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<h2>ADODB Library for PHP</h2>
<p>V1.71 18 Jan 2001 (c) 2000-2001 John Lim (hide@address.com)</p>
<p>This software is dual licensed using BSD-Style and LGPL. 
Where there is any discrepancy, the BSD-Style license will take precedence. 
This means you can use it in proprietary and commercial products.</p>
<p><a href="#intro"><b>Introduction</b></a><b><br>
 <a href="#features">Unique Features</a><br>
 <a href="#users">How People are using ADODB</a><br>
 <a href="#bugs">Feature Requests and Bug Reports</a><br>
 </b><b><a href="#install">Installation<br>
 </a><a href="#coding">Initializing Code</a></b> 
 <font size="2"><a href=#adonewconnection>ADONewConnection</a></font>
  <font size="2"><a href=#adonewconnection>NewADOConnection</a></font><br>
   <b> <a href="#drivers">Supported Databases</a></b><br>
 <b> <a href="#quickstart">Tutorial</a></b><br>
 <a href="#ex1">Example 1: Select</a><br>
 <a href="#ex2">Example 2: Advanced Select</a><br>
 <a href="#ex3">Example 3: Insert</a><br>
 <a href="#ex4">Example 4: Debugging</a> &nbsp;<a href="#exrs2html">rs2html example</a><br>
 <a href="#ex5">Example 5: MySQL and Menus</a><br>
 <a href="#ex6">Example 6: Connecting to Multiple Databases at once</a> <br>
 <a href="#ex7">Example 7: Generating Update and Insert SQL</a> <br>
 <a href="#ex8">Example 8: Implementing Scrolling with Next and Previous</a> <br>
<b> <a href="#errorhandling">Using Custom Error Handlers and PEAR_Error</a><br>
 <a href="#caching">Caching</a></b></p>
<p><a href="#ref"><b>Reference</b></a><br>
  <a href="#ADOConnection"><b>ADOConnection</b></a>: 
  <font size="2"><a href=#adodb_fetch_mode>$ADODB_FETCH_MODE</a></font>
  <a href="#connect"><font size="2">Connect</font></a> 
  <font size="2"><a href="#pconnect">PConnect</a> <a href="#execute">Execute</a> 
  <a href="#cacheexecute">CacheExecute</a> <a href="#SelectLimit">SelectLimit</a> 
  <a href="#cacheSelectLimit">CacheSelectLimit</a> <a href="#CacheFlush">CacheFlush</a> 
  <a href="#Close">Close</a> <a href="#concat">Concat</a> <a href="#dbdate">DBDate</a> 
  <a href="#dbtimestamp">DBTimeStamp</a> <a href="#qstr">qstr</a> <a href="#begintrans">BeginTrans</a> 
  <a href="#committrans">CommitTrans</a> <a href="#rollbacktrans">RollbackTrans</a></font> 
  <font size="2"><a href="#affected_rows">Affected_Rows</a> <a href="#inserted_id">Insert_ID</a></font> 
  <font size="2"><a href="#errormsg">ErrorMsg</a> <a href="#errorno">ErrorNo</a> 
  <a href="#metadatabases">MetaDatabases</a> <a href="#metatables">MetaTables 
  </a><a href="#blankrecordset">BlankRecordSet</a> <a href="#metacolumns">MetaColumns</a> 
  <a href="#genid">GenID</a> <a href="#getupdatesql">GetUpdateSQL</a> <a href="#getinsertsql">GetInsertSQL</a> 
  <a href="#updateblob">UpdateBlob</a> <a href="#pageexecute">PageExecute</a> 
  <a href="#cachepageexecute">CachePageExecute</a></font><br>
  <a href="#ADORecordSet"><b>ADORecordSet</b></a>: <a href="#getassoc"><font size="2">GetAssoc</font></a> 
  <font size="2"><a href="#getarray">GetArray</a> <a href="#getrows">GetRows</a> <a href="#getmenu">GetMenu</a> <a href="#getmenu2">GetMenu2</a>  
  <a href="#userdate">UserDate</a> <a href="#usertimestamp">UserTimeStamp</a> 
  <a href="#unixdate">UnixDate</a> <a href="#unixtimestamp">UnixTimeStamp</a> 
  <a href="#move">Move</a> <a href="#movenext">MoveNext</a> <a href="#movefirst">MoveFirst</a> 
  <a href="#movelast">MoveLast</a>  <a href="#getrowassoc">GetRowAssoc</a>  <a href="#fields">Fields</a> <a href="#fetchfield">FetchField</a> 
  <a href="#currentrow">CurrentRow</a> <a href="#abspos">AbsolutePosition</a> 
  <a href="#fieldcount">FieldCount</a> <a href="#recordcount">RecordCount</a> 
  <a href="#fetchobject">FetchObject</a> <a href="#fetchnextobject">FetchNextObject</a> 
  <a href="#rsclose">Close</a> <a href="#metatype">MetaType</a>
  <a href="#atfirstpage">AtFirstPage</a>
   <a href="#atlastpage">AtLastPage</a>
    <a href="#absolutepage">AbsolutePage</a>
	</font>  <br>
  <a href="#rs2html"><b>rs2html</b></a>&nbsp; <a href="#exrs2html">example</a><br>
  <a href="#adodiff">Differences between ADODB and ADO</a><br>
  <a href="#driverguide"><b>Database Driver Guide<br>
   <a href="#changes">Change Log</a></b><br>
  </b></a> </p>
<h2>Introduction<a name="intro"></a></h2>
<p>PHP's database access functions are not standardised. This creates a need for 
 a database class library to hide the differences between the different databases 
 (encapsulate the differences) so we can easily switch databases.</p>
<p>We currently support MySQL, Interbase, Oracle, Microsoft SQL Server, Sybase, 
  PostgreSQL, FrontBase, Foxpro, Access, ADO and ODBC. We have had successful reports of connecting
  to Progress and DB2 via ODBC. We hope more people 
  will contribute drivers to support other databases.</p>
<p>PHP4 supports session variables. You can store your session information using 
  ADODB for true portability and scalability. See adodb-session.php for more information.</p>
<h2>Unique Features of ADODB<a name="features"></a></h2>
  <li><b>Easy for Windows programmers</b> to adapt to because many of the conventions 
    are similar to Microsoft's ADO.</li>
  <li>Unlike other PHP database classes which focus only on select statements, 
    <b>we provide support code to handle inserts and updates which can be adapted 
    to multiple databases quickly.</b> Methods are provided for date handling, 
    string concatenation and string quoting characters for differing databases.</li>
  <li>A<b> metatype system </b>is built in so that we can figure out that types 
    such as CHAR, TEXT and STRING are equivalent in different databases.</li>
  <li><b>Easy to port</b> because all the database dependant code are stored in 
    stub functions. You do not need to port the core logic of the classes.</li>
  <li><b>PHP4 session support</b>. See adodb-session.php.</li>
<h2>How People are using ADODB<a name="users"></a></h2>
Here are some examples of how people are using ADODB (for a complete list, visit <a href=http://php.weblogs.com/adodb-cool-applications>http://php.weblogs.com/adodb-cool-applications</a>):
<li><a href=http://phplens.com/>PhpLens</a> is a commercial data grid component that allows both cool Web designers and serious unshaved programmers to develop and maintain databases on the Web easily. Developed by the author of ADODB.

<li><a href=http://www.interakt.ro/phakt/>PHAkt: PHP Extension for DreamWeaver Ultradev</a> allows you to script PHP in the popular Web page editor. Database handling provided by ADODB.

<li><a href=http://www.andrew.cmu.edu/~rdanyliw/snort/snortacid.html>Analysis Console for Intrusion Databases</a> (ACID): PHP-based analysis engine to search and process a database of security incidents generated by security-related software such as IDSes and firewalls (e.g. Snort, ipchains). By Roman Danyliw.

<li><a href=http://www.postnuke.com/>PostNuke</a> is a very popular free content management
 system and weblog system. It offers full CSS support, HTML 4.01 transitional compliance throughout, an advanced blocks system, and is fully multi-lingual enabled. 

