/columns/alberto20000919.php3"><br>
        Unix install howto</a>.</font></p></td>
  </tr>
  <tr valign="top"> 
    <td><b><font size="2">mysql</font></b></td>
    <td><font size="2">A</font></td>
    <td><font size="2">MySQL without transaction support. You can also set $db-&gt;clientFlags 
      before connecting.</font></td>
    <td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
    <td><font size="2">MySQL client</font></td>
    <td><font size="2">Unix and Windows</font></td>
  </tr>
  <tr valign="top"> 
    <td><font size="2"><b>mysqlt</b> or <b>maxsql</b></font></td>
    <td><font size="2">A</font></td>
    <td> <p><font size="2">MySQL with transaction support. We recommend using 
        || as the concat operator for best portability. This can be done by running 
        MySQL using: <br>
        <i>mysqld --ansi</i> or <i>mysqld --sql-mode=PIPES_AS_CONCAT</i></font></p></td>
    <td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
    <td><font size="2">MySQL client</font></td>
    <td><font size="2">Unix and Windows</font></td>
  </tr>
  <tr valign="top"> 
    <td><b><font size="2">oci8</font></b></td>
    <td><font size="2">A</font></td>
    <td><font size="2">Oracle 8/9. Has more functionality than <i>oracle</i> driver 
      (eg. Affected_Rows). You might have to putenv('ORACLE_HOME=...') before 
      Connect/PConnect. </font> <p><font size="2"> There are 2 ways of connecting 
        - with server IP and service name: <br>
        <i>PConnect('serverip:1521','scott','tiger','service'</i>)<br>
        or using an entry in TNSNAMES.ORA or ONAMES or HOSTNAMES: <br>
        <i>PConnect(false, 'scott', 'tiger', $oraname)</i>. </font> 
      <p><font size="2">Since 2.31, we support Oracle REF cursor variables directly 
        (see <a href="#executecursor">ExecuteCursor</a>).</font> </td>
    <td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
    <td><font size="2">Oracle client</font></td>
    <td><font size="2">Unix and Windows</font></td>
  </tr>
  <tr valign="top"> 
    <td><b><font size="2">oci805</font></b></td>
    <td><font size="2">C</font></td>
    <td><font size="2">Supports reduced Oracle functionality for Oracle 8.0.5. 
      SelectLimit is not as efficient as in the oci8 or oci8po drivers.</font></td>
    <td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
    <td><font size="2">Oracle client</font></td>
    <td><font size="2">Unix and Windows</font></td>
  </tr>
  <tr valign="top"> 
    <td><b><font size="2">oci8po</font></b></td>
    <td><font size="2">A</font></td>
    <td><font size="2">Oracle 8/9 portable driver. This is nearly identical with 
      the oci8 driver except (a) bind variables in Prepare() use the ? convention, 
      instead of :bindvar, (b) field names use the more common PHP convention 
      of lowercase names. </font> <p><font size="2">Use this driver if porting 
        from other databases is important. Otherwise the oci8 driver offers better 
        performance. </font> </td>
    <td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
    <td><font size="2">Oracle client</font></td>
    <td><font size="2">Unix and Windows</font></td>
  </tr>
  <tr valign="top"> 
    <td><b><font size="2">odbc</font></b></td>
    <td><font size="2">A</font></td>
    <td><font size="2">Generic ODBC, not tuned for specific databases. To connect, 
      use <br>
      PConnect('DSN','user','pwd'). This is the base class for all odbc derived 
      drivers.</font></td>
    <td><font size="2">? depends on database</font></td>
    <td><font size="2">ODBC</font></td>
    <td><font size="2">Unix and Windows. <a href="http://phpbuilder.com/columns/alberto20000919.php3?page=4">Unix 
      hints.</a></font></td>
  </tr>
  <tr valign="top"> 
    <td><b><font size="2">odbc_mssql</font></b></td>
    <td><font size="2">C</font></td>
    <td><font size="2">Uses ODBC to connect to MSSQL</font></td>
    <td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
    <td><font size="2">ODBC</font></td>
    <td><font size="2">Unix and Windows. </font></td>
  </tr>
  <tr valign="top"> 
    <td><b><font size="2">odbc_oracle</font></b></td>
    <td><font size="2">C</font></td>
    <td><font size="2">Uses ODBC to connect to Oracle</font></td>
    <td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
    <td><font size="2">ODBC</font></td>
    <td><font size="2">Unix and Windows. </font></td>
  </tr>
  <tr valign="top"> 
    <td height="34"><b><font size="2">oracle</font></b></td>
    <td height="34"><font size="2">C</font></td>
    <td height="34"><font size="2">Implements old Oracle 7 client API. Use oci8 
      driver if possible for better performance.</font></td>
    <td height="34"><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
    <td height="34"><font size="2">Oracle client</font></td>
    <td height="34"><font size="2">Unix and Windows</font></td>
  </tr>
  <tr valign="top"> 
    <td><b><font size="2">postgres</font></b></td>
    <td><font size="2">A</font></td>
    <td><font size="2">Generic PostgreSQL driver. Currently identical to postgres7 
      driver. </font></td>
    <td><font size="2">Y</font></td>
    <td><font size="2">PostgreSQL client</font></td>
    <td><font size="2">Unix and Windows. </font></td>
  </tr>
  <tr valign="top"> 
    <td><b><font size="2">postgres64</font></b></td>
    <td><font size="2">A</font></td>
    <td><font size="2">For PostgreSQL 6.4 and earlier which does not support LIMIT 
      internally.</font></td>
    <td><font size="2">Y</font></td>
    <td><font size="2">PostgreSQL client</font></td>
    <td><font size="2">Unix and Windows. </font></td>
  </tr>
  <tr valign="top"> 
    <td><b><font size="2">postgres7</font></b></td>
    <td><font size="2">A</font></td>
    <td><font size="2">PostgreSQL which supports LIMIT and other version 7 functionality.</font></td>
    <td><font size="2">Y</font></td>
    <td><font size="2">PostgreSQL client</font></td>
    <td><font size="2">Unix and Windows. </font></td>
  </tr>
  <tr valign="top"> 
    <td><b><font size="2">sapdb</font></b></td>
    <td><font size="2">C</font></td>
    <td><font size="2">SAP DB. Should work reliably as based on ODBC driver.</font></td>
    <td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
    <td><font size="2">SAP ODBC client</font></td>
    <td> <p><font size="2">?</font></p></td>
  </tr>
  <tr valign="top"> 
    <td><b><font size="2">sqlanywhere</font></b></td>
    <td><font size="2">C</font></td>
    <td><font size="2">Sybase SQL Anywhere. Should work reliably as based on ODBC 
      driver.</font></td>
    <td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
    <td><font size="2">SQL Anywhere ODBC client</font></td>
    <td> <p><font size="2">?</font></p></td>
  </tr>
  <tr valign="top"> 
    <td height="54"><b><font size="2">sqlite</font></b></td>
    <td height="54"><font size="2">B</font></td>
    <td height="54"><font size="2">SQLite. Only tested on PHP5.</font></td>
    <td height="54"><font size="2">Y</font></td>
    <td height="54"><font size="2">-</font></td>
    <td height="54"> <p><font size="2">Unix and Windows.</font></p></td>
  </tr>
  <tr valign="top"> 
    <td><b><font size="2">sybase</font></b></td>
    <td><font size="2">C</font></td>
    <td><font size="2">Sybase. </font></td>
    <td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
    <td><font size="2">Sybase client</font></td>
    <td> <p><font size="2">Unix and Windows.</font></p></td>
  </tr>
  <p> 
</table>

<p>The &quot;Tested&quot; column indicates how extensively the code has been tested 
  and used. <br>
  A = well tested and used by many people<br>
  B = tested and usable, but some features might not be implemented<br>
  C = user contributed or experimental driver. Might not fully support all of 
  the latest features of ADOdb. </p>
<p>The column &quot;RecordCount() usable&quot; indicates whether RecordCount() 
  return the number of rows, or returns -1 when a SELECT statement is executed. 
  If this column displays Y/N then the RecordCount() is emulated when the global 
  variable $ADODB_COUNTRECS=true (this is the default). Note that for large recordsets, 
  it might be better to disable RecordCount() emulation because substantial amounts 
  of memory are required to cache the recordset for counting. Also there is a 
  speed penalty of 40-50% if emulation is required. This is emulated in most databases 
  except for PostgreSQL and MySQL. This variable is checked every time a query 
  is executed, so you can selectively choose which recordsets to count.</p>
<p> 
<hr>
<h1>Tutorials<a name="quickstart"></a></h1>
<h3>Example 1: Select Statement<a name="ex1"></a></h3>
<p>Task: Connect to the Access Northwind DSN, display the first 2 columns of each 
  row.</p>
<p>In this example, we create a ADOConnection object, which represents the connection 
  to the database. The connection is initiated with <a href="#pconnect"><font face="Courier New, Courier, mono">PConnect</font></a>, 
  which is a persistent connection. Whenever we want to query the database, we 
  call the <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono">ADOConnection.<a href="#execute">Execute</a>()</font> 
  function. This returns an ADORecordSet object which is actually a cursor that 
  holds the current row in the array <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono">fields[]</font>. 
  We use <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"><a href="#movenext">MoveNext</a>()</font> 
  to move from row to row.</p>
<p>NB: A useful function that is not used in this example is <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"><a href="#selectlimit">SelectLimit</a></font>, 
  which allows us to limit the number of rows shown. 
<pre>
&lt;?
<font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"><b>include</b>('adodb.inc.php');	   # load code common to ADOdb
$<font color="#660000">conn</font> = &amp;ADONewConnection('access');	# create a connection
$<font color="#660000">conn</font>->PConnect('northwind');   # connect to MS-Access, northwind DSN
$<font color="#660000">recordSet</font> = &amp;$<font color="#660000">conn</font>->Execute('select * from products');
if (!$<font color="#660000">recordSet</font>) 
	print $<font color="#660000">conn</font>-&gt;ErrorMsg();
else
<b>while</b> (!$<font color="#660000">recordSet</font>-&gt;EOF) &#123;
	<b>print</b> $<font color="#660000">recordSet</font>->fields[0].' '.$<font color="#660000">recordSet</font>->fields[1].'&lt;BR&gt;';
	$<font color="#660000">recordSet</font>-&gt;MoveNext();
&#125;</font><font face="Courier New, Courier, mono">

$<font color="#660000">recordSet</font>->Close(); # optional
$<font color="#660000">conn</font>->Close(); # optional
</font>
?>
</pre>
<p>The $<font face="Courier New, Courier, mono">recordSet</font> returned stores 
  the current row in the <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono">$recordSet-&gt;fields</font> 
  array, indexed by column number (starting from zero). We use the <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"><a href="#movenext">MoveNext</a>()</font> 
  function to move to the next row. The <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono">EOF</font> 
  property is set to true when end-of-file is reached. If an error occurs in Execute(), 
  we return false instead of a recordset.</p>
<p>The <code>$recordSet-&gt;fields[]</code> array is generated by the PHP database 
  extension. Some database extensions only index by number and do not index the 
  array by field name. To force indexing by name - that is associative arrays 
  - use the SetFetchMode function. Each recordset saves and uses whatever fetch 
  mode was set when the recordset was created in Execute() or SelectLimit(). 
<pre>
	$db->SetFetchMode(ADODB_FETCH_NUM);
	$rs1 = $db->Execute('select * from table');
	$db->SetFetchMode(ADODB_FETCH_ASSOC);
	$rs2 = $db->Execute('select * from table');
	print_r($rs1->fields); # shows <i>array([0]=>'v0',[1] =>'v1')</i>
	print_r($rs2->fields); # shows <i>array(['col1']=>'v0',['col2'] =>'v1')</i>
</pre>
<p> </p>
<p>To get the number of rows in the select statement, you can use <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono">$recordSet-&gt;<a href="#recordcount">RecordCount</a>()</font>. 
  Note that it can return -1 if the number of rows returned cannot be determined.</p>
<h3>Example 2: Advanced Select with Field Objects<a name="ex2"></a></h3>
<p>Select a table, display the first two columns. If the second column is a date 
  or timestamp, reformat the date to US format.</p>
<pre>
&lt;?
<font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"><b>include</b>('adodb.inc.php');	   # load code common to ADOdb
$<font color="#660000">conn</font> = &amp;ADONewConnection('access');	# create a connection
$<font color="#660000">conn</font>->PConnect('northwind');   # connect to MS-Access, northwind dsn
$<font color="#660000">recordSet</font> = &amp;$<font color="#660000">conn</font>->Execute('select CustomerID,OrderDate from Orders');
if (!$<font color="#660000">recordSet</font>) 
	print $<font color="#660000">conn</font>-&gt;ErrorMsg();
else
<b>while</b> (!$<font color="#660000">recordSet</font>-&gt;EOF) &#123;
	$<font color="#660000">fld</font> = <font color="#336600"><b>$</b><font color="#660000">recordSet</font><b>-&gt;FetchField</b></font><font color="#006600">(</font>1<font color="#006600">);</font>
	$<font color="#660000">type</font> = <font color="#336600"><b>$</b><font color="#660000">recordSet</font><b>-&gt;MetaType</b></font>($fld-&gt;type);

	<b>if</b> ( $<font color="#660000">type</font> == 'D' || $<font color="#660000">type</font> == 'T') 
		<b>print</b> $<font color="#660000">recordSet</font>-&gt;fields[0].' '.
			<b><font color="#336600">$</font></b><font color="#660000">recordSet</font><b><font color="#336600">-&gt;UserDate</font></b>($<font color="#660000">recordSet</font>-&gt;fields[1],'<b>m/d/Y</b>').'&lt;BR&gt;';
	<b>else </b>
		<b>print</b> $<font color="#660000">recordSet</font>->fields[0].' '.$<font color="#660000">recordSet</font>->fields[1].'&lt;BR&gt;';

	$<font color="#660000">recordSet</font>-&gt;MoveNext();
&#125;</font><font face="Courier New, Courier, mono">
$<font color="#660000">recordSet</font>->Close(); # optional
$<font color="#660000">conn</font>->Close(); # optional
</font>
?>
</pre>
<p>In this example, we check the field type of the second column using <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"><a href="#fetchfield">FetchField</a>().</font> 
  This returns an object with at least 3 fields.</p>
<ul>
  <li><b>name</b>: name of column</li>
  <li> <b>type</b>: native field type of column</li>
  <li> <b>max_length</b>: maximum length of field. Some databases such as MySQL 
    do not return the maximum length of the field correctly. In these cases max_length 
    will be set to -1.</li>
</ul>
<p>We then use <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"><a href="#metatype">MetaType</a>()</font> 
  to translate the native type to a <i>generic</i> type. Currently the following 
  <i>generic</i> types are defined:</p>
<ul>
  <li><b>C</b>: character fields that should be shown in a &lt;input type=&quot;text&quot;&gt; 
    tag.</li>
  <li><b>X</b>: TeXt, large text fields that should be shown in a &lt;textarea&gt;</li>
  <li><b>B</b>: Blobs, or Binary Large Objects. Typically images. 
  <li><b>D</b>: Date field</li>
  <li><b>T</b>: Timestamp field</li>
  <li><b>L</b>: Logical field (boolean or bit-field)</li>
  <li><b>I</b>:&nbsp; Integer field</li>
  <li><b>N</b>: Numeric field. Includes autoincrement, numeric, floating point, 
    real and integer. </li>
  <li><b>R</b>: Serial field. Includes serial, autoincrement integers. This works 
    for selected databases. </li>
</ul>
<p>If the metatype is of type date or timestamp, then we print it using the user 
  defined date format with <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"><a href="#userdate">UserDate</a>(),</font> 
  which converts the PHP SQL date string format to a user defined one. Another 
  use for <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"><a href="#metatype">MetaType</a>()</font> 
  is data validation before doing an SQL insert or update.</p>
<h3>Example 3: Inserting<a name="ex3"></a></h3>
<p>Insert a row to the Orders table containing dates and strings that need to 
  be quoted before they can be accepted by the database, eg: the single-quote 
  in the word <i>John's</i>.</p>
<pre>
&lt;?
<b>include</b>('adodb.inc.php');	   # load code common to ADOdb
$<font color="#660000">conn</font> = &amp;ADONewConnection('access');	# create a connection

$<font color="#660000">conn</font>->PConnect('northwind');   # connect to MS-Access, northwind dsn
$<font color="#660000">shipto</font> = <font color="#006600"><b>$conn-&gt;qstr</b></font>(&quot;<i>John's Old Shoppe</i>&quot;);

$<font color="#660000">sql</font> = &quot;insert into orders (customerID,EmployeeID,OrderDate,ShipName) &quot;;
$<font color="#660000">sql</font> .= &quot;values ('ANATR',2,&quot;.<b><font color="#006600">$conn-&gt;DBDate(</font>time()<font color="#006600">)</font></b><font color="#006600">.</font>&quot;,$<font color="#660000">shipto</font>)&quot;;

<b>if</b> ($<font color="#660000">conn</font>->Execute($<font color="#660000">sql</font>) <font color="#336600"><b>=== false</b></font>) &#123;
	<b>print</b> 'error inserting: '.<font color="#336600"><b>$conn-&gt;ErrorMsg()</b></font>.'&lt;BR&gt;';
&#125;
?>
</pre>
<p>In this example, we see the advanced date and quote handling facilities of 
  ADOdb. The unix timestamp (which is a long integer) is appropriately formated 
  for Access with <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"><a href="#dbdate">DBDate</a>()</font>, 
  and the right escape character is used for quoting the <i>John's Old Shoppe</i>, 
  which is<b> </b><i>John'<b>'</b>s Old Shoppe</i> and not PHP's default <i>John<b>'</b>s 
  Old Shoppe</i> with <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"><a href="#qstr">qstr</a>()</font>. 
</p>
<p>Observe the error-handling of the Execute statement. False is returned by<font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"> 
  <a href="#execute">Execute</a>() </font>if an error occured. The error message 
  for the last error that occurred is displayed in <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"><a href="#errormsg">ErrorMsg</a>()</font>. 
  Note: <i>php_track_errors</i> might have to be enabled for error messages to 
  be saved.</p>
<h3> Example 4: Debugging<a name="ex4"></a></h3>
<pre>&lt;?
<b>include</b>('adodb.inc.php');	   # load code common to ADOdb
$<font color="#663300">conn</font> = &amp;ADONewConnection('access');	# create a connection
$<font color="#663300">conn</font>->PConnect('northwind');   # connect to MS-Access, northwind dsn
<font color="#000000">$<font color="#663300">shipto</font> = <b>$conn-&gt;qstr</b>(&quot;John's Old Shoppe&quot;);
$<font color="#663300">sql</font> = &quot;insert into orders (customerID,EmployeeID,OrderDate,ShipName) &quot;;
$<font color="#663300">sql</font> .= &quot;values ('ANATR',2,&quot;.$<font color="#663300">conn</font>-&gt;FormatDate(time()).&quot;,$shipto)&quot;;
<b><font color="#336600">$<font color="#663300">conn</font>-&gt;debug = true;</font></b>
<b>if</b> ($<font color="#663300">conn</font>->Execute($sql) <b>=== false</b>) <b>print</b> 'error inserting';</font>
?&gt;
</pre>
<p>In the above example, we have turned on debugging by setting <b>debug = true</b>. 
  This will display the SQL statement before execution, and also show any error 
  messages. There is no need to call <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"><a href="#errormsg">ErrorMsg</a>()</font> 
  in this case. For displaying the recordset, see the <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"><a href="#exrs2html">rs2html</a>() 
  </font>example.</p>
<p>Also see the section on <a href=#errorhandling>Custom Error Handlers</a>.</p>
<h3>Example 5: MySQL and Menus<a name="ex5"></a></h3>
<p>Connect to MySQL database <i>agora</i>, and generate a &lt;select&gt; menu 
  from an SQL statement where the &lt;option&gt; captions are in the 1st column, 
  and the value to send back to the server is in the 2nd column.</p>
<pre>&lt;?
<b>include</b>('adodb.inc.php'); # load code common to ADOdb
$<font color="#663300">conn</font> = &amp;ADONewConnection('mysql');  # create a connection
$<font color="#663300">conn</font>->PConnect('localhost','userid','','agora');# connect to MySQL, agora db
<font color="#000000">$<font color="#663300">sql</font> = 'select CustomerName, CustomerID from customers';
$<font color="#663300">rs</font> = $<font color="#663300">conn</font>->Execute($sql);
<b>print</b> <b><font color="#336600">$<font color="#663300">rs</font>-&gt;GetMenu('GetCust','Mary Rosli');
?&gt;</font></b></font></pre>
<p>Here we define a menu named GetCust, with the menu option 'Mary Rosli' selected. 
  See <a href="#getmenu"><font face="Courier New, Courier, mono">GetMenu</font></a><font face="Courier New, Courier, mono">()</font>. 
  We also have functions that return the recordset as an array: <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"><a href="#getarray">GetArray</a>()</font>, 
  and as an associative array with the key being the first column: <a href="#getassoc1">GetAssoc</a>().</p>
<h3>Example 6: Connecting to 2 Databases At Once<a name="ex6"></a></h3>
<pre>&lt;?
<b>include</b>('adodb.inc.php');	 # load code common to ADOdb
$<font color="#663300">conn1</font> = &amp;ADONewConnection('mysql');  # create a mysql connection
$<font color="#663300">conn2</font> = &amp;ADONewConnection('oracle');  # create a oracle connection

$conn1-&gt;PConnect($server, $userid, $password, $database);
$conn2-&gt;PConnect(false, $ora_userid, $ora_pwd, $oraname);

$conn1-&gt;Execute('insert ...');
$conn2-&gt;Execute('update ...');
?&gt;</pre>
<p> 
<h3>Example 7: Generating Update and Insert SQL<a name="ex7"></a></h3>
ADOdb 1.31 and later supports two new recordset functions: GetUpdateSQL( ) and 
GetInsertSQL( ). This allow you to perform a "SELECT * FROM table query WHERE...", 
make a copy of the $rs->fields, modify the fields, and then generate the SQL to 
update or insert into the table automatically. 
<p> We show how the functions can be used when accessing a table with the following 
  fields: (ID, FirstName, LastName, Created). 
<p> Before these functions can be called, you need to initialize the recordset 
  by performing a select on the table. Idea and code by Jonathan Younger jyounger#unilab.com. 
<p> 
<pre>&lt;?
#==============================================
# SAMPLE GetUpdateSQL() and GetInsertSQL() code
#==============================================
include('adodb.inc.php');
include('tohtml.inc.php');

#==========================
# This code tests an insert

$sql = "SELECT * FROM ADOXYZ WHERE id = -1"; 
# Select an empty record from the database

$conn = &ADONewConnection("mysql");  # create a connection
$conn->debug=1;
$conn->PConnect("localhost", "admin", "", "test"); # connect to MySQL, testdb
$rs = $conn->Execute($sql); # Execute the query and get the empty recordset

$record = array(); # Initialize an array to hold the record data to insert

# Set the values for the fields in the record
# Note that field names are case-insensitive
$record["firstname"] = "Bob";
$record["lastNamE"] = "Smith";
$record["creaTed"] = time();

# Pass the empty recordset and the array containing the data to insert
# into the GetInsertSQL function. The function will process the data and return
# a fully formatted insert sql statement.
$insertSQL = $conn->GetInsertSQL($rs, $record);

$conn->Execute($insertSQL); # Insert the record into the database

#==========================
# This code tests an update

$sql = "SELECT * FROM ADOXYZ WHERE id = 1"; 
# Select a record to update

$rs = $conn->Execute($sql); # Execute the query and get the existing record to update

$record = array(); # Initialize an array to hold the record data to update

# Set the values for the fields in the record
# Note that field names are case-insensitive
$record["firstname"] = "Caroline";
$record["LasTnAme"] = "Smith"; # Update Caroline's lastname from Miranda to Smith

# Pass the single record recordset and the array containing the data to update
# into the GetUpdateSQL function. The function will process the data and return
# a fully formatted update sql statement with the correct WHERE clause.
# If the data has not changed, no recordset is returned
$updateSQL = $conn->GetUpdateSQL($rs, $record);

$conn->Execute($updateSQL); # Update the record in the database
$conn->Close();
?>
</pre>
<h3>Example 8: Implementing Scrolling with Next and Previous<a name="ex8"></a></h3>
<p> The following code creates a very simple recordset pager, where you can scroll 
  from page to page of a recordset.</p>
<pre>
include_once('../adodb.inc.php');
include_once('../adodb-pager.inc.php');
session_start();

$db = NewADOConnection('mysql');

$db->Connect('localhost','root','','xphplens');

$sql = "select * from adoxyz ";

$pager = new ADODB_Pager($db,$sql);
$pager->Render($rows_per_page=5);</pre>
<p>This will create a basic record pager that looks like this: <a name="scr"></a> 
<p> 
<table border=1 bgcolor=beige>
  <tr> 
    <td> <a href="#scr"><code>|&lt;</code></a> &nbsp; <a href="#scr"><code>&lt;&lt;</code></a> 
      &nbsp; <a href="#scr"><code>>></code></a> &nbsp; <a href="#scr"><code>>|</code></a> 
      &nbsp; </td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td><TABLE COLS=4 width=100% border=1 bgcolor=white>
        <TH>ID</TH>
        <TH>First Name</TH>
        <TH>Last Name</TH>
        <TH>Date Created</TH>
        <TR> 
          <TD align=right>36&nbsp;</TD>
          <TD>Alan&nbsp;</TD>
          <TD>Turing&nbsp;</TD>
          <TD>Sat 06, Oct 2001&nbsp;</TD>
        </TR>
        <TR> 
          <TD align=right>37&nbsp;</TD>
          <TD>Serena&nbsp;</TD>
          <TD>Williams&nbsp;</TD>
          <TD>Sat 06, Oct 2001&nbsp;</TD>
        </TR>
        <TR> 
          <TD align=right>38&nbsp;</TD>
          <TD>Yat Sun&nbsp;</TD>
          <TD>Sun&nbsp;</TD>
          <TD>Sat 06, Oct 2001&nbsp;</TD>
        </TR>
        <TR> 
          <TD align=right>39&nbsp;</TD>
          <TD>Wai Hun&nbsp;</TD>
          <TD>See&nbsp;</TD>
          <TD>Sat 06, Oct 2001&nbsp;</TD>
        </TR>
        <TR> 
          <TD align=right>40&nbsp;</TD>
          <TD>Steven&nbsp;</TD>
          <TD>Oey&nbsp;</TD>
          <TD>Sat 06, Oct 2001&nbsp;</TD>
        </TR>
      </TABLE></td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td><font size=-1>Page 8/10</font></td>
  </tr>
</table>
<p>The number of rows to display at one time is controled by the Render($rows) 
  method. If you do not pass any value to Render(), ADODB_Pager will default to 
  10 records per page. 
<p>You can control the column titles by modifying your SQL (supported by most 
  databases): 
<pre>$sql = 'select id as &quot;ID&quot;, firstname as &quot;First Name&quot;, 
		  lastname as &quot;Last Name&quot;, created as &quot;Date Created&quot; <br>		from adoxyz';</pre>
<p>The above code can be found in the <i>adodb/tests/testpaging.php</i> example 
  included with this release, and the class ADODB_Pager in <i>adodb/adodb-pager.inc.php</i>. 
  The ADODB_Pager code can be adapted by a programmer so that the text links can 
  be replaced by images, and the dull white background be replaced with more interesting 
  colors. 
<p>You can also allow display of html by setting $pager->htmlSpecialChars = false. 
<p>Some of the code used here was contributed by Iv&aacute;n Oliva and Cornel 
  G. </p>
<h3><a name="ex9"></a>Example 9: Exporting in CSV or Tab-Delimited Format</h3>
<p>We provide some helper functions to export in comma-separated-value (CSV) and 
  tab-delimited formats:</p>
<pre><b>include_once('/path/to/adodb/toexport.inc.php');</b><br>include_once('/path/to/adodb/adodb.inc.php');<br>
$db = &amp;NewADOConnection('mysql');<br>$db-&gt;Connect($server, $userid, $password, $database);<br><br>$rs = $db-&gt;Execute('select fname as &quot;First Name&quot;, surname as &quot;Surname&quot; from table');

print &quot;&lt;pre&gt;&quot;;<br>print <b>rs2csv</b>($rs); # return a string, CSV format<p>print '&lt;hr&gt;';
<br>$rs-&gt;MoveFirst(); # note, some databases do not support MoveFirst<br>print <b>rs2tab</b>($rs,<i>false</i>); # return a string, tab-delimited
						 # false == suppress field names in first line</p>print '&lt;hr&gt;';<br>$rs-&gt;MoveFirst();<br><b>rs2tabout</b>($rs); # send to stdout directly (there is also an rs2csvout function)
print &quot;&lt;/pre&gt;&quot;;

$rs-&gt;MoveFirst();<br><b></b>$fp = fopen($path, &quot;w&quot;);
if ($fp) {<br>  <b>rs2csvfile</b>($rs, $fp); # write to file (there is also an rs2tabfile function)
  fclose($fp);<br>}
</pre>
<p> Carriage-returns or newlines are converted to spaces. Field names are returned 
  in the first line of text. Strings containing the delimiter character are quoted 
  with double-quotes. Double-quotes are double-quoted again. This conforms to 
  Excel import and export guide-lines. 
<p>All the above functions take as an optional last parameter, $addtitles which 
  defaults to <i>true</i>. When set to <i>false</i> field names in the first line 
  are suppressed. <br>
<h3>Example 10: Recordset Filters<a name="ex10"></a></h3>
<p>Sometimes we want to pre-process all rows in a recordset before we use it. 
  For example, we want to ucwords all text in recordset. 
<pre>
include_once('adodb/rsfilter.inc.php');
include_once('adodb/adodb.inc.php');

// ucwords() every element in the recordset
function do_ucwords(&$arr,$rs)
&#123;
	foreach($arr as $k => $v) &#123;
		$arr[$k] = ucwords($v);
	&#125;
&#125;

$db = NewADOConnection('mysql');
$db->PConnect('server','user','pwd','db');

$rs = $db->Execute('select ... from table');
$rs = <b>RSFilter</b>($rs,'do_ucwords');
</pre>
<p>The <i>RSFilter</i> function takes 2 parameters, the recordset, and the name 
  of the <i>filter</i> function. It returns the processed recordset scrolled to 
  the first record. The <i>filter</i> function takes two parameters, the current 
  row as an array, and the recordset object. For future compatibility, you should 
  not use the original recordset object. </p>
<h3>Example 11:<a name="ex11"></a> Smart Transactions</h3>
The old way of doing transactions required you to use 
<pre>
$conn-><b>BeginTrans</b>();
$ok = $conn->Execute($sql);
if ($ok) $ok = $conn->Execute($sql2);
if (!$ok) $conn-><b>RollbackTrans</b>();
else $conn-><b>CommitTrans</b>();
</pre>
This is very complicated for large projects because you have to track the error 
status. Smart Transactions is much simpler. You start a smart transaction by calling 
StartTrans(): 
<pre>
$conn-><b>StartTrans</b>();
$conn->Execute($sql);
$conn->Execute($Sql2);
$conn-><b>CompleteTrans</b>();
</pre>
CompleteTrans() detects when an SQL error occurs, and will Rollback/Commit as 
appropriate. To specificly force a rollback even if no error occured, use FailTrans(). 
Note that the rollback is done in CompleteTrans(), and not in FailTrans(). 
<pre>
$conn-><b>StartTrans</b>();
$conn->Execute($sql);
if (!CheckRecords()) $conn-><strong>FailTrans</strong>();
$conn->Execute($Sql2);
$conn-><b>CompleteTrans</b>();
</pre>
<p>You can also check if a transaction has failed, using HasFailedTrans(), which 
  returns true if FailTrans() was called, or there was an error in the SQL execution. 
  Make sure you call HasFailedTrans() before you call CompleteTrans(), as it is 
  only works between StartTrans/CompleteTrans.
<p>Lastly, StartTrans/CompleteTrans is nestable, and only the outermost block 
  is executed. In contrast, BeginTrans/CommitTrans/RollbackTrans is NOT nestable. 
<pre>
$conn-><strong>StartTrans</strong>();
$conn->Execute($sql);
  $conn-><strong>StartTrans</strong>();    <font color="#006600"># ignored</font>
  if (!CheckRecords()) $conn->FailTrans();
  $conn-><strong>CompleteTrans</strong>(); <font color="#006600"># ignored</font>
$conn->Execute($Sql2);
$conn-><strong>CompleteTrans</strong>();
</pre>
<p>Note: Savepoints are currently not supported. 
<h2><a name="errorhandling"></a>Using Custom Error Handlers and PEAR_Error</h2>
Apart from the old $con->debug = true; way of debugging, ADOdb 1.50 onwards provides 
another way of handling errors using ADOdb's custom error handlers. 
<p> ADOdb provides two custom handlers which you can modify for your needs. The 
  first one is in the <b>adodb-errorhandler.inc.php</b> file. This makes use of 
  the standard PHP functions <a href=http://php.net/error_reporting>error_reporting</a> 
  to control what error messages types to display, and <a href=http://php.net/trigger_error>trigger_error</a> 
  which invokes the default PHP error handler. 
<p> Including the above file will cause <i>trigger_error($errorstring,E_USER_ERROR)</i> 
  to be called when<br>
  (a) Connect() or PConnect() fails, or <br>
  (b) a function that executes SQL statements such as Execute() or SelectLimit() 
  has an error.<br>
  (c) GenID() appears to go into an infinite loop. 
<p> The $errorstring is generated by ADOdb and will contain useful debugging information 
  similar to the error.log data generated below. This file adodb-errorhandler.inc.php 
  should be included before you create any ADOConnection objects. 
<p> If you define error_reporting(0), no errors will be passed to the error handler. 
  If you set error_reporting(E_ALL), all errors will be passed to the error handler. 
  You still need to use <b>ini_set("display_errors", "0" or "1")</b> to control 
  the display of errors. 
<pre>
&lt;?php
<b>error_reporting(E_ALL); # pass any error messages triggered to error handler
include('adodb-errorhandler.inc.php');</b>
include('adodb.inc.php');
include('tohtml.inc.php');
$c = NewADOConnection('mysql');
$c->PConnect('localhost','root','','northwind');
$rs=$c->Execute('select * from productsz'); #invalid table productsz');
if ($rs) $rs2html($rs);
?>
</pre>
<p> If you want to log the error message, you can do so by defining the following 
  optional constants ADODB_ERROR_LOG_TYPE and ADODB_ERROR_LOG_DEST. ADODB_ERROR_LOG_TYPE 
  is the error log message type (see <a href=http://php.net/error_log>error_log</a> 
  in the PHP manual). In this case we set it to 3, which means log to the file 
  defined by the constant ADODB_ERROR_LOG_DEST. 
<pre>
&lt;?php
<b>error_reporting(E_ALL); # report all errors
ini_set("display_errors", "0"); # but do not echo the errors
define('ADODB_ERROR_LOG_TYPE',3);
define('ADODB_ERROR_LOG_DEST','C:/errors.log');
include('adodb-errorhandler.inc.php');</b>
include('adodb.inc.php');
include('tohtml.inc.php');