<li><a href=http://www.auto-net.no/easypublish.php?page=index&lang_id=2>EasyPublish CMS</a>  is another free content management system for managing information and integrated modules on your internet, intranet- and extranet-sites. From Norway.

<li><a href=http://nola.noguska.com/>NOLA</a> is a full featured accounting, inventory, and job tracking application. It is licensed under the GPL, and developed by Noguska.

<h2>Feature Requests and Bug Reports<a name="bugs"></a></h2>
<p>Feature requests and bug reports can be emailed to <a href="mailto:jlim#natsoft.com.my">jlim#natsoft.com.my</a> 
 or posted to <a href="http://php.weblogs.com/discuss/msgReader$96">http://php.weblogs.com/discuss/msgReader$96</a>.</p>
<h2>Installation Guide<a name="install"></a></h2>
<p>Make sure you are running PHP4.01pl2 or later (it uses require_once and include_once). 
Unpack all the files into a directory accessible by your webserver. 
<p>To test you will need a database. Open <i>testdatabases.inc.php</i> and modify 
 the connection parameters to suit your database. This script will create a new 
 table in the database and perform various tests.</p>
<p>That's it!</p>
<h3>Code Initialization<a name="coding"></a></h3>
<p>When running ADODB, at least two files are loaded. First is adodb.inc.php, 
 which contains all functions used by all database classes. The code specific 
 to a particular database is in the adodb-????.inc.php file.</p>
<p>For example, to connect to a mysql database:</p>
$conn = &amp;ADONewConnection('mysql');
<p>Whenever you need to connect to a database, you create a Connection object 
 using the <b><a name=adonewconnection>ADONewConnection</a></b>( ) function. 
  ADONewConnection accepts one optional parameter, the &lt;database-name-here&gt;. 
  If no parameter is specified, it will create a new ADOConnection for the last 
  database loaded by ADOLoadCode( ). <b>NewADOConnection</b>( ) 
  is the same function.</p>
<p>At this point, you are not connected to the database. 
You will use <code>$conn-><a href=#connect>Connect()</a></code> or 
<code>$conn-><a href=#pconnect>PConnect()</a></code> to perform the actual connection.</p>
<p>See the examples below in the Tutorial.</p>
 <h3><a name=drivers></a>Databases Supported</h3>
<table width="100%" border="1">
  <tr valign="top"> 
    <td><b><font size="2">RecordCount() usable</font></b></td>
    <td><b>Operating Systems</b></td>
  <tr valign="top"> 
    <td>Microsoft Access. You need to create an ODBC DSN.</td>
    <td>ODBC </td>
    <td>Windows only</td>
  <tr valign="top"> 
    <td>Generic ADO, not tuned for specific databases. Slower than ODBC, but allows 
      DSN-less connections.</td>
    <td>? depends on database</td>
    <td>ADO and OLEDB provider</td>
    <td>Windows only</td>
  <tr valign="top"> 
    <td>Microsoft Access using ADO. Slower than ODBC, but allows DSN-less connections.</td>
    <td>ADO and OLEDB provider for Access</td>
    <td>Windows only</td>
  <tr valign="top"> 
    <td>Microsoft Visual FoxPro. You need to create an ODBC DSN.</td>
    <td>Windows only</td>
  <tr valign="top"> 
    <td>Interbase 6 or earlier. Some users report you might need to use this<br>
$db->PConnect('localhost:c:\ibase\employee.gdb', "sysdba", "masterkey") to connect.</td>
    <td>Interbase client</td>
    <td>Unix and Windows</td>
  <tr valign="top"> 
    <td>Firebird version of interbase.</td>
    <td>Interbase client</td>
    <td>Unix and Windows</td>
  <tr valign="top"> 
    <td>Borland version of Interbase 6.5 or later. Very sad that the forks differ.</td>
    <td>Interbase client</td>
    <td>Unix and Windows</td>
  <tr valign="top"> 
      <p>Microsoft SQL Server 7. Works with Microsoft SQL Server 2000 also. Note that
	  date formating is problematic with this driver. For example, the PHP mssql extension 
	   does not return the seconds for datetime!</p>
    <td>Mssql client</td>
      <p>Unix and Windows. <a href="http://phpbuilder.com/columns/alberto20000919.php3"><br>
        Unix install howto</a>.</p>
  <tr valign="top"> 
    <td>MySQL without transaction support (3.22)</td>
    <td>MySQL client</td>
    <td>Unix and Windows</td>
  <tr valign="top"> 
    <td><b>mysqlt</b> or <b>maxsql</b></td>
    <td>MySQL with transaction support (3.23)</td>
    <td>MySQL client</td>
    <td>Unix and Windows</td>
  <tr valign="top"> 
    <td>Oracle 8/9. Has more functionality than <i>oracle</i> driver (eg. Affected_Rows). 
	You might have to putenv('ORACLE_HOME=...') before Connect/PConnect.<p>
	There are 2 ways of connecting - 
	with server IP and service name: <br><i>PConnect('serverip:1521','scott','tiger','service'</i>)<br> or
	using an entry in the tnsnames.ora: <br><i>PConnect('', 'scott', 'tiger', 'tnsname')</i>.
    <td>Oracle client</td>
    <td>Unix and Windows</td>
   <tr valign="top"> 
    <td>Oracle 8/9 portable driver. This is nearly identical with the oci8 driver except 
	(a) bind variables in Prepare() use the ? convention, instead of :bindvar, 
	(b) field names use the more common PHP convention of lowercase names. 
	<p>Use this driver if porting
	from other databases is important. Otherwise the oci8 driver offers better performance.
    <td>Oracle client</td>
    <td>Unix and Windows</td>
  <tr valign="top"> 
    <td>Generic ODBC, not tuned for specific databases. 
	To connect, use <br>PConnect('DSN','user','pwd').</td>
    <td>? depends on database</td>
    <td>Unix and Windows. <a href="http://phpbuilder.com/columns/alberto20000919.php3?page=4">Unix 
  <tr valign="top"> 
    <td>Oracle 7 or 8 support. Obsolete.</td>
    <td>Oracle client</td>
    <td>Unix and Windows</td>
  <tr valign="top"> 
    <td>PostgreSQL which does not support LIMIT internally.</td>
    <td>PostgreSQL client</td>
    <td>Unix and Windows. </td>
   <tr valign="top"> 
    <td>PostgreSQL which supports LIMIT and other version 7 functionality.</td>
    <td>PostgreSQL client</td>
    <td>Unix and Windows. </td>
   <tr valign="top"> 
    <td>Sybase. </td>
    <td>Sybase client</td>
      <p>Unix and Windows. <a href="http://www.finebyte.com/docs/sybase/ASA-PHP-Linux.html">Unix 
     <tr valign="top"> 
    <td>DB2. Warning: this is experimental. Please email me if there are problems.</td>
    <td>DB2 CLI/ODBC interface</td>
      <p>Unix and Windows. <a href="http://www.faqts.com/knowledge_base/view.phtml/aid/6283/fid/14">Unix 
        install hints</a>.</p>
     <tr valign="top"> 
    <td>FrontBase. Warning: this is experimental. Please email me if there are problems.</td>
      <p>Unix and Windows</p>
<p>RecordCount() usable indicates whether RecordCount() returns -1 instead of 
  the number of rows when a SELECT statement is executed. For highest performance, 
  disable RecordCount() by setting the global variable $ADODB_COUNTRECS=false. 
  For the reason why, see the notes to <a href="http://php.net/manual/function.sybase-num-rows.php">http://php.net/manual/function.sybase-num-rows.php</a></p>
<p>Other database drivers used for testing ADODB.</p>
<table width="100%" border="0">
 <tr valign="top"> 
  <td width="9%"><b>ado_mssql</b></td>
  <td width="88%">Microsoft SQL Server 7 using Microsoft ADO. This database driver 
   is only for test purposes. Use the mssql driver instead.</td>
 <tr valign="top"> 
  <td width="9%"><b>odbc_mssql</b></td>
  <td width="88%">Microsoft SQL Server 7 using ODBC. This database driver is only 
   for test purposes. Use the mssql driver instead.</td>

<h1>Tutorial<a name="quickstart"></a></h1>
<h3>Example 1: Select Statement<a name="ex1"></a></h3>
<p>Task: Connect to the Access Northwind database, display the first 2 columns 
  of each row.</p>
<p>In this example, we create a ADOConnection object, which represents the connection 
 to the database. The connection is initiated with <a href="#pconnect"><font face="Courier New, Courier, mono">PConnect</font></a>, 
 which is a persistent connection. Whenever we want to query the database, we 
 call the <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono">ADOConnection.<a href="#execute">Execute</a>()</font> 
 function. This returns an ADORecordSet object which is actually a cursor that 
 holds the current row in the array <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono">fields[]</font>. 
 We use <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"><a href="#movenext">MoveNext</a>()</font> 
 to move from row to row.</p>
<p>NB: A useful function that is not used in this example is 
<font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"><a href="#selectlimit">SelectLimit</a></font>, which
allows us to limit the number of rows shown.
<font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"><b>include</b>('adodb.inc.php');       # load code common to ADODB
$<font color="#660000">conn</font> = &amp;ADONewConnection('access');    # create a connection
$<font color="#660000">conn</font>->PConnect('northwind');   # connect to MS-Access, northwind db
$<font color="#660000">recordSet</font> = &amp;$<font color="#660000">conn</font>->Execute('select * from products');

<b>while</b> (!$<font color="#660000">recordSet</font>-&gt;EOF) &#123;
	<b>print</b> $<font color="#660000">recordSet</font>->fields[0].' '.$<font color="#660000">recordSet</font>->fields[1].'&lt;BR&gt;';
	$<font color="#660000">recordSet</font>-&gt;MoveNext();

$<font color="#660000">recordSet</font>->Close(); # optional
$<font color="#660000">conn</font>->Close(); # optional
<p>The $<font face="Courier New, Courier, mono">recordSet</font> returned stores 
 the current row in the <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono">$recordSet-&gt;fields</font> 
 array, indexed by column number (starting from zero). We use the <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"><a href="#movenext">MoveNext</a>()</font> 
 function to move to the next row. The <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono">EOF</font> 
 property is set to true when end-of-file is reached. </p>
<p>The <code>$recordSet-&gt;fields[]</code> array is generated by the PHP database 
  extension. Some database extensions only index by number and 
  do not index the array by field name. To force indexing by name - that is associative arrays - 
  use the $ADODB_FETCH_MODE global variable. 
	$rs1 = $db->Execute('select * from table');
	$rs2 = $db->Execute('select * from table');
	print_r($rs1->fields); // shows <i>array([0]=>'v0',[1] =>'v1')</i>
	print_r($rs2->fields); // shows <i>array(['col1']=>'v0',['col2'] =>'v1')</i>
<p>To get the number of rows in the select statement, you can use <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono">$recordSet-&gt;<a href="#recordcount">RecordCount</a>()</font>. 
 Note that it can return -1 if the number of rows returned cannot be determined.</p>
<h3>Example 2: Advanced Select with Field Objects<a name="ex2"></a></h3>
<p>Select a table, display the first two columns. If the second column is a date or timestamp, reformat the date to US format.</p>
<font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"><b>include</b>('adodb.inc.php');       # load code common to ADODB
$<font color="#660000">conn</font> = &amp;ADONewConnection('access');    # create a connection
$<font color="#660000">conn</font>->PConnect('northwind');   # connect to MS-Access, northwind db
$<font color="#660000">recordSet</font> = &amp;$<font color="#660000">conn</font>->Execute('select CustomerID,OrderDate from Orders');

<b>while</b> (!$<font color="#660000">recordSet</font>-&gt;EOF) &#123;
	$<font color="#660000">fld</font> = <font color="#336600"><b>$</b><font color="#660000">recordSet</font><b>-&gt;FetchField</b></font><font color="#006600">(</font>1<font color="#006600">);</font>
	$<font color="#660000">type</font> = <font color="#336600"><b>$</b><font color="#660000">recordSet</font><b>-&gt;MetaType</b></font>($fld-&gt;type);

	<b>if</b> ( $<font color="#660000">type</font> == 'D' || $<font color="#660000">type</font> == 'T') 
		<b>print</b> $<font color="#660000">recordSet</font>-&gt;fields[0].' '.
			<b><font color="#336600">$</font></b><font color="#660000">recordSet</font><b><font color="#336600">-&gt;UserDate</font></b>($<font color="#660000">recordSet</font>-&gt;fields[1],'<b>m/d/Y</b>').'&lt;BR&gt;';
	<b>else </b>
		<b>print</b> $<font color="#660000">recordSet</font>->fields[0].' '.$<font color="#660000">recordSet</font>->fields[1].'&lt;BR&gt;';

	$<font color="#660000">recordSet</font>-&gt;MoveNext();

$<font color="#660000">recordSet</font>->Close(); # optional
$<font color="#660000">conn</font>->Close(); # optional
<p>In this example, we check the field type of the second column using <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"><a href="#fetchfield">FetchField</a>().</font> 
 This returns an object with at least 3 fields.</p>
 <li><b>name</b>: name of column</li>
 <li> <b>type</b>: native field type of column</li>
 <li> <b>max_length</b>: maximum length of field. Some databases such as MySQL 
  do not return the maximum length of the field correctly. In these cases max_length 
  will be set to -1.</li>
<p>We then use <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"><a href="#metatype">MetaType</a>()</font> 
 to translate the native type to a <i>generic</i> type. Currently the following 
 <i>generic</i> types are defined:</p>
 <li><b>C</b>: character fields that should be shown in a &lt;input type=&quot;text&quot;&gt; 
 <li><b>X</b>: TeXt, large text fields that should be shown in a &lt;textarea&gt;</li>
 <li><b>B</b>: Blobs, or Binary Large Objects. Typically images.
 <li><b>D</b>: Date field</li>
 <li><b>T</b>: Timestamp field</li>
 <li><b>L</b>: Logical field (boolean or bit-field)</li>
 <li><b>N</b>: Numeric field. Includes autoincrement, numeric, floating point, 
  real and integer. </li>
 <li><b>R</b>: Serial field. Includes serial, autoincrement integers. This works for selected databases. </li>
<p>If the metatype is of type date or timestamp, then we print it using the user 
 defined date format with <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"><a href="#userdate">UserDate</a>(),</font> 
 which converts the PHP SQL date string format to a user defined one. Another 
 use for <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"><a href="#metatype">MetaType</a>()</font> 
 is data validation before doing an SQL insert or update.</p>
<h3>Example 3: Inserting<a name="ex3"></a></h3>
<p>Insert a row to the Orders table containing dates and strings that need to be quoted before they can be accepted by the database, eg: the single-quote in the word <i>John's</i>.</p>
<b>include</b>('adodb.inc.php');       # load code common to ADODB
$<font color="#660000">conn</font> = &amp;ADONewConnection('access');    # create a connection
$<font color="#660000">conn</font>->PConnect('northwind');   # connect to MS-Access, northwind db

$<font color="#660000">shipto</font> = <font color="#006600"><b>$conn-&gt;qstr</b></font>(&quot;<i>John's Old Shoppe</i>&quot;);

$<font color="#660000">sql</font> = &quot;insert into orders (customerID,EmployeeID,OrderDate,ShipName) &quot;;
$<font color="#660000">sql</font> .= &quot;values ('ANATR',2,&quot;.<b><font color="#006600">$conn-&gt;DBDate(</font>time()<font color="#006600">)</font></b><font color="#006600">.</font>&quot;,$<font color="#660000">shipto</font>)&quot;;