$c = NewADOConnection('mysql');
$c->PConnect('localhost','root','','northwind');
$rs=$c->Execute('select * from productsz'); ## invalid table productsz
if ($rs) $rs2html($rs);
?>
</pre>
The following message will be logged in the error.log file: 
<pre>
(2001-10-28 14:20:38) mysql error: [1146: Table 'northwind.productsz' doesn't exist] in
 EXECUTE("select * from productsz")
</pre>
The second error handler is <b>adodb-errorpear.inc.php</b>. This will create a 
PEAR_Error derived object whenever an error occurs. The last PEAR_Error object 
created can be retrieved using ADODB_Pear_Error(). 
<pre>
&lt;?php
<b>include('adodb-errorpear.inc.php');</b>
include('adodb.inc.php');
include('tohtml.inc.php');
$c = NewADOConnection('mysql');
$c->PConnect('localhost','root','','northwind');
$rs=$c->Execute('select * from productsz'); #invalid table productsz');
if ($rs) $rs2html($rs);
else &#123;
	<b>$e = ADODB_Pear_Error();
	echo '&lt;p>',$e->message,'&lt;/p>';</b>
&#125;
?>
</pre>
<p> You can use a PEAR_Error derived class by defining the constant ADODB_PEAR_ERROR_CLASS 
  before the adodb-errorpear.inc.php file is included. For easy debugging, you 
  can set the default error handler in the beginning of the PHP script to PEAR_ERROR_DIE, 
  which will cause an error message to be printed, then halt script execution: 
<pre>
include('PEAR.php');
PEAR::setErrorHandling('PEAR_ERROR_DIE');
</pre>
<p> Note that we do not explicitly return a PEAR_Error object to you when an error 
  occurs. We return false instead. You have to call ADODB_Pear_Error() to get 
  the last error or use the PEAR_ERROR_DIE technique. 
<h4>Error Messages</h4>
<p>Error messages are outputted using the static method ADOConnnection::outp($msg,$newline=true). 
  By default, it sends the messages to the client. You can override this to perform 
  error-logging. 
<h2><a name="dsn"></a> Data Source Names</h2>
<p>We now support connecting using PEAR style DSN's. A DSN is a connection string 
  of the form:</p>
<p>$dsn = <i>&quot;$driver://$username:$password@$hostname/$databasename&quot;</i>;</p>
<p>You pass the DSN to the static class function DB::Connect. An example:</p>
<pre>   include_once('../adodb/adodb-pear.inc.php');
   $username = 'root';
   $password = '';
   $hostname = 'localhost';
   $databasename = 'xphplens';
   $driver = 'mysql';
   $dsn = &quot;$driver://$username:$password@$hostname/$databasename&quot;;</pre>
<pre>   $db = DB::Connect($dsn);<br>   $rs = $db-&gt;Execute('select firstname,lastname from adoxyz');
   $cnt = 0;
   while ($arr = $rs-&gt;FetchRow()) {
		print_r($arr); print &quot;&lt;br&gt;&quot;;
   }</pre>
<p>This requires PEAR to be installed and in the default include path in php.ini.</p>
<h2><a name="caching"></a>Caching of Recordsets</h2>
<p>ADOdb now supports caching of recordsets using the CacheExecute( ), CachePageExecute( 
  ) and CacheSelectLimit( ) functions. There are similar to the non-cache functions, 
  except that they take a new first parameter, $secs2cache. 
<p> An example: 
<pre>
<b>include</b>('adodb.inc.php'); # load code common to ADOdb
$ADODB_CACHE_DIR = '/usr/ADODB_cache';
$<font color="#663300">conn</font> = &amp;ADONewConnection('mysql');  # create a connection
$<font color="#663300">conn</font>->PConnect('localhost','userid','','agora');# connect to MySQL, agora db
<font color="#000000">$<font color="#663300">sql</font> = 'select CustomerName, CustomerID from customers';
$<font color="#663300">rs</font> = $<font color="#663300">conn</font>->CacheExecute(15,$sql);</font></pre>
<p><font color="#000000"> The first parameter is the number of seconds to cache 
  the query. Subsequent calls to that query will used the cached version stored 
  in $ADODB_CACHE_DIR. To force a query to execute and flush the cache, call CacheExecute() 
  with the first parameter set to zero. Alternatively, use the CacheFlush($sql) 
  call. </font></p>
<p><font color="#000000">For the sake of security, we recommend you set <i>register_globals=off</i> 
  in php.ini if you are using $ADODB_CACHE_DIR.</font></p>
<p>In ADOdb 1.80 onwards, the secs2cache parameter is optional in CacheSelectLimit() 
  and CacheExecute(). If you leave it out, it will use the $connection->cacheSecs 
  parameter, which defaults to 60 minutes. 
<pre>
	$conn->Connect(...);
	$conn->cacheSecs = 3600*24; # cache 24 hours
	$rs = $conn->CacheExecute('select * from table');
</pre>
<p>Please note that magic_quotes_runtime should be turned off. <a href=http://phplens.com/lens/lensforum/msgs.php?LeNs#LensBM_forummsg>More 
  info</a>. <font color="#000000"> 
<h2><a name="pivot"></a>Pivot Tables</h2>
</font> <p><font color="#000000">Since ADOdb 2.30, we support the generation of 
SQL to create pivot tables, also known as cross-tabulations. For further explanation 
read this DevShed <a href=http://www.devshed.com/Server_Side/MySQL/MySQLWiz/>Cross-Tabulation 
tutorial. We assume that your database supports the SQL case-when expression. </font></p> 
<font color="#000000"> 
<p>In this example, we will use the Northwind database from Microsoft. In the 
  database, we have a products table, and we want to analyze this table by <i>suppliers 
  versus product categories</i>. We will place the suppliers on each row, and 
  pivot on categories. So from the table on the left, we generate the pivot-table 
  on the right:</p>
</font> 
<table border="0" cellspacing="2" cellpadding="2" align="center">
  <tr>
	<td>
	  <table border="1" cellspacing="2" cellpadding="2" align="center" width="142">
		<tr> 
		  <td><i>Supplier</i></td>
		  <td><i>Category</i></td>
		</tr>
		<tr> 
		  <td>supplier1</td>
		  <td>category1</td>
		</tr>
		<tr> 
		  <td>supplier2</td>
		  			<td>category1</td>
		</tr>
		<tr> 
		  			<td>supplier2</td>
		  <td>category2</td>
		</tr>
	  </table>
	</td>
	<td> <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono">--&gt;</font></td>
	<td>
	  <table border="1" cellspacing="2" cellpadding="2" align="center">
		<tr> 
		  <td>&nbsp;</td>
		  <td><i>category1</i></td>
		  <td><i>category2</i></td>
		  <td><i>total</i></td>
		</tr>
		<tr> 
		  <td><i>supplier1</i></td>
		  <td align="right">1</td>
		  <td align="right">0</td>
		  <td align="right">1</td>
		</tr>
		<tr> 
		  <td><i>supplier2</i></td>
		  <td align="right">1</td>
		  <td align="right">1</td>
		  <td align="right">2</td>
		</tr>
	  </table>
	</td>
  </tr>
</table>
<font color="#000000"> 
<p>The following code will generate the SQL for a cross-tabulation: 
<pre>
# Query the main "product" table
# Set the rows to CompanyName
# and the columns to the values of Categories
# and define the joins to link to lookup tables 
# "categories" and "suppliers"
#
 include &quot;adodb/pivottable.php&quot;;
 $sql = PivotTableSQL(
 	$gDB,                                      # adodb connection
 	'products p ,categories c ,suppliers s',   # tables
	'CompanyName',                             # rows (multiple fields allowed)
	'CategoryName',                            # column to pivot on 
	'p.CategoryID = c.CategoryID and s.SupplierID= p.SupplierID' # joins/where
);
</pre>
</font> 
<p><font color="#000000"> This will generate the following SQL:</font></p>
<p><code><font size="2">SELECT CompanyName, <br>
  SUM(CASE WHEN CategoryName='Beverages' THEN 1 ELSE 0 END) AS &quot;Beverages&quot;, 
  <br>
  SUM(CASE WHEN CategoryName='Condiments' THEN 1 ELSE 0 END) AS &quot;Condiments&quot;, 
  <br>
  SUM(CASE WHEN CategoryName='Confections' THEN 1 ELSE 0 END) AS &quot;Confections&quot;, 
  <br>
  SUM(CASE WHEN CategoryName='Dairy Products' THEN 1 ELSE 0 END) AS &quot;Dairy 
  Products&quot;, <br>
  SUM(CASE WHEN CategoryName='Grains/Cereals' THEN 1 ELSE 0 END) AS &quot;Grains/Cereals&quot;, 
  <br>
  SUM(CASE WHEN CategoryName='Meat/Poultry' THEN 1 ELSE 0 END) AS &quot;Meat/Poultry&quot;, 
  <br>
  SUM(CASE WHEN CategoryName='Produce' THEN 1 ELSE 0 END) AS &quot;Produce&quot;, 
  <br>
  SUM(CASE WHEN CategoryName='Seafood' THEN 1 ELSE 0 END) AS &quot;Seafood&quot;, 
  <br>
  SUM(1) as Total <br>
  FROM products p ,categories c ,suppliers s WHERE p.CategoryID = c.CategoryID 
  and s.SupplierID= p.SupplierID <br>
  GROUP BY CompanyName</font></code></p>
<p> You can also pivot on <i>numerical columns</i> and <i>generate totals</i> 
	by using ranges. <font color="#000000">This code was revised in ADODB 2.41 
	and is not backward compatible.</font> The second example shows this:</p>
<pre>
 $sql = PivotTableSQL(
 	$gDB,                                       # adodb connection
 	'products p ,categories c ,suppliers s',    # tables
	'CompanyName',                              #<font color="#000000"> rows (multiple fields allowed)</font>
   array(                                       # column ranges
	' 0 '      => 'UnitsInStock <= 0',
	"1 to 5"   => '0 < UnitsInStock and UnitsInStock <= 5',
	"6 to 10"  => '5 < UnitsInStock and UnitsInStock <= 10',
	"11 to 15" => '10 < UnitsInStock and UnitsInStock <= 15',
	"16+"      => '15 < UnitsInStock'
	),
	' p.CategoryID = c.CategoryID and s.SupplierID= p.SupplierID', # joins/where
	'UnitsInStock',                             # sum this field
	'Sum '                                      # sum label prefix
);
</pre> 
<p>Which generates: </p>
<p> <code> <font size="2">SELECT CompanyName, <br>
	SUM(CASE WHEN UnitsInStock &lt;= 0 THEN UnitsInStock ELSE 0 END) AS &quot;Sum 
	0 &quot;, <br>
	SUM(CASE WHEN 0 &lt; UnitsInStock and UnitsInStock &lt;= 5 THEN UnitsInStock 
	ELSE 0 END) AS &quot;Sum 1 to 5&quot;,<br>
	SUM(CASE WHEN 5 &lt; UnitsInStock and UnitsInStock &lt;= 10 THEN UnitsInStock 
	ELSE 0 END) AS &quot;Sum 6 to 10&quot;,<br>
	SUM(CASE WHEN 10 &lt; UnitsInStock and UnitsInStock &lt;= 15 THEN UnitsInStock 
	ELSE 0 END) AS &quot;Sum 11 to 15&quot;, <br>
	SUM(CASE WHEN 15 &lt; UnitsInStock THEN UnitsInStock ELSE 0 END) AS &quot;Sum 
	16+&quot;, <br>
	SUM(UnitsInStock) AS "Sum UnitsInStock", <br>
	SUM(1) as Total,<br>
	FROM products p ,categories c ,suppliers s WHERE p.CategoryID = c.CategoryID 
	and s.SupplierID= p.SupplierID <br>
	GROUP BY CompanyName</font></code><font size="2"><br>
	</font> </p>
<font color="#000000"><hr>
<h1>Class Reference<a name="ref"></a></h1>
<p>Function parameters with [ ] around them are optional.</p>
</font> 
<h2>Global Variables</h2>
<h3><font color="#000000"><a name="adodb_countrecs"></a></font>$ADODB_COUNTRECS</h3>
<p>If the database driver API does not support counting the number of records 
	returned in a SELECT statement, the function RecordCount() is emulated when 
	the global variable $ADODB_COUNTRECS is set to true, which is the default. 
	We emulate this by buffering the records, which can take up large amounts 
	of memory for big recordsets. Set this variable to false for the best performance. 
	This variable is checked every time a query is executed, so you can selectively 
	choose which recordsets to count.</p>
<h3><font color="#000000"><a name="adodb_cache_dir"></a>$ADODB_CACHE_DIR</font></h3>
<font color="#000000"> 
<p>If you are using recordset caching, this is the directory to save your recordsets 
  in. Define this before you call any caching functions such as CacheExecute( 
  ). We recommend setting <i>register_globals=off</i> in php.ini if you use this 
  feature for security reasons.</p>
<p>If you are using Unix and apache, you might need to set your cache directory 
  permissions to something similar to the following:</p>
</font> 
<p>chown -R apache /path/to/adodb/cache<br>
  chgrp -R apache /path/to/adodb/cache </p>
<font color="#000000">
<h3><a name="adodb_ansi_padding_off"></a>$ADODB_ANSI_PADDING_OFF</h3>
<p>Determines whether to right trim CHAR fields (and also VARCHAR for ibase/firebird).
Set to true to trim. Default is false. Currently works for oci8po, ibase and firebird 
drivers. Added in ADOdb 4.01.
<h3><font color="#000000"><a name="adodb_lang"></a></font>$ADODB_LANG</h3>
<p>Determines the language used in MetaErrorMsg(). The default is 'en', for English. 
To find out what languages are supported, see the files 
in adodb/lang/adodb-$lang.inc.php, where $lang is the supported langauge.
<h3><a name="adodb_fetch_mode"></a>$ADODB_FETCH_MODE</h3>
<p>This is a global variable that determines how arrays are retrieved by recordsets. 
  The recordset saves this value on creation (eg. in Execute( ) or SelectLimit( 
  )), and any subsequent changes to $ADODB_FETCH_MODE have no affect on existing 
  recordsets, only on recordsets created in the future.</p>
<p>The following constants are defined:</p>
</font> 
<p><font color="#000000">define('ADODB_FETCH_DEFAULT',0);<br>
  define('ADODB_FETCH_NUM',1);<br>
  define('ADODB_FETCH_ASSOC',2);<br>
  define('ADODB_FETCH_BOTH',3); </font></p>
<font color="#000000"> 
<p> An example: 
<pre>
	$ADODB_<b>FETCH_MODE</b> = ADODB_FETCH_NUM;
	$rs1 = $db->Execute('select * from table');
	$ADODB_<b>FETCH_MODE</b> = ADODB_FETCH_ASSOC;
	$rs2 = $db->Execute('select * from table');
	print_r($rs1->fields); # shows <i>array([0]=>'v0',[1] =>'v1')</i>
	print_r($rs2->fields); # shows <i>array(['col1']=>'v0',['col2'] =>'v1')</i>
</pre>
<p> As you can see in the above example, both recordsets store and use different 
	fetch modes based on the $ADODB_FETCH_MODE setting when the recordset was 
	created by Execute().</p>
<p>If no fetch mode is predefined, the fetch mode defaults to ADODB_FETCH_DEFAULT. 
	The behaviour of this default mode varies from driver to driver, so do not 
	rely on ADODB_FETCH_DEFAULT. For portability, we recommend sticking to ADODB_FETCH_NUM 
	or ADODB_FETCH_ASSOC. Many drivers do not support ADODB_FETCH_BOTH.</p>
<p><strong>SetFetchMode Function</strong></p>
<p>Some programmers prefer to use a more object-oriented solution, where the fetch 
	mode is set by a object function, <a href="#setfetchmode">SetFetchMode</a>. 
	Once this function is called for a connection object, that connection object 
	will ignore the global variable $ADODB_FETCH_MODE and will use the internal 
	fetchMode property exclusively.</p>
<pre>
	$db->SetFetchMode(ADODB_FETCH_NUM);
	$rs1 = $db->Execute('select * from table');
	$db->SetFetchMode(ADODB_FETCH_ASSOC);
	$rs2 = $db->Execute('select * from table');
	print_r($rs1->fields); # shows <i>array([0]=>'v0',[1] =>'v1')</i>
	print_r($rs2->fields); # shows <i>array(['col1']=>'v0',['col2'] =>'v1')</i></pre>
<p>To retrieve the previous fetch mode, you can use check the $db-&gt;fetchMode 
	property, or use the return value of SetFetchMode( ). 
<p><strong><a name="adodb_assoc_case"></a>ADODB_ASSOC_CASE</strong></p>
<p>You can control the associative fetch case for certain drivers which behave 
	differently. For the sybase, oci8po, mssql, odbc and ibase drivers and all 
	drivers derived from them, ADODB_ASSOC_CASE will by default generate recordsets 
	where the field name keys are lower-cased. Use the constant ADODB_ASSOC_CASE 
	to change the case of the keys. There are 3 possible values:</p>
<p>0 = assoc lowercase field names. $rs-&gt;fields['orderid']<br>
	1 = assoc uppercase field names. $rs-&gt;fields['ORDERID']<br>
	2 = use native-case field names. $rs-&gt;fields['OrderID'] -- this is the 
	default since ADOdb 2.90</p>
<p>To use it, declare it before you incldue adodb.inc.php.</p>
<p>define('ADODB_ASSOC_CASE', 2); # use native-case for ADODB_FETCH_ASSOC<br>
	include('adodb.inc.php'); </p>
<hr>
<h2>ADOConnection<a name="adoconnection"></a></h2>
<p>Object that performs the connection to the database, executes SQL statements 
	and has a set of utility functions for standardising the format of SQL statements 
	for issues such as concatenation and date formats.</p>
<h3>ADOConnection Fields</h3>
<p><b>databaseType</b>: Name of the database system we are connecting to. Eg. 
	<b>odbc</b> or <b>mssql</b> or <b>mysql</b>.</p>
<p><b>dataProvider</b>: The underlying mechanism used to connect to the database. 
	Normally set to <b>native</b>, unless using <b>odbc</b> or <b>ado</b>.</p>
<p><b>host: </b>Name of server or data source name (DSN) to connect to.</p>
<p><b>database</b>: Name of the database or to connect to. If ado is used, it 
	will hold the ado data provider.</p>
<p><b>user</b>: Login id to connect to database. Password is not saved for security 
	reasons.</p>
<p><b>raiseErrorFn</b>: Allows you to define an error handling function. See adodb-errorhandler.inc.php 
	for an example.</p>
<p><b>debug</b>: Set to <i>true</i> to make debug statements to appear.</p>
<p><b>concat_operator</b>: Set to '+' or '||' normally. The operator used to concatenate 
	strings in SQL. Used by the <b><a href="#concat">Concat</a></b> function.</p>
<p><b>fmtDate</b>: The format used by the <b><a href="#dbdate">DBDate</a></b> 
	function to send dates to the database. is '#Y-m-d#' for Microsoft Access, 
	and ''Y-m-d'' for MySQL.</p>
<p><b>fmtTimeStamp: </b>The format used by the <b><a href="#dbtimestamp">DBTimeStamp</a></b> 
	function to send timestamps to the database. </p>
<p><b>true</b>: The value used to represent true.Eg. '.T.'. for Foxpro, '1' for 
	Microsoft SQL.</p>
<p><b>false: </b> The value used to represent false. Eg. '.F.'. for Foxpro, '0' 
	for Microsoft SQL.</p>
<p><b>replaceQuote</b>: The string used to escape quotes. Eg. double single-quotes 
	for Microsoft SQL, and backslash-quote for MySQL. Used by <a href="#qstr">qstr</a>.</p>
<p><b>autoCommit</b>: indicates whether automatic commit is enabled. Default is 
	true.</p>
<p><b>charSet</b>: set the default charset to use. Currently only interbase supports 
	this.</p>
<p><b>dialect</b>: set the default sql dialect to use. Currently only interbase 
	supports this.</p>
<p><b>metaTablesSQL</b>: SQL statement to return a list of available tables. Eg. 
	<i>SHOW TABLES</i> in MySQL.</p>
<p><b>genID</b>: The latest id generated by GenID() if supported by the database.</p>
<p><b>cacheSecs</b>: The number of seconds to cache recordsets if CacheExecute() 
	or CacheSelectLimit() omit the $secs2cache parameter. Defaults to 60 minutes.</p>
<p><b>sysDate</b>: String that holds the name of the database function to call 
	to get the current date. Useful for inserts and updates.</p>
<p><b>sysTimeStamp</b>: String that holds the name of the database function to 
	call to get the current timestamp/datetime value.</p>
<p><b>leftOuter</b>: String that holds operator for left outer join, if known. 
	Otherwise set to false.</p>
<p><b>rightOuter</b>: String that holds operator for left outer join, if known. 
	Otherwise set to false.</p>
<p><b>ansiOuter</b>: Boolean that if true indicates that ANSI style outer joins 
	are permitted. Eg. <i>select * from table1 left join table2 on p1=p2.</i></p>
<p><b>connectSID</b>: Boolean that indicates whether to treat the $database parameter 
	in connects as the SID for the oci8 driver. Defaults to false. Useful for 
	Oracle 8.0.5 and earlier.</p>
<p><b>autoRollback</b>: Persistent connections are auto-rollbacked in PConnect( 
	) if this is set to true. Default is false.</p>
<hr>
<h3>ADOConnection Main Functions</h3>
<p><b>ADOConnection( )</b></p>
<p>Constructor function. Do not call this directly. Use ADONewConnection( ) instead.</p>
<p><b>Connect<a name="connect"></a>($host,[$user],[$password],[$database])</b></p>
<p>Non-persistent connect to data source or server $<b>host</b>, using userid 
	$<b>user </b>and password $<b>password</b>. If the server supports multiple 
	databases, connect to database $<b>database</b>. </p>
<p>Returns true/false depending on connection.</p>
<p>ADO Note: If you are using a Microsoft ADO and not OLEDB, you can set the $database 
	parameter to the OLEDB data provider you are using.</p>
<p>PostgreSQL: An alternative way of connecting to the database is to pass the 
	standard PostgreSQL connection string in the first parameter $host, and the 
	other parameters will be ignored.</p>
<p>For Oracle and Oci8, there are two ways to connect. First is to use the TNS 
	name defined in your local tnsnames.ora (or ONAMES or HOSTNAMES). Place the 
	name in the $database field, and set the $host field to false. Alternatively, 
	set $host to the server, and $database to the database SID, this bypassed 
	tnsnames.ora. 
<p>Examples: 
<pre> # $oraname in tnsnames.ora/ONAMES/HOSTNAMES
 $conn->Connect(false, 'scott', 'tiger', $oraname); 
 $conn->Connect('server:1521', 'scott', 'tiger', 'ServiceName'); # bypass tnsnames.ora</pre>
<p>There are many examples of connecting to a database at <a href="http://php.weblogs.com/adodb">php.weblogs.com/ADOdb</a>, 
	and in the testdatabases.inc.php file included in the release.</p>
<p><b>PConnect<a name="pconnect"></a>($host,[$user],[$password],[$database])</b></p>
<p>Persistent connect to data source or server $<b>host</b>, using userid $<b>user</b> 
	and password $<b>password</b>. If the server supports multiple databases, 
	connect to database $<b>database</b>.</p>
<p>We now perform a rollback on persistent connection for selected databases since 
	2.21, as advised in the PHP manual. See change log or source code for which 
	databases are affected. 
<p>Returns true/false depending on connection. See Connect( ) above for more info.</p>
<p>Since ADOdb 2.21, we also support autoRollback. If you set:</p>
</font> 
<pre> $conn = &amp;NewADOConnection('mysql');
 $conn-&gt;autoRollback = true; # default is false
 $conn-&gt;PConnect(...); # rollback here</pre>
<p> Then when doing a persistent connection with PConnect( ), ADOdb will 
  perform a rollback first. This is because it is documented that PHP is 
  not guaranteed to rollback existing failed transactions when 
  persistent connections are used. This is implemented in Oracle, 
  MySQL, PgSQL, MSSQL, ODBC currently. 
<p>Since ADOdb 3.11, you can force non-persistent 
connections even if PConnect is called by defining the constant 
ADODB_NEVER_PERSIST  before you call PConnect.
<p><b>NConnect<a name="nconnect"></a>($host,[$user],[$password],[$database])</b></p>
<p>Always force a new connection. In contrast, PHP sometimes reuses connections 
	when you use Connect() or PConnect(). Currently works only on mysql (PHP 4.3.0 
	or later), postgresql and oci8-derived drivers. For other drivers, NConnect() works like 
	Connect(). 
<font color="#000000"> 
<p><b>Execute<a name="execute"></a>($sql,$inputarr=false)</b></p>
<p>Execute SQL statement $<b>sql</b> and return derived class of ADORecordSet 
	if successful. Note that a record set is always returned on success, even 
	if we are executing an insert or update statement. You can also pass in $sql a statement prepared 
	in <a href=#prepare>Prepare()</a>.</p>
<p>Returns derived class of ADORecordSet. Eg. if connecting via mysql, then ADORecordSet_mysql 
	would be returned. False is returned if there was an error in executing the 
	sql.</p>
<p>The $inputarr parameter can be used for binding variables to parameters. Below 
	is an Oracle example:</p>
<pre>
 $conn->Execute("SELECT * FROM TABLE WHERE COND=:val", array('val'=> $val));
 </pre>
<p>Another example, using ODBC,which uses the ? convention:</p>
<pre>
  $conn->Execute("SELECT * FROM TABLE WHERE COND=?", array($val));
</pre>
<a name="binding"></a>
<i>Binding variables</i><p>
Variable binding speeds the compilation and caching of SQL statements, leading 
to higher performance. Currently Oracle, Interbase and ODBC supports variable binding. 
Interbase/ODBC style ? binding is emulated in databases that do not support binding. 
<p> Variable binding in the odbc, interbase and oci8po drivers. 
<pre>
$rs = $db->Execute('select * from table where val=?', array('10'));
</pre>
Variable binding in the oci8 driver: 
<pre>
$rs = $db->Execute('select name from table where val=:key', 
  array('key' => 10));
</pre>
<a name="bulkbind"></a>
<i>Bulk binding</i>
<p>Since ADOdb 3.80, we support bulk binding in Execute(), in which you pass in a 2-dimensional array to
be bound to an INSERT/UPDATE or DELETE statement.
<pre>
$arr = array(
	array('Ahmad',32),
	array('Zulkifli', 24),
	array('Rosnah', 21)
	);
$ok = $db->Execute('insert into table (name,age) values (?,?)',$arr);
</pre>
<p>This provides very high performance as the SQL statement is prepared first. 
The prepared statement is executed repeatedly for each array row until all rows are completed, 
or until the first error. Very useful for importing data.

<p><b>CacheExecute<a name="cacheexecute"></a>([$secs2cache,]$sql,$inputarr=false)</b></p>
<p>Similar to Execute, except that the recordset is cached for $secs2cache seconds 
	in the $ADODB_CACHE_DIR directory, and $inputarr only accepts 1-dimensional arrays. 
	If CacheExecute() is called again with the same $sql, $inputarr, 
	and also the same database, same userid, and the cached recordset 
	has not expired, the cached recordset is returned. 
<pre>
  include('adodb.inc.php'); 
  include('tohtml.inc.php');
  $ADODB_<b>CACHE_DIR</b> = '/usr/local/ADOdbcache';
  $conn = &ADONewConnection('mysql'); 
  $conn->PConnect('localhost','userid','password','database');
  $rs = $conn-><b>CacheExecute</b>(15, 'select * from table'); # cache 15 secs
  rs2html($rs); /* recordset to html table */  
</pre>
<p> Alternatively, since ADOdb 1.80, the $secs2cache parameter is optional:</p>
<pre>	$conn-&gt;Connect(...);
   	$conn-&gt;cacheSecs = 3600*24; // cache 24 hours
	$rs = $conn-&gt;CacheExecute('select * from table');
</pre>
If $secs2cache is omitted, we use the value 
in $connection-&gt;cacheSecs (default is 3600 seconds, or 1 hour). Use CacheExecute() 
only with SELECT statements. 
<p>Performance note: I have done some benchmarks and found that they vary so greatly 
	that it's better to talk about when caching is of benefit. When your database 
	server is <i>much slower </i>than your Web server or the database is <i>very 
	overloaded </i>then ADOdb's caching is good because it reduces the load on 
	your database server. If your database server is lightly loaded or much faster 
	than your Web server, then caching could actually reduce performance. </p>
<p><b>ExecuteCursor<a name="executecursor"></a>($sql,$cursorName='rs',$parameters=false)</b></p>
<p>Execute an Oracle stored procedure, and returns an Oracle REF cursor variable as 
	a regular ADOdb recordset. Does not work with any other database except oci8. 
	Thanks to Robert Tuttle for the design.
<pre>
    $db = ADONewConnection("oci8"); 
    $db->Connect("foo.com:1521", "uid", "pwd", "FOO"); 
    $rs = $db->ExecuteCursor("begin :cursorvar := getdata(:param1); end;", 
					'cursorvar',
					array('param1'=>10)); 
    # $rs is now just like any other ADOdb recordset object<br>    rs2html($rs);</pre>
<p>ExecuteCursor() is a helper function that does the following internally: 
<pre>
	$stmt = $db->Prepare("BEGIN :RS := SP_FOO(); END;");
	$db->Parameter($stmt, $cur, 'RS', false, -1, OCI_B_CURSOR);
	$rs = $db->Execute($stmt);</pre>
<p><b>SelectLimit<a name="selectlimit"></a>($sql,$numrows=-1,$offset=-1,$inputarr=false)</b></p>
<p>Returns a recordset if successful. Returns false otherwise. Performs a select 
	statement, simulating PostgreSQL's SELECT statement, LIMIT $numrows OFFSET 
	$offset clause.</p>
<p>In PostgreSQL, SELECT * FROM TABLE LIMIT 3 will return the first 3 records 
	only. The equivalent is <code>$connection->SelectLimit('SELECT * FROM TABLE',3)</code>. 
	This functionality is simulated for databases that do not possess this feature.</p>
<p>And SELECT * FROM TABLE LIMIT 3 OFFSET 2 will return records 3, 4 and 5 (eg. 
	after record 2, return 3 rows). The equivalent in ADOdb is <code>$connection->SelectLimit('SELECT 
	* FROM TABLE',3,2)</code>.</p>
<p>Note that this is the <i>opposite</i> of MySQL's LIMIT clause. You can also 
	set <code>$connection->SelectLimit('SELECT * FROM TABLE',-1,10)</code> to 
	get rows 11 to the last row.</p>
<p>The last parameter $inputarr is for databases that support variable binding 
	such as Oracle oci8. This substantially reduces SQL compilation overhead. 
	Below is an Oracle example:</p>
<pre>
 $conn->SelectLimit("SELECT * FROM TABLE WHERE COND=:val", 100,-1,array('val'=> $val));
 </pre>
<p>The oci8po driver (oracle portable driver) uses the more standard bind variable 
	of ?: 
<pre>
 $conn->SelectLimit("SELECT * FROM TABLE WHERE COND=?", 100,-1,array('val'=> $val));
</pre>
<p> 
<p>Ron Wilson reports that SelectLimit does not work with UNIONs. 
<p><b>CacheSelectLimit<a name="cacheselectlimit"></a>([$secs2cache,] $sql, $numrows=-1,$offset=-1,$inputarr=false)</b></p>
<p>Similar to SelectLimit, except that the recordset returned is cached for $secs2cache 
	seconds in the $ADODB_CACHE_DIR directory. </p>
<p>Since 1.80, $secs2cache has been optional, and you can define the caching time 
	in $connection-&gt;cacheSecs.</p>
</font> 
<pre><font color="#000000">	$conn-&gt;Connect(...);
   $conn-&gt;cacheSecs = 3600*24; // cache 24 hours
	$rs = $conn-&gt;CacheSelectLimit('select * from table',10);</font></pre>
<font color="#000000"> 
<p><b>CacheFlush<a name="cacheflush"></a>($sql=false,$inputarr=false)</b></p>
<p>Flush (delete) any cached recordsets for the SQL statement $sql in $ADODB_CACHE_DIR. 
<p>If no parameter is passed in, then all adodb_*.cache files are deleted. 
<p> If you want to flush all cached recordsets manually, execute the following 
	PHP code (works only under Unix): <br>
	<code> &nbsp; system(&quot;rm -f `find &quot;.$ADODB_CACHE_DIR.&quot; -name 
	adodb_*.cache`&quot;);</code></p>
<p>For general cleanup of all expired files, you should use <a href="http://www.superscripts.com/tutorial/crontab.html">crontab</a> 
	on Unix, or at.exe on Windows, and a shell script similar to the following:<font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"><br>
	#------------------------------------------------------ <br>
	# This particular example deletes files in the TMPPATH <br>
	# directory with the string &quot;.cache&quot; in their name that <br>
	# are more than 7 days old. <br>
	#------------------------------------------------------ <br>
	AGED=7 <br>
	find ${TMPPATH} -mtime +$AGED | grep &quot;\.cache&quot; | xargs rm -f <br>
	</font> </p>
<p><b>MetaError<a name="metaerror"></a>($errno=false)</b></p>
<p>Returns a virtualized error number, based on PEAR DB's error number system. You might
need to include adodb-error.inc.php before you call this function. The parameter $errno
is the native error number you want to convert. If you do not pass any parameter, MetaError
will call ErrorNo() for you and convert it. If the error number cannot be virtualized, MetaError 
will return -1 (DB_ERROR).</p>

<p><b>MetaErrorMsg<a name="metaerrormsg"></a>($errno)</b></p>
<p>Pass the error number returned by MetaError() for the equivalent textual error message.</p>
<p><b>ErrorMsg<a name="errormsg"></a>()</b></p>
<p>Returns the last status or error message. This can return a string even if 
	no error occurs. In general you do not need to call this function unless an 
	ADOdb function returns false on an error. </p>
<p>Note: If <b>debug</b> is enabled, the SQL error message is always displayed 
	when the <b>Execute</b> function is called.</p>
<p><b>ErrorNo<a name="errorno"></a>()</b></p>
<p>Returns the last error number. Note that old versions of PHP (pre 4.0.6) do 
	not support error number for ODBC. In general you do not need to call this 
	function unless an ADOdb function returns false on an error.</p>
</font>
<p><font color="#000000"><b>SetFetchMode<a name="setfetchmode"></a>($mode)</b></font></p>
<p><font color="#000000">Sets the current fetch mode for the connection and stores 
	it in $db-&gt;fetchMode. Legal modes are ADODB_FETCH_ASSOC and ADODB_FETCH_NUM. 
	For more info, see <a href="#adodb_fetch_mode">$ADODB_FETCH_MODE</a>.</font></p>
<p><font color="#000000">Returns the previous fetch mode, which could be false 
	if SetFetchMode( ) has not been called before.</font></p>
<font color="#000000"> 
<p><b>CreateSequence<a name="createseq"></a>($seqName = 'adodbseq',$startID=1)</b></p>
<p>Create a sequence. The next time GenID( ) is called, the value returned will 
	be $startID. Added in 2.60. 
<p><b>DropSequenceD<a name="dropseq"></a>($seqName = 'adodbseq')</b></p>
<p>Delete a sequence. Added in 2.60. 
<p><b>GenID<a name="genid"></a>($seqName = 'adodbseq',$startID=1)</b></p>
<p>Generate a sequence number . Works for interbase, 
	mysql, postgresql, oci8, oci8po, mssql, ODBC based (access,vfp,db2,etc) drivers 
	currently. Uses $seqName as the name of the sequence. GenID() will automatically 
	create the sequence for you if it does not exist (provided the userid has 
	permission to do so). Otherwise you will have to create the sequence yourself. 
<p> If your database driver emulates sequences, the name of the table is the sequence 
	name. The table has one column, "id" which should be of type integer, or if 
	you need something larger - numeric(16). 
<p> For ODBC and databases that do not support sequences natively (eg mssql, mysql), 
	we create a table for each sequence. If the sequence has not been defined 
	earlier, it is created with the starting value set in $startID.</p>
<p>Note that the mssql driver's GenID() before 1.90 used to generate 16 byte GUID's.</p>
<p><b>UpdateBlob<a name="updateblob"></a>($table,$column,$val,$where)</b></p>
Allows you to store a blob (in $val) into $table into $column in a row at $where. 
<p> Usage: 
<p> 
<pre>
	# for oracle
	$conn->Execute('INSERT INTO blobtable (id, blobcol) VALUES (1, empty_blob())');
	$conn->UpdateBlob('blobtable','blobcol',$blobvalue,'id=1');
	
	# non oracle databases
	$conn->Execute('INSERT INTO blobtable (id, blobcol) VALUES (1, null)');
	$conn->UpdateBlob('blobtable','blobcol',$blobvalue,'id=1');
</pre>
<p> Returns true if succesful, false otherwise. Supported by MySQL, PostgreSQL, 
	Oci8, Oci8po and Interbase drivers. Other drivers might work, depending on 
	the state of development.</p>
<p>Note that when an Interbase blob is retrieved using SELECT, it still needs 
	to be decoded using $connection->DecodeBlob($blob); to derive the original 
	value in versions of PHP before 4.1.0. 
<p>For PostgreSQL, you can store your blob using blob oid's or as a bytea field. 
	You can use bytea fields but not blob oid's currently with UpdateBlob( ). 
	Conversely UpdateBlobFile( ) supports oid's, but not bytea data.<br>
	<br>
	If you do not pass in an oid, then UpdateBlob() assumes that you are storing 
	in bytea fields.
<p><b>UpdateClob<a name="updateclob"></a>($table,$column,$val,$where)</b></p>
Allows you to store a clob (in $val) into $table into $column in a row at $where. 
Similar to UpdateBlob (see above), but for Character Large OBjects. 
<p> Usage:
<pre>
	# for oracle
	$conn->Execute('INSERT INTO clobtable (id, clobcol) VALUES (1, empty_clob())');
	$conn->UpdateBlob('clobtable','clobcol',$clobvalue,'id=1');
	
	# non oracle databases
	$conn->Execute('INSERT INTO clobtable (id, clobcol) VALUES (1, null)');
	$conn->UpdateBlob('clobtable','clobcol',$clobvalue,'id=1');
</pre>
<p><b>UpdateBlobFile<a name="updateblobfile"></a>($table,$column,$path,$where,$blobtype='BLOB')</b></p>
<p>Similar to UpdateBlob, except that we pass in a file path to where the blob 
	resides.
<p>For PostgreSQL, if you are using blob oid's, use this interface. This interface 
	does not support bytea fields.
<p>Returns true if successful, false otherwise. 
<p><b>BlobEncode<a name="blobencode" id="blobencode"></a>($blob)</b> 
<p>Some databases require blob's to be encoded manually before upload. Note if 
	you use UpdateBlob( ) or UpdateBlobFile( ) the conversion is done automatically 
	for you and you do not have to call this function. For PostgreSQL, currently, 
	BlobEncode() can only be used for bytea fields.
<p>Returns the encoded blob value.
<p>Note that there is a connection property called <em>blobEncodeType</em> which 
	has 3 legal values: 
<p>false - no need to perform encoding or decoding.<br>
	'I' - blob encoding required, and returned encoded blob is a numeric value 
	(no need to quote).<br>
	'C' - blob encoding required, and returned encoded blob is a character value 
	(requires quoting).
<p>This is purely for documentation purposes, so that programs that accept multiple 
	database drivers know what is the right thing to do when processing blobs.
<p><strong>BlobDecode<a name="blobdecode"></a>($blob)</strong> 
</font><p><font color="#000000">Some databases require blob's to be decoded manually after doing a select statement. 
	If the database does not require decoding, then this function will return 
	the blob unchanged. Currently BlobDecode is only required for one database, 
	PostgreSQL, and only if you are using blob oid's (if you are using bytea fields, 
	we auto-decode for you).</font><font color="#000000">
<pre>$rs = $db-&gt;Execute(&quot;select bloboid from postgres_table where id=$key&quot;);
$blob = $db-&gt;BlobDecode( reset($rs-&gt;fields) );</pre>
<p><b>Replace<a name="replace"></a>($table, $arrFields, $keyCols,$autoQuote=false)</b></p>
<p>Try to update a record, and if the record is not found, an insert statement 
	is generated and executed. Returns 0 on failure, 1 if update statement worked, 
	2 if no record was found and the insert was executed successfully. This differs 
	from MySQL's replace which deletes the record and inserts a new record. This 
	also means you cannot update the primary key. The only exception to this is 
	Interbase and its derivitives, which uses delete and insert because of some 
	Interbase API limitations. 
<p>The parameters are $table which is the table name, the $keyCols which is an 
	associative array where the keys are the field names, and keyCols is the name 
	of the primary key, or an array of field names if it is a compound key. If 
	$autoQuote is set to true, then Replace() will quote all values that are non-numeric; 
	auto-quoting will not quote nulls. Note that auto-quoting will not work if 
	you use SQL functions or operators. 
<p>Examples: 
<pre>
# single field primary key
$ret = $db->Replace('atable', 
	array('id'=>1000,'firstname'=>'Harun','lastname'=>'Al-Rashid'),
	'id',$autoquote = true);	
# generates UPDATE atable SET firstname='Harun',lastname='Al-Rashid' WHERE id=1000
# or INSERT INTO atable (id,firstname,lastname) VALUES (1000,'Harun','Al-Rashid')