<b>if</b> ($<font color="#660000">conn</font>->Execute($<font color="#660000">sql</font>) <font color="#336600"><b>=== false</b></font>) &#123;
	<b>print</b> 'error inserting: '.<font color="#336600"><b>$conn-&gt;ErrorMsg()</b></font>.'&lt;BR&gt;';
<p>In this example, we see the advanced date and quote handling facilities of 
  ADODB. The unix timestamp (which is a long integer) is appropriately formated 
  for Access with <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"><a href="#dbdate">DBDate</a>()</font>, 
  and the right escape character is used for quoting the <i>John's Old Shoppe</i>, 
  which is<b> </b><i>John'<b>'</b>s Old Shoppe</i> and not PHP's default <i>John\<b>'</b>s 
  Old Shoppe</i> with <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"><a href="#qstr">qstr</a>()</font>. 
<p>Observe the error-handling of the Execute statement. False is returned by<font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"> 
 <a href="#execute">Execute</a>() </font>if an error occured. The error message 
 for the last error that occurred is displayed in <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"><a href="#errormsg">ErrorMsg</a>()</font>. 
 Note: <i>php_track_errors</i> might have to be enabled for error messages to 
 be saved.</p>
<h3> Example 4: Debugging<a name="ex4"></a></h3>

<b>include</b>('adodb.inc.php');       # load code common to ADODB
$<font color="#663300">conn</font> = &amp;ADONewConnection('access');    # create a connection
$<font color="#663300">conn</font>->PConnect('northwind');   # connect to MS-Access, northwind db
<font color="#000000">$<font color="#663300">shipto</font> = <b>$conn-&gt;qstr</b>(&quot;John's Old Shoppe&quot;);
$<font color="#663300">sql</font> = &quot;insert into orders (customerID,EmployeeID,OrderDate,ShipName) &quot;;
$<font color="#663300">sql</font> .= &quot;values ('ANATR',2,&quot;.$<font color="#663300">conn</font>-&gt;FormatDate(time()).&quot;,$shipto)&quot;;
<b><font color="#336600">$<font color="#663300">conn</font>-&gt;debug = true;</font></b>
<b>if</b> ($<font color="#663300">conn</font>->Execute($sql) <b>=== false</b>) <b>print</b> 'error inserting';</font>

<p>In the above example, we have turned on debugging by setting <b>debug = true</b>. 
 This will display the SQL statement before execution, and also show any error 
 messages. There is no need to call <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"><a href="#errormsg">ErrorMsg</a>()</font> 
 in this case. For displaying the recordset, see the <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"><a href="#exrs2html">rs2html</a>() 
 <p>Also see the section on <a href=#errorhandling>Custom Error Handlers</a>.</p>
<h3>Example 5: MySQL and Menus<a name="ex5"></a></h3>
<p>Connect to MySQL database <i>agora</i>, and generate a &lt;select&gt; menu 
 from an SQL statement where the &lt;option&gt; captions are in the 1st column, 
 and the value to send back to the server is in the 2nd column.</p>
<b>include</b>('adodb.inc.php'); # load code common to ADODB
$<font color="#663300">conn</font> = &amp;ADONewConnection('mysql');  # create a connection
$<font color="#663300">conn</font>->PConnect('localhost','userid','','agora');# connect to MySQL, agora db
<font color="#000000">$<font color="#663300">sql</font> = 'select CustomerName, CustomerID from customers';
$<font color="#663300">rs</font> = $<font color="#663300">conn</font>->Execute($sql);
<b>print</b> <b><font color="#336600">$<font color="#663300">rs</font>-&gt;GetMenu('GetCust','Mary Rosli');
<p>Here we define a menu named GetCust, with the menu option 'Mary Rosli' selected. 
 See <a href="#getmenu"><font face="Courier New, Courier, mono">GetMenu</font></a><font face="Courier New, Courier, mono">()</font>. 
 We also have functions that return the recordset as an array: <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"><a href="#getarray">GetArray</a>()</font>, 
 and as an associative array with the key being the first column: <a href="#getassoc">GetAssoc</a>().</p>
Aslo new to ADODB 1.50 or later is the global variable $ADODB_FETCH_MODE. This allows you to define
whether you want associative or numeric indexing for your arrays.
<h3>Example 6: Connecting to 2 Databases At Once<a name="ex6"></a></h3>
<b>include</b>('adodb.inc.php');     # load code common to ADODB
$<font color="#663300">conn1</font> = &amp;ADONewConnection('mysql');  # create a mysql connection
$<font color="#663300">conn2</font> = &amp;ADONewConnection('oracle');  # create a oracle connection

$conn1-&gt;PConnect($server, $userid, $password, $database);
$conn2-&gt;PConnect(false, $ora_userid, $ora_pwd, $tnsname);

$conn1-&gt;Execute('insert ...');
$conn2-&gt;Execute('update ...');

<h3>Example 7: Generating Update and Insert SQL<a name="ex7"></a></h3>
ADODB 1.31 and later supports two new recordset functions: GetUpdateSQL( ) and 
GetInsertSQL( ). This allow you to perform a "SELECT * FROM table query WHERE...",
make a copy of the $rs->fields, modify the fields, and then generate the SQL to
update or insert into the table automatically.
We show how the functions can be used when
accessing a table with the following fields: (ID, FirstName, LastName, Created).
Before these functions can be called, you need to initialize the recordset by
performing a select on the table. Idea and code by Jonathan Younger jyounger#unilab.com.
# SAMPLE GetUpdateSQL() and GetInsertSQL() code

# This code tests an insert

$sql = "SELECT * FROM ADOXYZ WHERE id = -1"; 
# Select an empty record from the database 

$conn = &ADONewConnection("mysql");  # create a connection
$conn->PConnect("localhost", "admin", "", "test"); # connect to MySQL, testdb
$rs = $conn->Execute($sql); # Execute the query and get the empty recordset

$record = array(); # Initialize an array to hold the record data to insert

# Set the values for the fields in the record
$record["firstname"] = "Bob";
$record["lastname"] = "Smith";
$record["created"] = time();

# Pass the empty recordset and the array containing the data to insert
# into the GetInsertSQL function. The function will process the data and return
# a fully formatted insert sql statement.
$insertSQL = $conn->GetInsertSQL($rs, $record);

$conn->Execute($insertSQL); # Insert the record into the database

# This code tests an update

$sql = "SELECT * FROM ADOXYZ WHERE id = 1"; 
# Select a record to update 

$rs = $conn->Execute($sql); # Execute the query and get the existing record to update

$record = array(); # Initialize an array to hold the record data to update

# Set the values for the fields in the record
$record["firstname"] = "Caroline";
$record["lastname"] = "Smith"; # Update Caroline's lastname from Miranda to Smith

# Pass the single record recordset and the array containing the data to update
# into the GetUpdateSQL function. The function will process the data and return
# a fully formatted update sql statement with the correct WHERE clause.
# If the data has not changed, no recordset is returned
$updateSQL = $conn->GetUpdateSQL($rs, $record);

$conn->Execute($updateSQL); # Update the record in the database
<h3>Example 8: Implementing Scrolling with Next and Previous<a name="ex8"></a></h3>
Code and idea by Iván Oliva. <p>
We use the HTTP Get variable $next_page to keep track of what page to go next and
 store the current page in the session variable $curr_page.
We call the connection object's PageExecute() function to generate the appropriate recordset, 
then use the recordset's AtFirstPage() and AtLastPage() functions to determine 
whether to display the next and previous buttons. 