# compound key
$ret = $db->Replace('atable2', 
	array('firstname'=>'Harun','lastname'=>'Al-Rashid', 'age' => 33, 'birthday' => 'null'),
	array('lastname','firstname'),
	$autoquote = true);

# no auto-quoting
$ret = $db->Replace('atable2', 
	array('firstname'=>"'Harun'",'lastname'=>"'Al-Rashid'", 'age' => 'null'),
	array('lastname','firstname'));	
</pre>
<p><b>GetUpdateSQL<a name="getupdatesql"></a>(&$rs, $arrFields, $forceUpdate=false,$magicq=false)</b></p>
<p>Generate SQL to update a table given a recordset $rs, and the modified fields 
	of the array $arrFields (which must be an associative array holding the column 
	names and the new values) are compared with the current recordset. If $forceUpdate 
	is true, then we also generate the SQL even if $arrFields is identical to 
	$rs-&gt;fields. Requires the recordset to be associative. $magicq is used 
	to indicate whether magic quotes are enabled (see qstr()). The field names in the array 
	are case-insensitive.</p>
	<p>Since 3.61, define('ADODB_FORCE_NULLS',1) and all PHP nulls will be auto-converted to SQL nulls.
<p><b>GetInsertSQL<a name="getinsertsql"></a>(&$rs, $arrFields,$magicq=false)</b></p>
<p>Generate SQL to insert into a table given a recordset $rs. Requires the query 
	to be associative. $magicq is used to indicate whether magic quotes are enabled 
	(for qstr()). The field names in the array are case-insensitive.</p>
	
<p>Since 3.61, define('ADODB_FORCE_NULLS',1) and all PHP nulls will be auto-converted 
  to SQL nulls. 
<p><b>PageExecute<a name="pageexecute"></a>($sql, $nrows, $page, $inputarr=false)</b> 
<p>Used for pagination of recordset. $page is 1-based. See <a href="#ex8">Example 
  8</a>.</p>
</font> 
<p><font color="#000000"><b>CachePageExecute<a name="cachepageexecute"></a>($secs2cache, 
  $sql, $nrows, $page, $inputarr=false)</b> </font></p>
<p><font color="#000000">Used for pagination of recordset. $page is 1-based. See 
  <a href="#ex8">Example 8</a>. Caching version of PageExecute.</font></p>
<font color="#000000"> 
<p></p>
<p><b>Close<a name="close"></a>( )</b></p>
<p>Close the database connection. PHP4 proudly states that we no longer have to 
  clean up at the end of the connection because the reference counting mechanism 
  of PHP4 will automatically clean up for us.</p>
  <p><b>StartTrans<a name="starttrans"></a>( )</b></p>
  <p>Start a monitored transaction. As SQL statements are executed, ADOdb will monitor
  for SQL errors, and if any are detected, when CompleteTrans() is called, we auto-rollback.
  <p>
  <p> To understand why StartTrans() is superior to BeginTrans(), 
  let us examine a few ways of using BeginTrans().
  The following is the wrong way to use transactions: 
<pre>
$DB->BeginTrans();
$DB->Execute("update table1 set val=$val1 where id=$id");
$DB->Execute("update table2 set val=$val2 where id=$id");
$DB->CommitTrans();
</pre>
<p>because you perform no error checking. It is possible to update table1 and 
  for the update on table2 to fail. Here is a better way: 
<pre>
$DB->BeginTrans();
$ok = $DB->Execute("update table1 set val=$val1 where id=$id");
if ($ok) $ok = $DB->Execute("update table2 set val=$val2 where id=$id");
if ($ok) $DB->CommitTrans();
else $DB->RollbackTrans();
</pre>
<p>Another way is (since ADOdb 2.0): 
<pre>
$DB->BeginTrans();
$ok = $DB->Execute("update table1 set val=$val1 where id=$id");
if ($ok) $ok = $DB->Execute("update table2 set val=$val2 where id=$id");
$DB->CommitTrans($ok);
</pre>
<p> Now it is a headache monitoring $ok all over the place. StartTrans() is an
improvement because it monitors all SQL errors for you. This is particularly
useful if you are calling black-box functions in which SQL queries might be executed.
 Also all BeginTrans, CommitTrans and RollbackTrans calls inside a StartTrans block 
  will be disabled, so even if the black box function does a commit, it will be ignored.
<pre>
$DB->StartTrans();
CallBlackBox();
$DB->Execute("update table1 set val=$val1 where id=$id");
$DB->Execute("update table2 set val=$val2 where id=$id");
$DB->CompleteTrans($ok);
</pre>
<p>Note that a StartTrans blocks are nestable, the inner blocks are ignored.
 <p><b>CompleteTrans<a name="completetrans"></a>($autoComplete=true)</b></p>
  <p>Complete a transaction called with StartTrans(). This function monitors
  for SQL errors, and will commit if no errors have occured, otherwise it will rollback. 
  Returns true on commit, false on rollback. If the parameter $autoComplete is true
  monitor sql errors and commit and rollback as appropriate. Set $autoComplete to false 
  to force rollback even if no SQL error detected.
  <p><b>FailTrans<a name="failtrans"></a>( )</b></p>
  <p>Fail a transaction started with StartTrans(). The rollback will only occur when
  CompleteTrans() is called.
    <p><b>HasFailedTrans<a name="hasfailedtrans"></a>( )</b></p>
	<p>Check whether smart transaction has failed, 
	eg. returns true if there was an error in SQL execution or FailTrans() was called.
	If not within smart transaction, returns false.
<p><b>BeginTrans<a name="begintrans"></a>( )</b></p>
<p>Begin a transaction. Turns off autoCommit. Returns true if successful. Some 
  databases will always return false if transaction support is not available. 
   Any open transactions will be rolled back when the connection is closed. Among the
   databases that support transactions are Oracle, PostgreSQL, Interbase, MSSQL, certain
    versions of MySQL, DB2, Informix, Sybase, etc.</p>
 <p>Note that <a href=#starttrans>StartTrans()</a> and CompleteTrans() is a superior method of 
 handling transactions, available since ADOdb 3.40. For a explanation, see the <a href=#starttrans>StartTrans()</a> documentation.

<p>You can also use the ADOdb <a href=#errorhandling>error handler</a> to die 
  and rollback your transactions for you transparently. Some buggy database extensions 
  are known to commit all outstanding tranasactions, so you might want to explicitly 
  do a $DB->RollbackTrans() in your error handler for safety. 
 <h4>Detecting Transactions</h4>
 <p>Since ADOdb 2.50, you are able to detect when you are inside a transaction. Check
 that $connection->transCnt > 0. This variable is incremented whenever BeginTrans() is called,
 and decremented whenever RollbackTrans() or CommitTrans() is called.
<p><b>CommitTrans<a name="committrans"></a>($ok=true)</b></p>
<p>End a transaction successfully. Returns true if successful. If the database 
  does not support transactions, will return true also as data is always committed. 
</p>
<p>If you pass the parameter $ok=false, the data is rolled back. See example in 
  BeginTrans().</p>
<p><b>RollbackTrans<a name="rollbacktrans"></a>( )</b></p>
<p>End a transaction, rollback all changes. Returns true if successful. If the 
  database does not support transactions, will return false as data is never rollbacked. 
</p>
</font><font color="#000000"> 
<p><b>GetAssoc<a name=getassoc1></a>($sql,$inputarr=false,$force_array=false,$first2cols=false)</b></p>
<p>Returns an associative array for the given query $sql with optional bind parameters 
  in $inputarr. If the number of columns returned is greater to two, a 2-dimensional 
  array is returned, with the first column of the recordset becomes the keys 
  to the rest of the rows. If the columns is equal to two, a 1-dimensional array 
  is created, where the the keys directly map to the values (unless $force_array 
  is set to true, when an array is created for each value).
<p> <font color="#000000">Examples:<a name=getassocex></a></font></p>
</font>
<p><font color="#000000">We have the following data in a recordset:</font></p>
<p><font color="#000000">row1: Apple, Fruit, Edible<br>
  row2: Cactus, Plant, Inedible<br>
  row3: Rose, Flower, Edible</font></p>
<p><font color="#000000">GetAssoc will generate the following 2-dimensional associative 
  array:</font></p>
<p><font color="#000000">Apple =&gt; array[Fruit, Edible]<br>
  Cactus =&gt; array[Plant, Inedible]<br>
  Rose =&gt; array[Flower,Edible]</font></p>
<p><font color="#000000">If the dataset is:</font></p>
<p><font color="#000000"><font color="#000000"><font color="#000000">row1: Apple, 
  Fruit<br>
  row2: Cactus, Plant<br>
  row3: Rose, Flower</font> </font></font></p>
<p><font color="#000000"><font color="#000000">GetAssoc will generate the following 
  1-dimensional associative array (with $force_array==false):</font></font></p>
<p><font color="#000000">Apple =&gt; Fruit</font><br>
  Cactus=&gt;Plant<br>
  Rose=&gt;Flower <font color="#000000"><font color="#000000"> </font></font><font color="#000000"><font color="#000000"></font></font></p>
<p><font color="#000000">The function returns:</font></p>
<p><font color="#000000">The associative array, or false if an error occurs.</font></p>
<font color="#000000">
<p><b>CacheGetAssoc<a name="cachegetassoc"></a>([$secs2cache,] $sql,$inputarr=false,$force_array=false,$first2cols=false)</b></p>
</font><font color="#000000"> 
<p>Caching version of <a href=#getassoc1>GetAssoc</a> function above.
<p><b>GetOne<a name="getone"></a>($sql,$inputarr=false)</b></p>
<p>Executes the SQL and returns the first field of the first row. The recordset 
  and remaining rows are discarded for you automatically. If an error occur, false 
  is returned.</p>
<p><b>GetRow<a name="getrow"></a>($sql,$inputarr=false)</b></p>
<p>Executes the SQL and returns the first row as an array. The recordset and remaining 
  rows are discarded for you automatically. If an error occurs, false is returned.</p>
<p><b>GetAll<a name="getall"></a>($sql)</b></p>
</font>
<p><font color="#000000">Executes the SQL and returns the all the rows as a 2-dimensional 
  array. The recordset is discarded for you automatically. If an error occurs, 
  false is returned.</font></p>
 <p><b>GetCol<a name="getcol"></a>($sql,$inputarr=false,$trim=false)</b></p>

<p><font color="#000000">Executes the SQL and returns all elements of the first column as a 
1-dimensional array. The recordset is discarded for you automatically. If an error occurs, 
  false is returned.</font></p>
<p><font color="#000000"><b>CacheGetOne<a name="cachegetone"></a>([$secs2cache,] 
  $sql,$inputarr=false), CacheGetRow<a name="cachegetrow"></a>([$secs2cache,] $sql,$inputarr=false), CacheGetAll<a name="cachegetall"></a>([$secs2cache,] 
  $sql,$inputarr=false), CacheGetCol<a name="cachegetcol"></a>([$secs2cache,] 
  $sql,$inputarr=false,$trim=false)</b></font></p>
<font color="#000000"> 
<p>Similar to above Get* functions, except that the recordset is serialized and 
  cached in the $ADODB_CACHE_DIR directory for $secs2cache seconds. Good for speeding 
  up queries on rarely changing data. Note that the $secs2cache parameter is optional. 
  If omitted, we use the value in $connection-&gt;cacheSecs (default is 3600 seconds, 
  or 1 hour).</p>
<p><b>Prepare<a name="prepare"></a>($sql )</b></p>
</font> 
<p><font color="#000000">Prepares (compiles) an SQL query for repeated execution. Bind parameters
are denoted by ?, except for the oci8 driver, which uses the traditional Oracle :varname
convention. 
  </font></p>
<p><font color="#000000">Returns an array containing the original sql statement 
  in the first array element; the remaining elements of the array are driver dependent. 
  If there is an error, or we are emulating Prepare( ), we return the original 
  $sql string. This is because all error-handling has been centralized in Execute( 
  ).</font></p>
<p><font color="#000000">Prepare( ) cannot be used with functions that use SQL 
  query rewriting techniques, e.g. PageExecute( ) and SelectLimit( ).</font></p>
<p>Example:</p>
<pre><font color="#000000">$stmt = $DB-&gt;Prepare('insert into table (col1,col2) values (?,?)');
for ($i=0; $i &lt; $max; $i++)<br></font>	$DB-&gt;<font color="#000000">Execute($stmt,array((string) rand(), $i));
</font></pre>
<font color="#000000"> 
<p>Also see PrepareSP() and Parameter() below. Only supported internally by interbase, 
  oci8 and selected ODBC-based drivers, otherwise it is emulated. There is no 
  performance advantage to using Prepare() with emulation. 
<p> Important: Due to limitations or bugs in PHP, if you are getting errors when 
  you using prepared queries, try setting $ADODB_COUNTRECS = false before preparing. 
  This behaviour has been observed with ODBC. 
<p><b>IfNull<a name="ifnull"></a>($field, $nullReplacementValue)</b></p>
<p>Portable IFNULL function (NVL in Oracle). Returns a string that represents 
  the function that checks whether a $field is null for the given database, and 
  if null, change the value returned to $nullReplacementValue. Eg.</p>
<pre>$sql = <font color="#993300">'SELECT '</font>.$db-&gt;IfNull('name', <font color="#993300">&quot;'- unknown -'&quot;</font>).<font color="#993300"> ' FROM table'</font>;</pre>

<p><b>length<a name="length"></a></b></p>
<p>This is not a function, but a property. Some databases have "length" and others "len"
as the function to measure the length of a string. To use this property:
<pre>
  $sql = <font color="#993300">"SELECT "</font>.$db->length.<font color="#993300">"(field) from table"</font>;
  $rs = $db->Execute($sql);
</pre>

<p><b>random<a name="random"></a></b></p>
<p>This is not a function, but a property. This is a string that holds the sql to
generate a random number between 0.0 and 1.0 inclusive.

<p><b>substr<a name="substr"></a></b></p>
<p>This is not a function, but a property. Some databases have "substr" and others "substring"
as the function to retrieve a sub-string. To use this property:
<pre>
  $sql = <font color="#993300">"SELECT "</font>.$db->substr.<font color="#993300">"(field, $offset, $length) from table"</font>;
  $rs = $db->Execute($sql);
</pre>
<p>For all databases, the 1st parameter of <i>substr</i> is the field, the 2nd is the
offset (1-based) to the beginning of the sub-string, and the 3rd is the length of the sub-string.


<p><b>Param<a name="param"></a>($name )</b></p>
<p>Generates a bind placeholder portably. For most databases, the bind placeholder 
  is "?". However some databases use named bind parameters such as Oracle, eg 
  ":somevar". This allows us to portably define an SQL statement with bind parameters: 
<pre><font color="#000000">$sql = <font color="#993300">'insert into table (col1,col2) values ('</font>.$DB-&gt;Param('a').<font color="#993300">','</font>.$DB-&gt;Param('b').<font color="#993300">')'</font>;
<font color="#006600"># generates 'insert into table (col1,col2) values (?,?)'
# or        'insert into table (col1,col2) values (:a,:b)</font>'
$stmt = $DB-&gt;Prepare($sql);
$stmt = $DB-&gt;Execute($stmt,array('one','two'));
</font></pre>
<font color="#000000"> 
<p></p>
<p><b>PrepareSP</b><b><a name="preparesp"></a></b><b>($sql)</b></p>
<p>When calling stored procedures in mssql and oci8 (oracle), and you might want 
  to directly bind to parameters that return values, or for special LOB handling. 
  PrepareSP() allows you to do so. 
<p>Returns the same array or $sql string as Prepare( ) above. If you do not need 
  to bind to return values, you should use Prepare( ) instead.</p>
<p>For examples of usage of PrepareSP( ), see Parameter( ) below. 
<p>Note: in the mssql driver, preparing stored procedures requires a special function 
  call, mssql_init( ), which is called by this function. PrepareSP( ) is available 
  in all other drivers, and is emulated by calling Prepare( ). </p>
<p><b> Parameter<a name="parameter"></a>($stmt, $var, $name, $isOutput=false, 
  $maxLen = 4000, $type = false )</b></p>
<p>Adds a bind parameter suitable for return values or special data handling (eg. 
  LOBs) after a statement has been prepared using PrepareSP(). Only for mssql 
  and oci8 currently. The parameters are:<br>
  <br>
  $<i><b>stmt</b></i> Statement returned by Prepare() or PrepareSP().<br>
  $<i><b>var</b></i> PHP variable to bind to. Make sure you pre-initialize it!<br>
  $<i><b>name</b></i> Name of stored procedure variable name to bind to.<br>
  [$<i><b>isOutput</b></i>] Indicates direction of parameter 0/false=IN 1=OUT 
  2= IN/OUT. This is ignored in oci8 as this driver auto-detects the direction.<br>
  [$<b>maxLen</b>] Maximum length of the parameter variable.<br>
  [$<b>type</b>] Consult <a href="http://php.net/mssql_bind">mssql_bind</a> and 
  <a href="http://php.net/ocibindbyname">ocibindbyname</a> docs at php.net for 
  more info on legal values for type.</p>
<p> Example:</p>
</font> 
<pre><font color="#000000"><font color="green"># @RETVAL = SP_RUNSOMETHING @myid,@group</font><br>$stmt = $db-&gt;PrepareSP(<font color="#993333">'<font color="#993300">SP_RUNSOMETHING</font>'</font>); <br><font color="green"># note that the parameter name does not have @ in front!</font><br>$db-&gt;Parameter($stmt,$id,'myid'); <br>$db-&gt;Parameter($stmt,$group,'group',false,64);<br><font color="green"># return value in mssql - RETVAL is hard-coded name</font> <br>$db-&gt;Parameter($stmt,$ret,'RETVAL',true); <br>$db-&gt;Execute($stmt); </font></pre>
<p><font color="#000000">An oci8 example: </font></p>
<font color="#000000"> 
<pre><font color="green"># For oracle, Prepare and PrepareSP are identical</font>
$stmt = $db-&gt;PrepareSP(
	<font color="#993300">&quot;declare RETVAL integer; <br>	 begin <br>		:RETVAL := </font><font color="#993300">SP_RUNSOMETHING</font><font color="#993300">(:myid,:group); <br>	 end;&quot;</font>);<br>$db-&gt;Parameter($stmt,$id,'myid');<br>$db-&gt;Parameter($stmt,$group,'group',false,64);
$db-&gt;Parameter($stmt,$ret,'RETVAL',true);<br>$db-&gt;Execute($stmt);
</pre>
<p>Note that the only difference between the oci8 and mssql implementations is 
  the syntax of $sql.</p>
If $type parameter is set to false, in mssql, $type will be dynamicly determined 
based on the type of the PHP variable passed <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono">(string 
=&gt; SQLCHAR, boolean =&gt;SQLINT1, integer =&gt;SQLINT4 or float/double=&gt;SQLFLT8)</font>. 
In oci8, $type can be set to OCI_B_FILE (Binary-File), OCI_B_CFILE (Character-File), 
OCI_B_CLOB (Character-LOB), OCI_B_BLOB (Binary-LOB) and OCI_B_ROWID (ROWID). To 
pass in a null, use<font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"> $db-&gt;Parameter($stmt, 
$null=null, 'param')</font>. 
<p>Lastly, in oci8, bind parameters can be reused without calling PrepareSP( ) 
  or Parameters again. This is not possible with mssql. An oci8 example:</p>
<pre>$id = 0; $i = 0;
$stmt = $db-&gt;PrepareSP( <font color="#993300">&quot;update table set val=:i where id=:id&quot;</font>);
$db-&gt;Parameter($stmt,$id,'id');
$db-&gt;Parameter($stmt,$i, 'i');
for ($cnt=0; $cnt &lt; 1000; $cnt++) {
	$id = $cnt; <br>	$i = $cnt * $cnt; <font color="green"># works with oci8!</font>
	$db-&gt;Execute($stmt); <br>}</pre>
<p><b>Bind<a name="bind"></a>($stmt, $var, $size=4001, $type=false, $name=false)</b></p>
</font> 
<p><font color="#000000">This is a low-level function supported only by the oci8 
  driver. <b>Avoid using</b> unless you only want to support Oracle. The Parameter( 
  ) function is the recommended way to go with bind variables.</font></p>
<p><font color="#000000">Bind( ) allows you to use bind variables in your sql 
  statement. This binds a PHP variable to a name defined in an Oracle sql statement 
  that was previously prepared using Prepare(). Oracle named variables begin with 
  a colon, and ADOdb requires the named variables be called :0, :1, :2, :3, etc. 
  The first invocation of Bind() will match :0, the second invocation will match 
  :1, etc. Binding can provide 100% speedups for insert, select and update statements. 
  </font></p>
<p>The other variables, $size sets the buffer size for data storage, $type is 
  the optional descriptor type OCI_B_FILE (Binary-File), OCI_B_CFILE (Character-File), 
  OCI_B_CLOB (Character-LOB), OCI_B_BLOB (Binary-LOB) and OCI_B_ROWID (ROWID). 
  Lastly, instead of using the default :0, :1, etc names, you can define your 
  own bind-name using $name. 
<p><font color="#000000">The following example shows 3 bind variables being used: 
  p1, p2 and p3. These variables are bound to :0, :1 and :2.</font></p>
<pre>$stmt = $DB-&gt;Prepare(&quot;insert into table (col0, col1, col2) values (:0, :1, :2)&quot;);
$DB-&gt;Bind($stmt, $p1);
$DB-&gt;Bind($stmt, $p2);
$DB-&gt;Bind($stmt, $p3);
for ($i = 0; $i &lt; $max; $i++) { 
   $p1 = ?; $p2 = ?; $p3 = ?;
   $DB-&gt;Execute($stmt);
}</pre>
<p>You can also use named variables:</p>
<pre>
$stmt = $DB-&gt;Prepare(&quot;insert into table (col0, col1, col2) values (:name0, :name1, :name2)&quot;);
$DB-&gt;Bind($stmt, $p1, &quot;name0&quot;);
$DB-&gt;Bind($stmt, $p2, &quot;name1&quot;);
$DB-&gt;Bind($stmt, $p3, &quot;name2&quot;);
for ($i = 0; $i &lt; $max; $i++) { 
   $p1 = ?; $p2 = ?; $p3 = ?;
   $DB-&gt;Execute($stmt);
}</pre>
<p><b>LogSQL($enable=true)<a name=logsql></a></b></p>
Call this method to install a SQL logging and timing function (using fnExecute). 
Then all SQL statements are logged into an adodb_logsql table in a database. If 
the adodb_logsql table does not exist, ADOdb will create the table if you have 
the appropriate permissions. Returns the previous logging value (true for enabled, 
false for disabled). Here are samples of the DDL for selected databases: 
<p> 
<pre>
		<b>mysql:</b>
		CREATE TABLE adodb_logsql (
		  created datetime NOT NULL,
		  sql0 varchar(250) NOT NULL,
		  sql1 text NOT NULL,
		  params text NOT NULL,
		  tracer text NOT NULL,
		  timer decimal(16,6) NOT NULL
		)
		
		<b>postgres:</b>
		CREATE TABLE adodb_logsql (
		  created timestamp NOT NULL,
		  sql0 varchar(250) NOT NULL,
		  sql1 text NOT NULL,
		  params text NOT NULL,
		  tracer text NOT NULL,
		  timer decimal(16,6) NOT NULL
		)
		
		<b>mssql:</b>
		CREATE TABLE adodb_logsql (
		  created datetime NOT NULL,
		  sql0 varchar(250) NOT NULL,
		  sql1 varchar(4000) NOT NULL,
		  params varchar(3000) NOT NULL,
		  tracer varchar(500) NOT NULL,
		  timer decimal(16,6) NOT NULL
		)
		
		<b>oci8:</b>
		CREATE TABLE adodb_logsql (
		  created date NOT NULL,
		  sql0 varchar(250) NOT NULL,
		  sql1 varchar(4000) NOT NULL,
		  params varchar(4000),
		  tracer varchar(4000),
		  timer decimal(16,6) NOT NULL
		)
</pre>
Usage: 
<pre>
	$conn->LogSQL(); // turn on logging
	  :
	$conn->Execute(...);
	  :
	$conn->LogSQL(false); // turn off logging
	
	# output summary of SQL logging results
	$perf = NewPerfMonitor($conn);
	echo $perf->SuspiciousSQL();
	echo $perf->ExpensiveSQL();
</pre>
<p>One limitation of logging is that rollback also prevents SQL from being logged.
<p>
Also see <a href=docs-perf.htm>Performance Monitor</a>. 
<p><font color="#000000"><b>fnExecute and fnCacheExecute properties<a name="fnexecute" id="fnexecute"></a></b></font></p>
<p>These two properties allow you to define bottleneck functions for all sql statements 
  processed by ADOdb. This allows you to perform statistical analysis and query-rewriting 
  of your sql. 
<p><b>Examples of fnExecute</b></p>
<p>Here is an example of using fnExecute, to count all cached queries and non-cached 
  queries, you can do this:</p>
<pre><font color="#006600"># $db is the connection object</font>
function CountExecs($db, $sql, $inputarray)
{
global $EXECS;

if (!is_array(inputarray)) $EXECS++;
<font color="#006600"># handle 2-dimensional input arrays</font>
else if (is_array(reset($inputarray))) $EXECS += sizeof($inputarray);
else $EXECS++;
}

<font color="#006600"># $db is the connection object</font>
function CountCachedExecs($db, $secs2cache, $sql, $inputarray)
{<br>global $CACHED; $CACHED++;
}
<br>$db = NewADOConnection('mysql');
$db-&gt;Connect(...);
$db-&gt;<strong>fnExecute</strong> = 'CountExecs';
$db-&gt;<strong>fnCacheExecute</strong> = 'CountCachedExecs';
 :
 :<br><font color="#006600"># After many sql statements:</font>`
printf(&quot;&lt;p&gt;Total queries=%d; total cached=%d&lt;/p&gt;&quot;,$EXECS+$CACHED, $CACHED);
</pre>
<p>The fnExecute function is called before the sql is parsed and executed, so 
  you can perform a query rewrite. If you are passing in a prepared statement, 
  then $sql is an array (see <a href="#prepare">Prepare</a>). The fnCacheExecute 
  function is only called if the recordset returned was cached.<font color="#000000"> 
  The function parameters match the Execute and CacheExecute functions respectively, 
  except that $this (the connection object) is passed as the first parameter.</font></p>
<p>Since ADOdb 3.91, the behaviour of fnExecute varies depending on whether the 
  defined function returns a value. If it does not return a value, then the $sql 
  is executed as before. This is useful for query rewriting or counting sql queries. 
<p> On the other hand, you might want to replace the Execute function with one 
  of your own design. If this is the case, then have your function return a value. 
  If a value is returned, that value is returned immediately, without any further 
  processing. This is used internally by ADOdb to implement LogSQL() functionality. 
<p> <font color="#000000"> 
<hr>
<h3>ADOConnection Utility Functions</h3>
<p><b>BlankRecordSet<a name="blankrecordset"></a>([$queryid])</b></p>
<p>No longer available - removed since 1.99.</p>
<p><b>Concat<a name="concat"></a>($s1,$s2,....)</b></p>
<p>Generates the sql string used to concatenate $s1, $s2, etc together. Uses the 
  string in the concat_operator field to generate the concatenation. Override 
  this function if a concatenation operator is not used, eg. MySQL.</p>
<p>Returns the concatenated string.</p>
<p><b>DBDate<a name="dbdate"></a>($date)</b></p>
<p>Format the $<b>date</b> in the format the database accepts. This is used in 
  INSERT/UPDATE statements; for SELECT statements, use <a href="#sqldate">SQLDate</a>. 
  The $<b>date</b> parameter can be a Unix integer timestamp or an ISO format 
  Y-m-d. Uses the fmtDate field, which holds the format to use. If null or false 
  or '' is passed in, it will be converted to an SQL null.</p>
<p>Returns the date as a quoted string.</p>
<p><b>DBTimeStamp<a name="dbtimestamp"></a>($ts)</b></p>
<p>Format the timestamp $<b>ts</b> in the format the database accepts; this can 
  be a Unix integer timestamp or an ISO format Y-m-d H:i:s. Uses the fmtTimeStamp 
  field, which holds the format to use. If null or false or '' is passed in, it 
  will be converted to an SQL null.</p>
<p>Returns the timestamp as a quoted string.</p>
<p><b>qstr<a name="qstr"></a>($s,[$magic_quotes_enabled</b>=false]<b>)</b></p>
<p>Quotes a string to be sent to the database. The $<b>magic_quotes_enabled</b> 
  parameter may look funny, but the idea is if you are quoting a string extracted 
  from a POST/GET variable, then pass get_magic_quotes_gpc() as the second parameter. 
  This will ensure that the variable is not quoted twice, once by <i>qstr</i> 
  and once by the <i>magic_quotes_gpc</i>.</p>
<p>Eg.<font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"> $s = $db-&gt;qstr(HTTP_GET_VARS['name'],get_magic_quotes_gpc());</font></p>
<p>Returns the quoted string.</p>
<p><b>Quote<a name="quote"></a>($s)</b></p>
<p>Quotes the string $s, escaping the database specific quote character as appropriate. 
  Formerly checked magic quotes setting, but this was disabled since 3.31 for 
  compatibility with PEAR DB. 
<p><b>Affected_Rows<a name="affected_rows"></a>( )</b></p>
<p>Returns the number of rows affected by a update or delete statement. Returns 
  false if function not supported.</p>
<p>Not supported by interbase/firebird currently. </p>
<p><b>Insert_ID<a name="inserted_id"></a>( )</b></p>
<p>Returns the last autonumbering ID inserted. Returns false if function not supported. 
</p>
<p>Only supported by databases that support auto-increment or object id's, such 
  as PostgreSQL, MySQL and MS SQL Server currently. PostgreSQL returns the OID, which 
  can change on a database reload.</p>
<p><b>RowLock<a name="rowlock"></a>($table,$where)</b></p>
<p>Lock a table row for the duration of a transaction. For example to lock record $id in table1:
<pre>
	$DB->StartTrans();
	$DB->RowLock("table1","rowid=$id");
	$DB->Execute($sql1);
	$DB->Execute($sql2);
	$DB->CompleteTrans();
</pre>
<p>Supported in db2, interbase, informix, mssql, oci8, postgres, sybase.
<p><b>MetaDatabases<a name="metadatabases"></a>()</b></p>
<p>Returns a list of databases available on the server as an array. You have to 
  connect to the server first. Only available for ODBC, MySQL and ADO.</p>
<p><b>MetaTables<a name="metatables"></a>($ttype = false, $showSchema = false, 
  $mask=false)</b></p>
<p>Returns an array of tables and views for the current database as an array. 
  The array should exclude system catalog tables if possible. To only show tables, 
  use $db->MetaTables('TABLES'). To show only views, use $db->MetaTables('VIEWS'). 
  The $showSchema parameter currently works only for DB2, and when set to true, 
  will add the schema name to the table, eg. "SCHEMA.TABLE". </p>
<p>You can define a mask for matching. For example, setting $mask = 'TMP%' will 
  match all tables that begin with 'TMP'. Currently only mssql, oci8, odbc_mssql 
  and postgres* support $mask. 
<p><b>MetaColumns<a name="metacolumns"></a>($table)</b></p>
<p>Returns an array of ADOFieldObject's, one field object for every column of 
  $table. Currently Sybase does not recognise date types, and ADO cannot identify 
  the correct data type (so we default to varchar).. </p>
<p><b>MetaColumnNames<a name="metacolumnames"></a>($table)</b></p>
<p>Returns an array of column names for $table. 
<p><font color="#000000"><b>MetaPrimaryKeys<a name="metaprimarykeys"></a>($table, 
  $owner=false)</b></font></font> 
<p><font color="#000000">Returns an array containing column names that are the 
  primary keys of $table. Supported by mysql, odbc (including db2, odbc_mssql, 
  etc), mssql, postgres, interbase/firebird, oci8 currently. </font><font color="#000000"> 
<p><font color="#000000"><b>ServerInfo<a name="serverinfo" id="serverinfo"></a>($table)</b></font></font> 
<p><font color="#000000">Returns an array of containing two elements 'description' 
  and 'version'. The 'description' element contains the string description of 
  the database. The 'version' naturally holds the version number (which is also 
  a string).</font><font color="#000000"> 
<p><b>MetaForeignKeys<a name="metaforeignkeys"></a>($table, $owner=false, $upper=false)</b> 
<p>Returns an associate array of foreign keys, or false if not supported. For 
  example, if table employee has a foreign key where employee.deptkey points to 
  dept_table.deptid, and employee.posn=posn_table.postionid and employee.poscategory=posn_table.category, 
  then $conn->MetaForeignKeys('employee') will return 
<pre>
	array(
		'dept_table' => array('deptkey=deptid'),
		'posn_table' => array('posn=positionid','poscategory=category')
	)
</pre>
<p>The optional schema or owner can be defined in $owner. If $upper is true, then 
  the table names (array keys) are upper-cased. 
<hr>
<h2>ADORecordSet<a name="adorecordset"></a></h2>
<p>When an SQL statement successfully is executed by <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono">ADOConnection-&gt;Execute($sql),</font>an 
  ADORecordSet object is returned. This object contains a virtual cursor so we 
  can move from row to row, functions to obtain information about the columns 
  and column types, and helper functions to deal with formating the results to 
  show to the user.</p>
<h3>ADORecordSet Fields</h3>
<p><b>fields: </b>Array containing the current row. This is not associative, but 
  is an indexed array from 0 to columns-1. See also the function <b><a href="#fields">Fields</a></b>, 
  which behaves like an associative array.</p>
<p><b>dataProvider</b>: The underlying mechanism used to connect to the database. 
  Normally set to <b>native</b>, unless using <b>odbc</b> or <b>ado</b>.</p>
<p><b>blobSize</b>: Maximum size of a char, string or varchar object before it 
  is treated as a Blob (Blob's should be shown with textarea's). See the <a href="#metatype">MetaType</a> 
  function.</p>
<p><b>sql</b>: Holds the sql statement used to generate this record set.</p>
<p><b>canSeek</b>: Set to true if Move( ) function works.</p>
<p><b>EOF</b>: True if we have scrolled the cursor past the last record.</p>
<h3>ADORecordSet Functions</h3>
<p><b>ADORecordSet( )</b></p>
<p>Constructer. Normally you never call this function yourself.</p>
<p><b>GetAssoc<a name="getassoc"></a>([$force_array])</b></p>
<p>Generates an associative array from the recordset. Note that is this function 
  is also <a href="#getassoc1">available</a> in the connection object. More details 
  can be found there.</p>
</font></font><font color="#000000"><font color="#000000"> </font></font><font color="#000000"><font color="#000000">
<p><b>GetArray<a name="getarray"></a>([$number_of_rows])</b></p>
<p>Generate a 2-dimensional array of records from the current cursor position, 
  indexed from 0 to $number_of_rows - 1. If $number_of_rows is undefined, till 
  EOF.</p>
<p><b>GetRows<a name="getrows"></a>([$number_of_rows])</b></p>
Generate a 2-dimensional array of records from the current cursor position. Synonym 
for GetArray() for compatibility with Microsoft ADO. 
<p> <b>GetMenu<a name="getmenu"></a>($name, [$default_str=''], [$blank1stItem=true], 
  [$multiple_select=false], [$size=0], [$moreAttr=''])</b></p>
<p>Generate a HTML menu (&lt;select&gt;&lt;option&gt;&lt;option&gt;&lt;/select&gt;). 
  The first column of the recordset (fields[0]) will hold the string to display 
  in the option tags. If the recordset has more than 1 column, the second column 
  (fields[1]) is the value to send back to the web server.. The menu will be given 
  the name $<i>name</i>. 
<p> If $<i>default_str</i> is defined, then if $<i>default_str</i> == fields[0], 
  that field is selected. If $<i>blank1stItem</i> is true, the first option is 
  empty. You can also set the first option strings by setting $blank1stItem = 
  "$value:$text".</p>
<p>$<i>Default_str</i> can be array for a multiple select listbox.</p>
<p>To get a listbox, set the $<i>size</i> to a non-zero value (or pass $default_str 
  as an array). If $<i>multiple_select</i> is true then a listbox will be generated 
  with $<i>size</i> items (or if $size==0, then 5 items) visible, and we will 
  return an array to a server. Lastly use $<i>moreAttr </i> to add additional 
  attributes such as javascript or styles. </p>
<p>Menu Example 1: <code>GetMenu('menu1','A',true)</code> will generate a menu: 
  <select name='menu1'>
    <option> 
    <option value=1 selected>A 
    <option value=2>B 
    <option value=3>C 
  </select>
  for the data (A,1), (B,2), (C,3). Also see <a href="#ex5">example 5</a>.</p>
<p>Menu Example 2: For the same data, <code>GetMenu('menu1',array('A','B'),false)</code> 
  will generate a menu with both A and B selected: <br>
  <select name='menu1' multiple size=3>
    <option value=1 selected>A 
    <option value=2 selected>B 
    <option value=3>C 
  </select>
<p> <b>GetMenu2<a name="getmenu2"></a>($name, [$default_str=''], [$blank1stItem=true], 
  [$multiple_select=false], [$size=0], [$moreAttr=''])</b></p>
<p>This is nearly identical to GetMenu, except that the $<i>default_str</i> is 
  matched to fields[1] (the option values).</p>
<p>Menu Example 3: Given the data in menu example 2, <code>GetMenu2('menu1',array('1','2'),false)</code> 
  will generate a menu with both A and B selected in menu example 2, but this 
  time the selection is based on the 2nd column, which holds the values to return 
  to the Web server. 
<p><b>UserDate<a name="userdate"></a>($str, [$fmt])</b></p>
<p>Converts the date string $<i>str</i> to another format. The date format is Y-m-d,
or Unix timestamp format. The default $<i>fmt</i> is Y-m-d.</p>
<p><b>UserTimeStamp<a name="usertimestamp"></a>($str, [$fmt])</b></p>
<p>Converts the timestamp string $<b>str</b> to another format. The timestamp 
  format is Y-m-d H:i:s, as in '2002-02-28 23:00:12', or Unix timestamp format.
   UserTimeStamp calls UnixTimeStamp to parse $<i>str</i>, and $<i>fmt</i> defaults to Y-m-d H:i:s if not defined. 
</p>
<p><b>UnixDate<a name="unixdate"></a>($str)</b></p>
<p>Parses the date string $<b>str</b> and returns it in unix mktime format (eg. 
  a number indicating the seconds after January 1st, 1970). Expects the date to 
  be in Y-m-d H:i:s format, except for Sybase and Microsoft SQL Server, where 
  M d Y is also accepted (the 3 letter month strings are controlled by a global 
  array, which might need localisation).</p>
<p>This function is available in both ADORecordSet and ADOConnection since 1.91.</p>
<p><b>UnixTimeStamp<a name="unixtimestamp"></a>($str)</b></p>
<p>Parses the timestamp string $<b>str</b> and returns it in unix mktime format 
  (eg. a number indicating the seconds after January 1st, 1970). Expects the date 
  to be in "Y-m-d, H:i:s" (1970-12-24, 00:00:00) or "Y-m-d H:i:s" (1970-12-24 00:00:00) or "YmdHis" (19701225000000) format, except for Sybase and Microsoft SQL Server, where 
  "M d Y h:i:sA" (Dec 25 1970 00:00:00AM) is also accepted (the 3 letter month strings are controlled by 
  a global array, which might need localisation).</p>
</font> 
<p><font color="#000000">This function is available in both ADORecordSet and ADOConnection 
  since 1.91. </font></p>
<p><font color="#000000"><b>OffsetDate<a name="offsetdate"></a>($dayFraction, 
  $basedate=false)</b></font></p>
<p><font color="#000000"><font color="#000000">Returns a string </font>with the 
  native SQL functions to calculate future and past dates based on $basedate in 
  a portable fashion. If $basedate is not defined, then the current date (at 12 
  midnight) is used. Returns the SQL string that performs the calculation when 
  passed to Execute(). </font></p>
<p><font color="#000000">For example, in Oracle, to find the date and time that 
  is 2.5 days from today, you can use:</font></p>
<pre><font color="#000000"># get date one week from now
$fld = $conn-&gt;OffsetDate(7); // returns &quot;(trunc(sysdate)+7&quot;)</font></pre>
<pre><font color="#000000"># get date and time that is 60 hours from current date and time
$fld = $conn-&gt;OffsetDate(2.5, $conn-&gt;sysTimeStamp);	// returns &quot;(sysdate+2.5)&quot;</font>