$db = NewADOConnection('mysql');
<b>$num_of_rows_per_page = 10;
$sql = 'select * from products';

if (isset($HTTP_GET_VARS['next_page']))
	$curr_page = $HTTP_GET_VARS['next_page'];
if (empty($curr_page)) $curr_page = 1; ## at first page

$rs = $db->PageExecute($sql, $num_of_rows_per_page, $curr_page);</b>
if (!$rs) die('Query Failed');

if (!$rs->EOF && (!$rs-><b>AtFirstPage</b>() || !$rs-><b>AtLastPage</b>())) {
	if (!$rs-><b>AtFirstPage</b>()) {
&lt;a href="&lt;?php echo $PHPSELF,'?next_page=',$rs-><b>AbsolutePage</b>() - 1 ?>">Previous page&lt;/a>
	if (!$rs-><b>AtLastPage</b>()) {
&lt;a href="&lt;?php echo $PHPSELF,'?next_page=',$rs-><b>AbsolutePage</b>() + 1 ?>">Next page&lt;/a>
The above code can be found in the <i>testpaging.php</i> example included with this release.
<a name=errorhandling></a> 
<h2>Using Custom Error Handlers and PEAR_Error</h2>
Apart from the old $con->debug = true; way of debugging, ADODB 1.50 onwards provides 
another way of handling errors using ADODB's configurable custom handlers. <p>
ADODB provides two custom handlers which you can modify for your needs.
The first one is in the <b>adodb-errorhandler.inc.php</b> file. This makes
use of the standard PHP functions <a href=http://php.net/error_reporting>error_reporting</a>
to control what error messages types to display,
and <a href=http://php.net/trigger_error>trigger_error</a> which invokes the default
PHP error handler.
Including the above file  will cause <i>trigger_error($errorstring,E_USER_ERROR)</i>
to be called when Connect() or PConnect() fails, or a function that executes SQL statements such as
 Execute() or SelectLimit() has an error. This file should be included before you create any 
 ADOConnection objects.<p>
 If you define error_reporting(0), no errors will be shown. 
 If you set error_reporting(E_ALL), all errors will be displayed on the screen.
<b>error_reporting(E_ALL); # show any error messages triggered
$c = NewADOConnection('mysql');
$rs=$c->Execute('select * from productsz'); #invalid table productsz');
if ($rs) $rs2html($rs);
 If you want to log the error message, you can do so by defining the following optional
  the error log message type (see <a href=http://php.net/error_log>error_log</a>
  in the PHP manual). In this case we set 
  it to 3, which means log to the file defined by the constant ADODB_ERROR_LOG_DEST.
<b>error_reporting(0); # do not echo any errors
$c = NewADOConnection('mysql');
$rs=$c->Execute('select * from productsz'); #invalid table productsz');
if ($rs) $rs2html($rs);
The following message will be logged in the error.log file:
(2001-10-28 14:20:38) mysql error: [1146: Table 'northwind.productsz' doesn't exist] in
 EXECUTE("select * from productsz")
The second error handler is <b>adodb-errorpear.inc.php</b>. 
This will create a PEAR_Error derived object whenever an error occurs. 
The last PEAR_Error object created can be retrieved using ADODB_Pear_Error().
$c = NewADOConnection('mysql');
$rs=$c->Execute('select * from productsz'); #invalid table productsz');
if ($rs) $rs2html($rs);
else {
	<b>$e = ADODB_Pear_Error();
	echo '&lt;p>',$e->message(),'&lt;/p>';</b>
You can use also a PEAR_Error derived class by defining the constant 
ADODB_PEAR_ERROR_CLASS before the adodb-errorpear.inc.php file is included. And instead
of retrieving the error message yourself with $e->message, you can set the default error handler
 in the beginning of the PHP script to PEAR_ERROR_DIE, which will cause an error message to be printed, 
 then halt script execution:
<a name=caching></a> 
<h2>Caching of Recordsets</h2>
<p>ADODB now supports caching of recordsets using the  CacheExecute( ), 
CachePageExecute( ) and CacheSelectLimit( ) functions. There are similar to the
non-cache functions, except that they take a new first parameter, $secs2cache.
  An example of use is the following: 
<b>include</b>('adodb.inc.php'); # load code common to ADODB
$ADODB_CACHE_DIR = '/usr/adodb_cache';
$<font color="#663300">conn</font> = &amp;ADONewConnection('mysql');  # create a connection
$<font color="#663300">conn</font>->PConnect('localhost','userid','','agora');# connect to MySQL, agora db
<font color="#000000">$<font color="#663300">sql</font> = 'select CustomerName, CustomerID from customers';
$<font color="#663300">rs</font> = $<font color="#663300">conn</font>->CacheExecute(15,$sql);
<font color="#000000"> The first parameter is the number of seconds to cache the 
query. Subsequent calls to that query will used the cached version stored in $ADODB_CACHE_DIR. 
To force a query and flush the cache, call CacheExecute() with the first parameter 
set to zero. Alternatively, use CacheFlush($sql) call.
<p>Windows Note: flock() is buggy in PHP 4.0.5 and earlier on Windows. So we use 
  a non-blocking technique with rename(). 
<h1>Class Reference<a name="Ref"></a></h1>
<p>Function parameters with [ ] around them are optional.</p>
<a name=adodb_fetch_mode>
<p>This is a global variable that determines how arrays are retrieved by Execute( 
  ). You can change this variable between invocations of Execute( ) and the fetch 
  mode will be modified.</p>
<p>The following constants are defined:</p>
<p><font color="#000000">define('ADODB_FETCH_DEFAULT',0);<br>
  define('ADODB_FETCH_BOTH',3); </font><font color="#000000"></font></p>
<font color="#000000">
An example of usage:
	$rs1 = $db->Execute('select * from table');
	$rs2 = $db->Execute('select * from table');
	print_r($rs1->fields); // shows <i>array([0]=>'v0',[1] =>'v1')</i>
	print_r($rs2->fields); // shows <i>array(['col1']=>'v0',['col2'] =>'v1')</i>
As you can see in the above example, both recordsets store and use different fetch modes
based on the $ADODB_FETCH_MODE setting when the recordset was created by Execute().</p>
<h2>ADOConnection<a name="ADOConnection"></a></h2>
<p>Object that performs the connection to the database, executes SQL statements 
  and has a set of utility functions for standardising the format of SQL statements 
  for issues such as concatenation and date formats.</p>
<h3>ADOConnection Fields</h3>
<p><b>databaseType</b>: Name of the database system we are connecting to. Eg. 
  <b>odbc</b> or <b>mssql</b> or <b>mysql</b>.</p>
<p><b>dataProvider</b>: The underlying mechanism used to connect to the database. 
  Normally set to <b>native</b>, unless using <b>odbc</b> or <b>ado</b>.</p>
<p><b>host: </b>Name of server or data source name (DSN) to connect to.</p>
<p><b>database</b>: Name of the database or to connect to. If ado is used, it 
  will hold the ado data provider.</p>
<p><b>user</b>: Login id to connect to database. Password is not saved for security 
<p><b>raiseErrorFn</b>: Allows you to define an error handling function. 
See adodb-errorhandler.inc.php for an example.</p>
<p><b>debug</b>: Set to <i>true</i> to make debug statements to appear.</p>
<p><b>concat_operator</b>: Set to '+' or '||' normally. The operator used to concatenate 
  strings in SQL. Used by the <b><a href="#concat">Concat</a></b> function.</p>