$conn-&gt;Execute(&quot;UPDATE TABLE SET dodate=$fld WHERE ID=$id&quot;);</pre>
<p> This function is available for mysql, mssql, oracle, oci8 and postgresql drivers 
  since 2.13. It might work with other drivers<font color="#000000"> provided 
  they allow performing numeric day arithmetic on dates.</font></p>
<font color="#000000"> 
<p><font color="#000000"><b>SQLDate<a name="sqldate"></a>($dateFormat, $basedate=false)</b></font></p>
Returns a string which contains the native SQL functions to format a date or date 
column $basedate. This is used in SELECT statements. For INSERT/UPDATE statements, 
use <a href="#dbdate">DBDate</a>. It uses a case-sensitive $dateFormat, which 
supports: 
<pre>
 Y: 4-digit Year
 Q: Quarter (1-4)
 m: Month (01-12)
 d: Day (01-31)
 H: Hour (00-23)
 h: Hour (1-12)
 i: Minute (00-59)
 s: Second (00-60)
 A: AM/PM indicator</pre>
<p>All other characters are treated as strings. You can also use \ to escape characters. 
  Available on selected databases, including mysql, postgresql, mssql, oci8 and 
  DB2. 
<p>This is useful in writing portable sql statements that GROUP BY on dates. For 
  example to display total cost of goods sold broken by quarter (dates are stored 
  in a field called postdate): 
<pre>
 $sqlfn = $db->SQLDate('Y-\QQ','postdate'); # get sql that formats postdate to output 2002-Q1
 $sql = "SELECT $sqlfn,SUM(cogs) FROM table GROUP BY $sqlfn ORDER BY 1 desc";
 </pre>
<p><b>MoveNext<a name="movenext"></a>( )</b></p>
<p>Move the internal cursor to the next row. The <i>$this->fields</i> array is 
  automatically updated. Returns false if unable to do so (normally because EOF 
  has been reached), otherwise true. 
<p> If EOF is reached, then the $this->fields array is set to false (this was 
  only implemented consistently in ADOdb 3.30). For the pre-3.30 behaviour of 
  $this->fields (at EOF), set the global variable $ADODB_COMPAT_FETCH = true.</p>
<p>Example:</p>
<pre>$rs = $db-&gt;Execute($sql);
if ($rs) 
	while (!$rs-&gt;EOF) {
 		ProcessArray($rs->fields);	
		$rs->MoveNext();
	} </pre>
<p><b>Move<a name="move"></a>($to)</b></p>
<p>Moves the internal cursor to a specific row $<b>to</b>. Rows are zero-based 
  eg. 0 is the first row. The <b>fields</b> array is automatically updated. For 
  databases that do not support scrolling internally, ADOdb will simulate forward 
  scrolling. Some databases do not support backward scrolling. If the $<b>to</b> 
  position is after the EOF, $<b>to</b> will move to the end of the RecordSet 
  for most databases. Some obscure databases using odbc might not behave this 
  way.</p>
<p>Note: This function uses <i>absolute positioning</i>, unlike Microsoft's ADO.</p>
<p>Returns true or false. If false, the internal cursor is not moved in most implementations, 
  so AbsolutePosition( ) will return the last cursor position before the Move( 
  ). </p>
<p><b>MoveFirst<a name="movefirst"></a>()</b></p>
<p>Internally calls Move(0). Note that some databases do not support this function.</p>
<p><b>MoveLast<a name="movelast"></a>()</b></p>
<p>Internally calls Move(RecordCount()-1). Note that some databases do not support 
  this function.</p>
<p><b>GetRowAssoc</b><a name="getrowassoc"></a>($toUpper=true)</p>
<p>Returns an associative array containing the current row. The keys to the array 
  are the column names. The column names are upper-cased for easy access. To get 
  the next row, you will still need to call MoveNext(). </p>
<p>For example:<br>
  Array ( [ID] => 1 [FIRSTNAME] => Caroline [LASTNAME] => Miranda [CREATED] => 
  2001-07-05 ) </p>
<p>Note: do not use GetRowAssoc() with $ADODB_FETCH_MODE = ADODB_FETCH_ASSOC. 
  Because they have the same functionality, they will interfere with each other.</p>
</font> 
<p><font color="#000000"><b>AbsolutePage<a name="absolutepage"></a>($page=-1) 
  </b></font></p>
<p>Returns the current page. Requires PageExecute()/CachePageExecute() to be called. 
  See <a href=#ex8>Example 8</a>.</p>
<font color="#000000"> 
<p><b>AtFirstPage<a name="atfirstpage">($status='')</a></b></p>
<p>Returns true if at first page (1-based). Requires PageExecute()/CachePageExecute() 
  to be called. See <a href=#ex8>Example 8</a>.</p>
<p><b>AtLastPage<a name="atlastpage">($status='')</a></b></p>
<p>Returns true if at last page (1-based). Requires PageExecute()/CachePageExecute() 
  to be called. See <a href=#ex8>Example 8</a>.</p>
<p><b>Fields</b><a name="fields"></a>(<b>$colname</b>)</p>
<p>Returns the value of the 
  associated column $<b>colname</b> for the current row. The column name is case-insensitive.</p>
<p>This is a convenience function. For higher performance, use <a href="#adodb_fetch_mode">$ADODB_FETCH_MODE</a>. </p>
<p><b>FetchRow</b><a name="fetchrow"></a>()</p>
</font> 
<p><font color="#000000">Returns array containing current row, or false if EOF. 
  FetchRow( ) internally moves to the next record after returning the current 
  row. </font></p>
<p><font color="#000000">Warning: Do not mix using FetchRow() with MoveNext().</font></p>
<p><font color="#000000">Usage:</font></p>
<pre><font color="#000000">$rs = $db-&gt;Execute($sql);
if ($rs)
	while ($arr = $rs-&gt;FetchRow()) &#123;
	   &nbsp;&nbsp;# process $arr	
</font><font color="#000000">	&#125;</font></pre>
<p><font color="#000000"><b>FetchInto</b><a name="fetchinto"></a>(<b>&amp;$array</b>)</font></p>
<p><font color="#000000"> Sets $array to the current row. Returns PEAR_Error object 
  if EOF, 1 if ok (DB_OK constant). If PEAR is undefined, false is returned when 
  EOF. </font><font color="#000000">FetchInto( ) internally moves to the next 
  record after returning the current row. </font></p>
<p><font color="#000000"> FetchRow() is easier to use. See above.</font></p>
<font color="#000000"> 
<p><b>FetchField<a name="fetchfield"></a>($column_number)</b></p>
<p>Returns an object containing the <b>name</b>, <b>type</b> and <b>max_length</b> 
  of the associated field. If the max_length cannot be determined reliably, it 
  will be set to -1. The column numbers are zero-based. See <a href="#ex2">example 
  2.</a></p>
<p><b>FieldCount<a name="fieldcount"></a>( )</b></p>
<p>Returns the number of fields (columns) in the record set.</p>
<p><b>RecordCount<a name="recordcount"></a>( )</b></p>
<p>Returns the number of rows in the record set. If the number of records returned 
  cannot be determined from the database driver API, we will buffer all rows and 
  return a count of the rows after all the records have been retrieved. This buffering 
  can be disabled (for performance reasons) by setting the global variable $ADODB_COUNTRECS 
  = false. When disabled, RecordCount( ) will return -1 for certain databases. 
  See the supported databases list above for more details. </p>
<p> RowCount is a synonym for RecordCount.</p>
<p><b>PO_RecordCount<a name="po_recordcount"></a>($table, $where)</b></p>
<p>Returns the number of rows in the record set. If the database does not support 
  this, it will perform a SELECT COUNT(*) on the table $table, with the given 
  $where condition to return an estimate of the recordset size.</p>
<p>$numrows = $rs-&gt;PO_RecordCount(&quot;articles_table&quot;, &quot;group=$group&quot;);</p>
<b> NextRecordSet<a name="nextrecordset" id="nextrecordset"></a>()</b> 
<p>For databases that allow multiple recordsets to be returned in one query, this 
  function allows you to switch to the next recordset. Currently only supported 
  by mssql driver.</p>
<pre>
$rs = $db-&gt;Execute('execute return_multiple_rs');
$arr1 = $rs-&gt;GetArray();
$rs-&gt;NextRecordSet();
$arr2 = $rs-&gt;GetArray();</pre>
<p><b>FetchObject<a name="fetchobject"></a>($toupper=true)</b></p>
<p>Returns the current row as an object. If you set $toupper to true, then the 
  object fields are set to upper-case. Note: The newer FetchNextObject() is the 
  recommended way of accessing rows as objects. See below.</p>
<p><b>FetchNextObject<a name="fetchnextobject"></a>($toupper=true)</b></p>
<p>Gets the current row as an object and moves to the next row automatically. 
  Returns false if at end-of-file. If you set $toupper to true, then the object 
  fields are set to upper-case.</p>
<pre>
$rs = $db->Execute('select firstname,lastname from table');
if ($rs) &#123;
	while ($o = $rs->FetchNextObject()) &#123;
		print "$o->FIRSTNAME, $o->LASTNAME&lt;BR>";
	&#125;
&#125;
</pre>
<p>There is some trade-off in speed in using FetchNextObject(). If performance 
  is important, you should access rows with the <code>fields[]</code> array. <b>FetchObj<a name="fetchobj" id="fetchobj"></a>()</b> 
<p>Returns the current record as an object. Fields are not upper-cased, unlike 
  FetchObject. </font> 
<p><font color="#000000"><b>FetchNextObj<a name="fetchnextobj" id="fetchnextobj"></a>()</b> 
  </font></p>
<p><font color="#000000">Returns the current record as an object and moves to 
  the next record. If EOF, false is returned. Fields are not upper-cased, unlike 
  FetctNextObject. </font></p>
<font color="#000000"> 
<p><b>CurrentRow<a name="currentrow"></a>( )</b></p>
<p>Returns the current row of the record set. 0 is the first row.</p>
<p><b>AbsolutePosition<a name="abspos"></a>( )</b></p>
<p>Synonym for <b>CurrentRow</b> for compatibility with ADO. Returns the current 
  row of the record set. 0 is the first row.</p>
<p><b>MetaType<a name="metatype"></a>($nativeDBType[,$field_max_length],[$fieldobj])</b></p>
<p>Determine what <i>generic</i> meta type a database field type is given its 
  native type $<b>nativeDBType</b> as a string and the length of the field $<b>field_max_length</b>. 
  Note that field_max_length can be -1 if it is not known. The field object returned 
  by FetchField() can be passed in $<b>fieldobj</b> or as the 1st parameter <b>$nativeDBType</b>. 
  This is useful for databases such as <i>mysql</i> which has additional properties 
  in the field object such as <i>primary_key</i>. </p>
<p>Uses the field <b>blobSize</b> and compares it with $<b>field_max_length</b> 
  to determine whether the character field is actually a blob.</p>
For example, $db-&gt;MetaType('char') will return 'C'. 
<p>Returns:</p>
<ul>
  <li><b>C</b>: Character fields that should be shown in a &lt;input type=&quot;text&quot;&gt; 
    tag. </li>
  <li><b>X</b>: Clob (character large objects), or large text fields that should 
    be shown in a &lt;textarea&gt;</li>
  <li><b>D</b>: Date field</li>
  <li><b>T</b>: Timestamp field</li>
  <li><b>L</b>: Logical field (boolean or bit-field)</li>
  <li><b>N</b>: Numeric field. Includes decimal, numeric, floating point, and 
    real. </li>
  <li><b>I</b>:&nbsp; Integer field. </li>
  <li><b>R</b>: Counter or Autoincrement field. Must be numeric.</li>
  <li><b>B</b>: Blob, or binary large objects.<font color="#000000"> </font></li>
</ul>
</font> 
<p><font color="#000000"> Since ADOdb 3.0, MetaType accepts $fieldobj as the first 
  parameter, instead of $nativeDBType. </font></p>
<font color="#000000"> 
<p><b>Close( )<a name="rsclose"></a></b></p>
<p>Closes the recordset, cleaning all memory and resources associated with the recordset. 
<p>
If memory management is not an issue, you do not need to call this function as recordsets
are closed for you by PHP at the end of the script. 
SQL statements such as INSERT/UPDATE/DELETE do not really return a recordset, so you do not have to call Close()
for such SQL statements.</p>
<hr>
<h3>function rs2html<a name="rs2html"></a>($adorecordset,[$tableheader_attributes], 
  [$col_titles])</h3>
<p>This is a standalone function (rs2html = recordset to html) that is similar 
  to PHP's <i>odbc_result_all</i> function, it prints a ADORecordSet, $<b>adorecordset</b> 
  as a HTML table. $<b>tableheader_attributes</b> allow you to control the table 
  <i>cellpadding</i>, <i>cellspacing</i> and <i>border</i> attributes. Lastly 
  you can replace the database column names with your own column titles with the 
  array $<b>col_titles</b>. This is designed more as a quick debugging mechanism, 
  not a production table recordset viewer.</p>
<p>You will need to include the file <i>tohtml.inc.php</i>.</p>
<p>Example of rs2html:<b><font color="#336600"><a name="exrs2html"></a></font></b></p>
<pre><b><font color="#336600">&lt;?
include('tohtml.inc.php')</font></b>; # load code common to ADOdb 
<b>include</b>('adodb.inc.php'); # load code common to ADOdb 
$<font color="#663300">conn</font> = &amp;ADONewConnection('mysql');   # create a connection 
$<font color="#663300">conn</font>->PConnect('localhost','userid','','agora');# connect to MySQL, agora db
$<font color="#663300">sql</font> = 'select CustomerName, CustomerID from customers'; 
$<font color="#663300">rs</font>   = $<font color="#663300">conn</font>->Execute($sql); 
<font color="#336600"><b>rs2html</b></font><b>($<font color="#663300">rs</font>,'<i>border=2 cellpadding=3</i>',array('<i>Customer Name','Customer ID</i>'));
?&gt;</b></pre>
<hr>
<h3>Differences between this ADOdb library and Microsoft ADO<a name="adodiff"></a></h3>
<ol>
  <li>ADOdb only supports recordsets created by a connection object. Recordsets 
    cannot be created independently.</li>
  <li>ADO properties are implemented as functions in ADOdb. This makes it easier 
    to implement any enhanced ADO functionality in the future.</li>
  <li>ADOdb's <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono">ADORecordSet-&gt;Move()</font> 
    uses absolute positioning, not relative. Bookmarks are not supported.</li>
  <li><font face="Courier New, Courier, mono">ADORecordSet-&gt;AbsolutePosition() 
    </font>cannot be used to move the record cursor.</li>
  <li>ADO Parameter objects are not supported. Instead we have the ADOConnection::<a href="#parameter">Parameter</a>( 
    ) function, which provides a simpler interface for calling preparing parameters 
    and calling stored procedures.</li>
  <li>Recordset properties for paging records are available, but implemented as 
    in <a href=#ex8>Example 8</a>.</li>
</ol>
<hr>
<h1>Database Driver Guide<a name="driverguide"></a></h1>
<p>This describes how to create a class to connect to a new database. To ensure 
  there is no duplication of work, kindly email me at jlim#natsoft.com.my if you 
  decide to create such a class.</p>
<p>First decide on a name in lower case to call the database type. Let's say we 
  call it xbase. </p>
<p>Then we need to create two classes ADODB_xbase and ADORecordSet_xbase in the 
  file adodb-xbase.inc.php.</p>
<p>The simplest form of database driver is an adaptation of an existing ODBC driver. 
  Then we just need to create the class <i>ADODB_xbase extends ADODB_odbc</i> 
  to support the new <b>date</b> and <b>timestamp</b> formats, the <b>concatenation</b> 
  operator used, <b>true</b> and <b>false</b>. For the<i> ADORecordSet_xbase extends 
  ADORecordSet_odbc </i>we need to change the <b>MetaType</b> function. See<b> 
  adodb-vfp.inc.php</b> as an example.</p>
<p>More complicated is a totally new database driver that connects to a new PHP 
  extension. Then you will need to implement several functions. Fortunately, you 
  do not have to modify most of the complex code. You only need to override a 
  few stub functions. See <b>adodb-mysql.inc.php</b> for example.</p>
<p>The default date format of ADOdb internally is YYYY-MM-DD (Ansi-92). All dates 
  should be converted to that format when passing to an ADOdb date function. See 
  Oracle for an example how we use ALTER SESSION to change the default date format 