<p><b>fmtDate</b>: The format used by the <b><a href="#dbdate">DBDate</a></b> 
  function to send dates to the database. is '#Y-m-d#' for Microsoft Access, and 
  '\'Y-m-d\'' for MySQL.</p>
<p><b>fmtTimeStamp: </b>The format used by the <b><a href="#dbtimestamp">DBTimeStamp</a></b> 
  function to send timestamps to the database. </p>
<p><b>true</b>: The value used to represent true.Eg. '.T.'. for Foxpro, '1' for 
  Microsoft SQL.</p>
<p><b>false: </b> The value used to represent false. Eg. '.F.'. for Foxpro, '0' 
  for Microsoft SQL.</p>
<p><b>replaceQuote</b>: The string used to escape quotes. Eg. double single-quotes 
  for Microsoft SQL, and backslash-quote for MySQL. Used by <a href="#qstr">qstr</a>.</p>
<p><b>autoCommit</b>: indicates whether automatic commit is enabled. Default is 
<p><b>charSet</b>: set the default charset to use. Currently only interbase supports 
  this. </p>
<p><b>metaTablesSQL</b>: SQL statement to return a list of available tables. Eg. 
  <i>SHOW TABLES</i> in MySQL.</p>
<p><b>genID</b>: The latest id generated by GenID() if supported by the database.</p>
<h3>ADOConnection Main Functions</h3>
<p><b>ADOConnection( )</b></p>
<p>Constructor function. Do not call this directly. Use ADONewConnection( ) instead.</p>
<p><b>Connect<a name="Connect"></a>($host,[$user],[$password],[$database])</b></p>
<p>Non-persistent connect to data source or server $<b>host</b>, using userid 
  $<b>user </b>and password $<b>password</b>. If the server supports multiple 
  databases, connect to database $<b>database</b>. </p>
 <p>Returns true/false depending on connection.</p>
<p>ADO Note: If you are using a Microsoft ADO and not OLEDB, you can set the $database 
  parameter to the OLEDB data provider you are using.</p>
<p>PostgreSQL: An alternative way of connecting to the database is to pass the 
  standard PostgreSQL connection string in the first parameter $host, and the 
  other parameters will be ignored.</p>
<p>For Oracle and Oci8, there are two ways to connect. First is to use the TNS name
defined in your local tnsnames.ora. Place the name in the $database field, and set the
$host field to false. Alternatively, set $host to the server, and $database to the
database SID, this bypassed tnsnames.ora.
 <pre> $conn->Connect(false, 'scott', 'tiger', 'name_in_tnsnames'); # use tnsnames.ora
 $conn->Connect('server:1521', 'scott', 'tiger', 'OracleSID'); # bypass tnsnames.ora</pre>
<p>There are many examples of connecting to a database at 
<a href="http://php.weblogs.com/adodb">php.weblogs.com/adodb</a>, and in the 
testdatabases.inc.php file included in the release.</p>
<p><b>PConnect<a name="PConnect"></a>($host,[$user],[$password],[$database])</b></p>
<p>Persistent connect to data source or server $<b>host</b>, using userid $<b>user</b> 
  and password $<b>password</b>. If the server supports multiple databases, connect 
  to database $<b>database</b>.</p>
<p>Returns true/false depending on connection. See Connect( ) above for more info.</p>
<p><b>Execute<a name="Execute"></a>($sql,$inputarr=false)</b></p>
<p>Execute SQL statement $<b>sql</b> and return derived class of ADORecordSet 
  if successful. Note that a record set is always returned on success, even if we are executing 
  an insert or update statement.</p>
<p>Returns derived class of ADORecordSet. Eg. if connecting via mysql, then ADORecordSet_mysql 
  would be returned. False is returned if there was an error in executing the sql.</p>
<p>The $inputarr parameter can be used for binding variables to parameters. Below 
  is an Oracle example:</p>
 $conn->Execute("SELECT * FROM TABLE WHERE COND=:val", array('val'=> $val));
<p>Another example, using ODBC,which uses the ? convention:</p>
  $conn->Execute("SELECT * FROM TABLE WHERE COND=?", array($val));
<i>Binding variables</i><br>
Variable binding speeds the compilation and caching of SQL statements, leading 
to higher performance. Currently Oracle and ODBC support variable binding. ODBC 
style ? binding is emulated in databases that do not support binding. 
<p> Variable binding in ODBC: 
$rs = $db->Execute('select * from table where val=?', array('10'));
Variable binding in Oracle: 
$rs = $db->Execute('select name from table where val=:key', 
  array('key' => 10));
<p><b>CacheExecute<a name="CacheExecute"></a>($secs2cache,$sql,$inputarr=false)</b></p>
<p>Similar to Execute, except that the recordset is cached for $secs2cache seconds 
  in the $ADODB_CACHE_DIR directory. If CacheExecute() is called again with the 
  same parameters, same database, same userid, same password, and the cached recordset 
  has not expired, the cached recordset is returned. 
  $<b>ADODB_CACHE_DIR</b> = '/usr/local/adodbcache';
  $conn = &ADONewConnection('mysql'); 
  $rs = $conn-><b>CacheExecute</b>(15, 'select * from table'); # cache 15 secs
  rs2html($rs); /* recordset to html table */  
<p> If multiple calls to CacheExecute() are made and the recordset is still cached, 
  the $secs2cache parameter does not prolong the time the recordset is cached 
  (it is ignored). Use CacheExecute() only with SELECT statements.</p>
<p>Performance note: I have done some benchmarks and found that they vary so greatly 
  that it's better to talk about when caching is of benefit. When your database 
  server is <i>much slower </i>than your Web server or the database is <i>very 
  overloaded </i>then ADODB's caching is good because it reduces the load on your 
  database server. If your database server is lightly loaded or much faster than 
  your Web server, then caching could actually reduce performance. </p>
<p><b>SelectLimit<a name="SelectLimit"></a>($sql,$numrows=-1,$offset=-1,$inputarr=false)</b></p>
<p>Returns a recordset if successful. Returns false otherwise. Performs a select 
  statement, simulating PostgreSQL's SELECT statement, LIMIT $numrows OFFSET $offset 
<p>In PostgreSQL, SELECT * FROM TABLE LIMIT 3 will return the first 3 records 
  only. The equivalent is <code>$connection->SelectLimit('SELECT * FROM TABLE',3)</code>. 
  This functionality is simulated for databases that do not possess this feature.</p>
<p>And SELECT * FROM TABLE LIMIT 3 OFFSET 2 will return records 3, 4 and 5 (eg. 
  after record 2, return 3 rows). The equivalent in ADODB is <code>$connection->SelectLimit('SELECT 
  * FROM TABLE',3,2)</code>.</p>
<p>Note that this is the <i>opposite</i> of MySQL's LIMIT clause. You can also 
  set <code>$connection->SelectLimit('SELECT * FROM TABLE',-1,10)</code> to get 
  rows 11 to the last row.</p>
<p>The last parameter $inputarr is for databases that support variable binding 
  such as Oracle oci8. This substantially reduces SQL compilation overhead. Below 
  is an Oracle example:</p>
 $conn->SelectLimit("SELECT * FROM TABLE WHERE COND=:val", 100,-1,array('val'=> $val));
<p>The oci8po driver (oracle portable driver) uses the more standard bind variable of ?:
 $conn->SelectLimit("SELECT * FROM TABLE WHERE COND=?", 100,-1,array('val'=> $val));

<p>Ron Wilson reports that SelectLimit does not work with UNIONs and suggested 
  the following solution for mssql: 
>In addition, I found a way to structure the Select Union so that it will
> work with the optimization in place.  It works under MS-SQL, don't know
> about the others...  When updating the help file, you could use this as an
> example of how to structure the SQL --
<i>No it doesn't work with MySQL.</i>
> Change:
>  Select column1 From table1
>  Union
>  Select column2 From table2
> To:
>  Select * From (
>   Select column1 From table1
>   Union
>   Select column2 From table2
>   )
>  As dummytable
> Ron

<p><b>CacheSelectLimit<a name="CacheSelectLimit"></a>($secs2cache,$sql,$numrows=-1,$offset=-1,$inputarr=false)</b></p>
<p>Similar to SelectLimit, except that the recordset returned is cached for $secs2cache 
  seconds in the $ADODB_CACHE_DIR directory. </p>
<p><b>CacheFlush<a name="CacheFlush"></a>($sql)</b></p>
<p>Flush (delete) any cached recordsets of the SQL statement $sql in $ADODB_CACHE_DIR.</p>
<p><b>ErrorMsg<a name="ErrorMsg"></a>()</b></p>
<p>Returns the last status or error message. This can return a string even if 
  no error occurs. In general you do not need to call this function unless an ADODB function
  returns false on an error. </p>
<p>Note: If <b>debug</b> is enabled, the SQL error message is always displayed 
  when the <b>Execute</b> function is called.</p>
<p><b>ErrorNo<a name="errorno"></a>()</b></p>
<p>Returns the last error number. Note that old versions of PHP (pre 4.0.6) do not support
error number for ODBC. In general you do not need to call this function unless an ADODB function
  returns false on an error.</p>
<p><b>GenID<a name="genid"></a>($seqName = 'adodbseq',$startID=1)</b></p>
<p>Generate a sequence number (an integer except for mssql). Works for interbase, mysql, postgresql, oci8,
oci8po, mssql drivers 
  currently. Uses $seqName as the name of the sequence. GenID() will automatically create
  the sequence for you if it does not exist (provided the userid has permission to do so).  
  The MySQL implementation creates a table for each sequence. If the sequence has not been
  defined earlier, it is created with the starting value set in $startID.</p>
<p>Note that GenID() now generates uniqueidentifiers for MSSQL; these are 16 byte GUID's.</p>
<p><b>UpdateBlob<a name="updateblob"></a>($table,$column,$val,$where,$blobtype='BLOB')</b></p>
Allows you to store a blob (in $val) into $table into $column in a row at $where. 
The $blobtype is an optional parameter, only useful for oci8 and oci8po; legal values for 
oci8 and oci8po are 'CLOB' and 'BLOB'. 
<p> Usage: 
	$conn->Execute('INSERT INTO blobtable (id, blobcol) VALUES (1, null)');
<p> Returns true if succesful, false otherwise. Supported by MySQL, PostgreSQL, Oci8, Oci8po
  and Interbase drivers. Other drivers might work.</p>
<p>Note that when an Interbase blob is retrieved using SELECT, it still needs to be decoded 
using $connection->DecodeBlob($blob); to derive the original value.
<p><b>GetUpdateSQL<a name="getupdatesql"></a>(&$rs, $arrFields, $forceUpdate=false,$magicq=false)</b></p>
<p>Generate SQL to update a table given a recordset $rs, and the modified fields 
  of the array $arrFields (which must be an associative array holding the column 
  names and the new values) are compared with the current recordset. If $forceUpdate 
  is true, then we also generate the SQL even if $arrFields is identical to $rs-&gt;fields.	
  Requires the recordset to be associative. $magicq is used to indicate whether magic quotes
  are enabled (see qstr()).</p>
<p><b>GetInsertSQL<a name="getinsertsql"></a>(&$rs, $arrFields,$magicq=false)</b></p>
<p>Generate SQL to insert into a table given a recordset $rs. Requires the query 
  to be associative. $magicq is used to indicate whether magic quotes
  are enabled (for qstr()).</p>
<b>PageExecute<a name="pageexecute"></a>($sql, $nrows, $page, $inputarr=false)</b> 
<p>Used for pagination of recordset. $page is 1-based. See <a href="#ex8">Example 
<p><font color="#000000"><b>CachePageExecute<a name="cachepageexecute"></a>($secs2cache, 
  $sql, $nrows, $page, $inputarr=false)</b> </font></p>
<p><font color="#000000">Used for pagination of recordset. $page is 1-baed. See 
  <a href="#ex8">Example 8</a>. Caching version of PageExecute.</font></p>
<font color="#000000"> 
<p><b>Close<a name="Close"></a>( )</b></p>
<p>Close the database connection. PHP4 proudly states that we no longer have to 
  clean up at the end of the connection because the reference counting mechanism 
  of PHP4 will automatically clean up for us.</p>
<p><b>BeginTrans<a name="Begintrans"></a>( )</b></p>
<p>Begin a transaction. Turns off autoCommit. Returns true if successful. Some 
  databases will always return false if transaction support is not available. 
  Interbase, Oracle and MSSQL support transactions. Note that transaction support 
  is not available for Microsoft ADO due to some bugs in PHP 4.02. Use the native 
  transaction support of your RDBMS. Any open transactions will be rolled back 
  when the connection is closed.</p>
<p><b>CommitTrans<a name="CommitTrans"></a>( )</b></p>
<p>End a transaction successfully. Returns true if successful. If the database 
  does not support transactions, will return true also as data is always committed. 
<p><b>RollbackTrans<a name="RollbackTrans"></a>( )</b></p>
<p>End a transaction, rollback all changes. Returns true if successful. If the 
  database does not support transactions, will return false as data is never rollbacked. 
<h3>ADOConnection Utility Functions</h3>
<p><b>BlankRecordSet<a name="blankrecordset"></a>([$queryid])</b></p>
<p>Returns an empty recordset. This is useful if you require the use of some ADORecordSet 
  utility function such as UnixDate.</p>
<p><b>Concat<a name="Concat"></a>($s1,$s2,....)</b></p>
<p>Generates the sql string used to concatenate $s1, $s2, etc together. Uses the 
  string in the concat_operator field to generate the concatenation. Override 
  this function if a concatenation operator is not used, eg. MySQL.</p>
<p>Returns the concatenated string.</p>
<p><b>DBDate<a name="DBDate"></a>($date)</b></p>
<p>Format the $<b>date</b> in the format the database accepts; this can be a
Unix timestamp or an ISO format Y-m-d. Uses the fmtDate 
  field, which holds the format to use. If null or false or '' is passed
  in, it will be converted to an SQL null.</p>
<p>Returns the date as a quoted string.</p>
<p><b>DBTimeStamp<a name="DBTimeStamp"></a>($ts)</b></p>
<p>Format the timestamp $<b>ts</b> in the format the database accepts; this can be a
Unix timestamp or an ISO format Y-m-d H:i:s. Uses the 
  fmtTimeStamp field, which holds the format to use. If null or false or '' is passed
  in, it will be converted to an SQL null.</p>
<p>Returns the timestamp as a quoted string.</p>
<p><b>qstr<a name="qstr"></a>($s,[$magic_quotes_enabled</b>=false]<b>)</b></p>
<p>Quotes a string to be sent to the database. The $<b>magic_quotes_enabled</b> 
  parameter may look funny, but the idea is if you are quoting a string extracted 
  from a POST/GET variable, then pass get_magic_quotes_gpc() as the second parameter. 
  This will ensure that the variable is not quoted twice, once by <i>qstr</i> 
  and once by the <i>magic_quotes_gpc</i>.</p>
<p>Eg.<font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"> $s = $db-&gt;qstr(HTTP_GET_VARS['name'],get_magic_quotes_gpc());</font></p>
<p>Returns the quoted string.</p>
<p><b>Affected_Rows<a name="Affected_Rows"></a>( )</b></p>
<p>Returns the number of rows affected by a update or delete statement. Returns 
  false if function not supported.</p>
<p>Only supported for PostgreSQL, MySQL, MSSQL and ODBC currently. This function might only 
  give accurate results if you perform it in a transaction if you are using persistent 
  connections. This is because the connection you are assigned for one Execute(&nbsp;) 
  might differ from the next Execute(&nbsp;).</p>
<p><b>Insert_ID<a name="Inserted_ID"></a>( )</b></p>
<p>Returns the last autonumbering ID inserted. Returns false if function not supported. 
<p>Only supported for PostgreSQL, MySQL and MSSQL currently. PostgreSQL returns 
  the OID, which can change on a database reload. This function might only give 
  accurate results if you perform it in a transaction if you are using persistent 