  in _pconnect _connect.</p>
<p><b>ADOConnection Functions to Override</b></p>
<p>Defining a constructor for your ADOConnection derived function is optional. 
  There is no need to call the base class constructor.</p>
<p>_<b>connect</b>: Low level implementation of Connect. Returns true or false. 
  Should set the _<b>connectionID</b>.</p>
<p>_<b>pconnect:</b> Low level implemention of PConnect. Returns true or false. 
  Should set the _<b>connectionID</b>.</p>
<p>_<b>query</b>: Execute a query. Returns the queryID, or false.</p>
<p>_<b>close: </b>Close the connection -- PHP should clean up all recordsets. 
</p>
<p><b>ErrorMsg</b>: Stores the error message in the private variable _errorMsg. 
</p>
<p><b>ADOConnection Fields to Set</b></p>
<p>_<b>bindInputArray</b>: Set to true if binding of parameters for SQL inserts 
  and updates is allowed using ?, eg. as with ODBC.</p>
<p><b>fmtDate</b></p>
<p><b>fmtTimeStamp</b></p>
<p><b>true</b></p>
<p><b>false</b></p>
<p><b>concat_operator</b></p>
<p><b>replaceQuote</b></p>
<p><b>hasLimit</b> support SELECT * FROM TABLE LIMIT 10 of MySQL.</p>
<p><b>hasTop</b> support Microsoft style SELECT TOP 10 * FROM TABLE.</p>
<p><b>ADORecordSet Functions to Override</b></p>
<p>You will need to define a constructor for your ADORecordSet derived class that 
  calls the parent class constructor.</p>
<p><b>FetchField: </b> as documented above in ADORecordSet</p>
<p>_<b>initrs</b>: low level initialization of the recordset: setup the _<b>numOfRows</b> 
  and _<b>numOfFields</b> fields -- called by the constructor.</p>
<p>_<b>seek</b>: seek to a particular row. Do not load the data into the fields 
  array. This is done by _fetch. Returns true or false. Note that some implementations 
  such as Interbase do not support seek. Set canSeek to false.</p>
<p>_<b>fetch</b>: fetch a row using the database extension function and then move 
  to the next row. Sets the <b>fields</b> array. If the parameter $ignore_fields 
  is true then there is no need to populate the <b>fields</b> array, just move 
  to the next row. then Returns true or false.</p>
<p>_<b>close</b>: close the recordset</p>
<p><b>Fields</b>: If the array row returned by the PHP extension is not an associative 
  one, you will have to override this. See adodb-odbc.inc.php for an example. 
  For databases such as MySQL and MSSQL where an associative array is returned, 
  there is no need to override this function.</p>
<p><b>ADOConnection Fields to Set</b></p>
<p>canSeek: Set to true if the _seek function works.</p>
<h2>ToDo:</h2>
<p>See the <a href=http://php.weblogs.com/adodb-todo-roadmap>RoadMap</a> article.</p>
<p>Also see the ADOdb <a href=http://php.weblogs.com/adodb_csv>proxy</a> article 
  for bridging Windows and Unix databases using http remote procedure calls. For 
  your education, visit <a href=http://palslib.com/>palslib.com</a> for database info, 
  and read this article on <a href=http://phplens.com/lens/php-book/optimizing-debugging-php.php>Optimizing 
  PHP</a>. </p>
</font> 
<h2>Change Log<a name="Changes"></a><a name="changes"></a><a name="changelog"></a></h2>
<p><b>4.05 13 Dec 2003 </b>
<p>Added function exists check on connecting to most drivers, so we don't crash with the unknown function error.
<p>Smart Transactions failed with GenID() when it no seq table has been created because the sql
	statement fails. Fix by Mark Newnham.
<p>Added $db->length, which holds name of function that returns strlen.
<p>Fixed error handling for bad driver in ADONewConnection - passed too few params to error-handler.
<p>Datadict did not handle types like 16.0 properly in _GetSize. Fixed.
<p>Oci8 driver SelectLimit() bug &= instead of =& used. Thx to Swen Thümmler.
<p>Jesse Mullan suggested not flushing outp when output buffering enabled. Due to Apache 2.0 bug. Added.
<p>MetaTables/MetaColumns return ref bug with PHP5 fixed in adodb-datadict.inc.php.
<p>New mysqli driver contributed by Arjen de Rijke. Based on adodb 3.40 driver.
Then jlim added BeginTrans, CommitTrans, RollbackTrans, IfNull, SQLDate. Also fixed return ref bug.
<p>$ADODB_FLUSH added, if true then force flush in debugging outp. Default is false.  In earlier
versions, outp defaulted to flush, which is not compat with apache 2.0.
<p>Mysql driver's GenID() function did not work when when sql logging is on. Fixed.
<p>$ADODB_SESSION_TBL not declared as global var. Not available if adodb-session.inc.php included in function. Fixed.
<p>The input array not passed to Execute() in _adodb_getcount(). Fixed.
<p><b>4.04 13 Nov 2003 </b>
<p>Switched back to foreach - faster than list-each.
<p>Fixed bug in ado driver - wiping out $this->fields with date fields.
<p>Performance Monitor, View SQL, Explain Plan did not work if strlen($SQL)>max($_GET length). Fixed.
<p>Performance monitor, oci8 driver added memory sort ratio.
<p>Added random property, returns SQL to generate a floating point number between 0 and 1;
<p><b>4.03 6 Nov 2003 </b>
<p>The path to adodb-php4.inc.php and adodb-iterators.inc.php was not setup properly.
<p>Patched SQLDate in interbase to support hours/mins/secs. Thx to ari kuorikoski.
<p>Force autorollback for pgsql persistent connections - 
apparently pgsql did not autorollback properly before 4.3.4. See http://bugs.php.net/bug.php?id=25404
<p><b>4.02 5 Nov 2003 </b>
<p>Some errors in adodb_error_pg() fixed. Thx to Styve.
<p>Spurious Insert_ID() error was generated by LogSQL(). Fixed.
<p>Insert_ID was interfering with Affected_Rows() and Replace()  when LogSQL() enabled. Fixed.
<p>More foreach loops optimized with list/each.
<p>Null dates not handled properly in ADO driver (it becomes 31 Dec 1969!).
<p>Heinz Hombergs contributed patches for mysql MetaColumns - adding scale, made
interbase MetaColumns work with firebird/interbase, and added lang/adodb-de.inc.php.
<p>Added INFORMIXSERVER environment variable.
<p>Added $ADODB_ANSI_PADDING_OFF for interbase/firebird.
<p>PHP 5 beta 2 compat check. Foreach (Iterator) support. Exceptions support.
<p><b>4.01 23 Oct 2003 </b>
<p>Fixed bug in rs2html(), tohtml.inc.php, that generated blank table cells.
<p>Fixed insert_id() incorrectly generated when logsql() enabled.
<p>Modified PostgreSQL _fixblobs to use list/each instead of foreach.
<p>Informix ErrorNo() implemented correctly.
<p>Modified several places to use list/each, including GetRowAssoc().
<p>Added UserTimeStamp() to connection class.
<p>Added $ADODB_ANSI_PADDING_OFF for oci8po.
<p><b>4.00 20 Oct 2003 </b>
<p>Upgraded adodb-xmlschema to 1 Oct 2003 snapshot.
<p>Fix to rs2html warning message. Thx to Filo.
<p>Fix for odbc_mssql/mssql SQLDate(), hours was wrong.
<p>Added MetaColumns and MetaPrimaryKeys for sybase. Thx to Chris Phillipson.
<p>Added autoquoting to datadict for MySQL and PostgreSQL. Suggestion by Karsten Dambekalns  
<p><b>3.94 11 Oct 2003 </b>
<p>Create trigger in datadict-oci8.inc.php did not work, because all cr/lf's must be removed. 
<p>ErrorMsg()/ErrorNo() did not work for many databases when logging enabled. Fixed.
<p>Removed global variable $ADODB_LOGSQL as it does not work properly with multiple connections.
<p>Added SQLDate support for sybase. Thx to Chris Phillipson
<p>Postgresql checking of pgsql resultset resource was incorrect. Fix by Bharat Mediratta bharat#menalto.com.
Same patch applied to  _insertid and _affectedrows for adodb-postgres64.inc.php.
<p>Added support for NConnect for postgresql.
<p>Added Sybase data dict support. Thx to Chris Phillipson  
<p>Extensive improvements in $perf->UI(), eg. Explain now opens in new window, we show scripts
which call sql, etc.
<p>Perf Monitor UI works with magic quotes enabled.
<p>rsPrefix was declared twice. Removed.
<p>Oci8 stored procedure support, eg. "begin func(); end;" was incorrect in _query. Fixed.
<p>Tiraboschi Massimiliano contributed italian language file.
<p>Fernando Ortiz, fortiz#lacorona.com.mx, contributed informix performance monitor.
<p>Added _varchar (varchar arrays) support for postgresql. Reported by PREVOT Stéphane.
<p><b>3.92 22 Sept 2003</b> 
<p>Added GetAssoc and CacheGetAssoc to connection object.
<p>Removed TextMax and CharMax functions from adodb.inc.php. 
<p>HasFailedTrans() returned false when trans failed. Fixed. 
<p>Moved perf driver classes into adodb/perf/*.php. 
<p>Misc improvements to performance monitoring, including UI(). 
<p>RETVAL in mssql Parameter(), we do not append @ now. 
<p>Added Param($name) to connection class, returns '?' or ":$name", for defining 
  bind parameters portably. 
<p>LogSQL traps affected_rows() and saves its value properly now. Also fixed oci8 
  _stmt and _affectedrows() bugs. 
<p>Session code timestamp check for oci8 works now. Formerly default NLS_DATE_FORMAT 
  stripped off time portion. Thx to Tony Blair (tonanbarbarian#hotmail.com). Also 
  added new $conn->datetime field to oci8, controls whether MetaType() returns 
  'D' ($this->datetime==false) or 'T' ($this->datetime == true) for DATE type. 
<p>Fixed bugs in adodb-cryptsession.inc.php and adodb-session-clob.inc.php. 
<p>Fixed misc bugs in adodb_key_exists, GetInsertSQL() and GetUpdateSQL(). 
<p>Tuned include_once handling to reduce file-system checking overhead. 
<p><b>3.91 9 Sept 2003</b> 
<p>Only released to InterAkt 
<p>Added LogSQL() for sql logging and $ADODB_NEWCONNECTION to override factory 
  for driver instantiation. 
<p>Added IfNull($field,$ifNull) function, thx to johnwilk#juno.com 
<p>Added portable substr support. 
<p>Now rs2html() has new parameter, $echo. Set to false to return $html instead 
  of echoing it. 
<p><b>3.90 5 Sept 2003</b> 
<p>First beta of performance monitoring released. 
<p>MySQL supports MetaTable() masking. 
<p>Fixed key_exists() bug in adodb-lib.inc.php 
<p>Added sp_executesql Prepare() support to mssql. 
<p>Added bind support to db2. 
<p>Added swedish language file - Christian Tiberg" christian#commsoft.nu 
<p>Bug in drop index for mssql data dict fixed. Thx to Gert-Rainer Bitterlich. 
<p>Left join setting for oci8 was wrong. Thx to johnwilk#juno.com 
<p><b>3.80 27 Aug 2003</b> 
<p>Patch for PHP 4.3.3 cached recordset csv2rs() fread loop incompatibility. 
<p>Added matching mask for MetaTables. Only for oci8, mssql and postgres currently. 
<p>Rewrite of "oracle" driver connection code, merging with "oci8", by Gaetano. 
<p>Added better debugging for Smart Transactions. 
<p>Postgres DBTimeStamp() was wrongly using TO_DATE. Changed to TO_TIMESTAMP. 
<p>ADODB_FETCH_CASE check pushed to ADONewConnection to allow people to define 
  it after including adodb.inc.php. 
<p>Added portugese (brazilian) to languages. Thx to "Levi Fukumori". 
<p>Removed arg3 parameter from Execute/SelectLimit/Cache* functions. 
<p>Execute() now accepts 2-d array as $inputarray. Also changed docs of fnExecute() 
  to note change in sql query counting with 2-d arrays. 
<p>Added MONEY to MetaType in PostgreSQL. 
<p>Added more debugging output to CacheFlush(). 
<p><b>3.72 9 Aug 2003</b> 
<p>Added qmagic($str), which is a qstr($str) that auto-checks for magic quotes 
  and does the right thing... 
<p>Fixed CacheFlush() bug - Thx to martin#gmx.de 
<p>Walt Boring contributed MetaForeignKeys for postgres7. 
<p>_fetch() called _BlobDecode() wrongly in interbase. Fixed. 
<p>adodb_time bug fixed with dates after 2038 fixed by Jason Pell. http://phplens.com/lens/lensforum/msgs.php?id=6980 
<p><b>3.71 4 Aug 2003</b> 
<p>The oci8 driver, MetaPrimaryKeys() did not check the owner correctly when $owner 
  == false. 
<p>Russian language file contributed by "Cyrill Malevanov" cyrill#malevanov.spb.ru. 
<p>Spanish language file contributed by "Horacio Degiorgi" horaciod#codigophp.com. 
<p>Error handling in oci8 bugfix - if there was an error in Execute(), then when 
  calling ErrorNo() and/or ErrorMsg(), the 1st call would return the error, but 
  the 2nd call would return no error. 
<p>Error handling in odbc bugfix. ODBC would always return the last error, even 
  if it happened 5 queries ago. Now we reset the errormsg to '' and errorno to 
  0 everytime before CacheExecute() and Execute(). 
<p><b>3.70 29 July 2003</b> 
<p>Added new SQLite driver. Tested on PHP 4.3 and PHP 5. 
<p>Added limited "sapdb" driver support - mainly date support. 
<p>The oci8 driver did not identify NUMBER with no defined precision correctly. 
<p>Added ADODB_FORCE_NULLS, if set, then PHP nulls are converted to SQL nulls 
  in GetInsertSQL/GetUpdateSQL. 
<p>DBDate() and DBTimeStamp() format for postgresql had problems. Fixed. 
<p>Added tableoptions to ChangeTableSQL(). Thx to Mike Benoit. 
<p>Added charset support to postgresql. Thx to Julian Tarkhanov. 
<p>Changed OS check for MS-Windows to prevent confusion with darWIN (MacOS) 
<p>Timestamp format for db2 was wrong. Changed to yyyy-mm-dd-hh.mm.ss.nnnnnn. 
<p>adodb-cryptsession.php includes wrong. Fixed. 
<p>Added MetaForeignKeys(). Supported by mssql, odbc_mssql and oci8. 
<p>Fixed some oci8 MetaColumns/MetaPrimaryKeys bugs. Thx to Walt Boring. 
<p>adodb_getcount() did not init qryRecs to 0. Missing "WHERE" clause checking 
  in GetUpdateSQL fixed. Thx to Sebastiaan van Stijn. 
<p>Added support for only 'VIEWS' and "TABLES" in MetaTables. From Walt Boring. 
<p>Upgraded to adodb-xmlschema.inc.php 0.0.2. 
<p>NConnect for mysql now returns value. Thx to Dennis Verspuij. 
<p>ADODB_FETCH_BOTH support added to interbase/firebird. 
<p>Czech language file contributed by Kamil Jakubovic jake#host.sk. 
<p>PostgreSQL BlobDecode did not use _connectionID properly. Thx to Juraj Chlebec. 
<p>Added some new initialization stuff for Informix. Thx to "Andrea Pinnisi" pinnisi#sysnet.it 
<p>ADODB_ASSOC_CASE constant wrong in sybase _fetch(). Fixed. 
<p><b>3.60 16 June 2003</b> 
<p>We now SET CONCAT_NULL_YIELDS_NULL OFF for odbc_mssql driver to be compat with 
  mssql driver. 
<p>The property $emptyDate missing from connection class. Also changed 1903 to 
  constant (TIMESTAMP_FIRST_YEAR=100). Thx to Sebastiaan van Stijn. 
<p>ADOdb speedup optimization - we now return all arrays by reference. 
<p>Now DBDate() and DBTimeStamp() now accepts the string 'null' as a parameter. 
  Suggested by vincent. 
<p>Added GetArray() to connection class. 
<p>Added not_null check in informix metacolumns(). 
<p>Connection parameters for postgresql did not work correctly when port was defined. 
<p>DB2 is now a tested driver, making adodb 100% compatible. Extensive changes 
  to odbc driver for DB2, including implementing serverinfo() and SQLDate(), switching 
  to SQL_CUR_USE_ODBC as the cursor mode, and lastAffectedRows and SelectLimit() 
  fixes. 
<p>The odbc driver's FetchField() field names did not obey ADODB_ASSOC_CASE. Fixed. 
<p>Some bugs in adodb_backtrace() fixed. 
<p>Added "INT IDENTITY" type to adorecordset::MetaType() to support odbc_mssql 
  properly. 
<p>MetaColumns() for oci8, mssql, odbc revised to support scale. Also minor revisions 
  to odbc MetaColumns() for vfp and db2 compat. 
<p>Added unsigned support to mysql datadict class. Thx to iamsure. 
<p>Infinite loop in mssql MoveNext() fixed when ADODB_FETCH_ASSOC used. Thx to 
  Josh R, Night_Wulfe#hotmail.com. 
<p>ChangeTableSQL contributed by Florian Buzin. 
<p>The odbc_mssql driver now sets CONCAT_NULL_YIELDS_NULL OFF for compat with 
  mssql driver. 
<hr>
<p><strong>0.10 Sept 9 2000</strong> First release 
<h3><strong>Old changelog history moved to <a href=old-changelog.htm>old-changelog.htm</a>. 
  </strong></h3>
<p>&nbsp;</p>
<p> </font> 
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