  connections. This is because the connection you are assigned for one Execute(&nbsp;) 
  might differ from the next Execute(&nbsp;).</p>
<p><b>MetaDatabases<a name="metadatabases"></a>()</b></p>
<p>Returns a list of databases available on the server as an array. You have to 
  connect to the server first. Only available for ODBC, MySQL and ADO.</p>
<p><b>MetaTables<a name="metatables"></a>()</b></p>
<p>Returns an array of tables and views for the current database as an array. 
  The array should exclude system catalog tables if possible.</p>
<p><b>MetaColumns<a name="metacolumns"></a>($table)</b></p>
<p>Returns an array of ADOFieldObject's, one field object for every column of 
  $table. Currently Sybase does not recognise date types, and ADO cannot identify 
  the correct data type (so we default to varchar).. </p>
<h2>ADORecordSet<a name="ADORecordSet"></a></h2>
<p>When an SQL statement successfully is executed by <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono">ADOConnection-&gt;Execute($sql),</font>an 
  ADORecordSet object is returned. This object contains a virtual cursor so we 
  can move from row to row, functions to obtain information about the columns 
  and column types, and helper functions to deal with formating the results to 
  show to the user.</p>
<h3>ADORecordSet Fields</h3>
<p><b>fields: </b>Array containing the current row. This is not associative, but 
  is an indexed array from 0 to columns-1. See also the function <b><a href="#fields">Fields</a></b>, 
  which behaves like an associative array.</p>
<p><b>dataProvider</b>: The underlying mechanism used to connect to the database. 
  Normally set to <b>native</b>, unless using <b>odbc</b> or <b>ado</b>.</p>
<p><b>blobSize</b>: Maximum size of a char, string or varchar object before it 
  is treated as a Blob (Blob's should be shown with textarea's). See the <a href="#metatype">MetaType</a> 
<p><b>sql</b>: Holds the sql statement used to generate this record set.</p>
<p><b>canSeek</b>: Set to true if Move( ) function works.</p>
<p><b>EOF</b>: True if we have scrolled the cursor past the last record.</p>
<h3>ADORecordSet Functions</h3>
<p><b>ADORecordSet( )</b></p>
<p>Constructer. Normally you never call this function yourself.</p>
<p><b>GetAssoc<a name="GetAssoc"></a>([$force_array])</b></p>
<p>Generates an associative array from the recordset if the number of columns 
  is greater than 2. The array is generated from the current cursor position till 
  EOF. The first column of the recordset becomes the key to the rest of the array. 
  If the columns is equal to two, then the key directly maps to the value unless 
  $force_array is set to true, when an array is created for each key. Inspired 
  by PEAR's getAssoc.</p>
<p>We have the following data in a recordset:</p>
<p>row1: Apple, Fruit, Edible<br>
  row2: Cactus, Plant, Inedible<br>
  row3: Rose, Flower, Edible</p>
<p>GetAssociation will generate the following associative array:</p>
<p>Apple =&gt; [Fruit, Edible]<br>
  Cactus =&gt; [Plant, Inedible]<br>
  Rose =&gt; [Flower,Edible]</p>
<p>The associative array, or false if an error occurs.</p>
<p><b>GetArray<a name="GetArray"></a>([$number_of_rows])</b></p>
<p>Generate an array from the current cursor position, indexed from 0 to $number_of_rows 
  - 1. If $number_of_rows is undefined, till EOF.</p>
<p><b>GetRows<a name="GetRows"></a>([$number_of_rows])</b></p>
<p>Synonym for GetArray() for compatibility with Microsoft ADO.</p>
<p> <b>GetMenu<a name="GetMenu"></a>($name, [$default_str=''], [$blank1stItem=true], 
  [$multiple_select=false], [$size=0], [$moreAttr=''])</b></p>
<p>Generate a HTML menu (&lt;select&gt;&lt;option&gt;&lt;option&gt;&lt;/select&gt;). 
  The first column of the recordset (fields[0]) will hold the string to display 
  in the option tags. If the recordset has more than 1 column, the second column 
  (fields[1]) is the value to send back to the web server.. The menu will be given 
  the name $<i>name</i>. 
<p> If $<i>default_str</i> is defined, then if $<i>default_str</i> == fields[0], 
  that field is selected. If $<i>blank1stItem</i> is true, the first option is 
  empty. $<i>Default_str</i> can be array for a multiple select listbox.</p>
<p>To get a listbox, set the $<i>size</i> to a non-zero value (or pass $default_str 
  as an array). If $<i>multiple_select</i> is true then a listbox will be generated 
  with $<i>size</i> items (or if $size==0, then 5 items) visible, and we will 
  return an array to a server. Lastly use $<i>moreAttr </i> to add additional 
  attributes such as javascript or styles. </p>
<p>Menu Example 1: <code>GetMenu('menu1','A',true)</code> will generate a menu: 
  <select name='menu1'>
    <option value=1 selected>A 
    <option value=2>B 
    <option value=3>C 
  for the data (A,1), (B,2), (C,3). Also see <a href="#ex5">example 5</a>.</p>
<p>Menu Example 2: For the same data, <code>GetMenu('menu1',array('A','B'),false)</code> 
  will generate a menu with both A and B selected: <br>
  <select name='menu1' multiple size=3>
    <option value=1 selected>A 
    <option value=2 selected>B 
    <option value=3>C 
<p> <b>GetMenu2<a name="GetMenu2"></a>($name, [$default_str=''], [$blank1stItem=true], 
  [$multiple_select=false], [$size=0], [$moreAttr=''])</b></p>
<p>This is nearly identical to GetMenu, except that the $<i>default_str</i> is 
  matched to fields[1] (the option values).</p>
<p>Menu Example 3: Given the data in menu example 2, <code>GetMenu2('menu1',array('1','2'),false)</code> 
  will generate a menu with both A and B selected in menu example 2, but this 
  time the selection is based on the 2nd column, which holds the values to return 
  to the Web server. 
<p><b>UserDate<a name="UserDate"></a>($str, [$fmt])</b></p>
<p>Converts the date string $<b>str</b> to another format.UserDate calls UnixDate 
  to parse $<b>str</b>, and $<b>fmt</b> defaults to Y-m-d if not defined.</p>
<p><b>UserTimeStamp<a name="UserTimeStamp"></a>($str, [$fmt])</b></p>
<p>Converts the timestamp string $<b>str</b> to another format. UserTimeStamp 
  calls UnixTimeStamp to parse $<b>str</b>, and $<b>fmt</b> defaults to Y-m-d 
  H:i:s if not defined.</p>
<p><b>UnixDate<a name="unixdate"></a>($str)</b></p>
<p>Parses the date string $<b>str</b> and returns it in unix mktime format (eg. 
  a number indicating the seconds after January 1st, 1970). Expects the date to 
  be in Y-m-d h:i:s format, except for Sybase and Microsoft SQL Server, where 
  M d Y is also accepted (the 3 letter month strings are controlled by a global 
  array, which might need localisation).</p>
<p><b>UnixTimeStamp<a name="unixtimestamp"></a>($str)</b></p>
<p>Parses the timestamp string $<b>str</b> and returns it in unix mktime format 
  (eg. a number indicating the seconds after January 1st, 1970). Expects the date 
  to be in Y-m-d H:i:s format, except for Sybase and Microsoft SQL Server, where 
  M d Y h:i:sA is also accepted (the 3 letter month strings are controlled by 
  a global array, which might need localisation)..</p>
<p><b>MoveNext<a name="MoveNext"></a>( )</b></p>
<p>Move the internal cursor to the next row. The <b>fields</b> array is automatically 
  updated. Return false if unable to do so, otherwise true.. </p>
<p><b>Move<a name="Move"></a>($to)</b></p>
<p>Moves the internal cursor to a specific row $<b>to</b>. Rows are zero-based 
  eg. 0 is the first row. The <b>fields</b> array is automatically updated. For 
  databases that do not support scrolling internally, ADODB will simulate forward 
  scrolling. Some databases do not support backward scrolling. If the $<b>to</b> 
  position is after the EOF, $<b>to</b> will move to the end of the RecordSet 
  for most databases. Some obscure databases using odbc might not behave this 
<p>Note: This function uses <i>absolute positioning</i>, unlike Microsoft's ADO.</p>
<p>Returns true or false. If false, the internal cursor is not moved in most implementations, 
  so AbsolutePosition( ) will return the last cursor position before the Move( 
  ). </p>
<p><b>MoveFirst<a name="MoveFirst"></a>()</b></p>
<p>Internally calls Move(0). Note that some databases do not support this function.</p>
<p><b>MoveLast<a name="MoveLast"></a>()</b></p>
<p>Internally calls Move(RecordCount()-1). Note that some databases do not support 
  this function.</p>
<p><b>GetRowAssoc</b><a name="getrowassoc"></a>($toUpper=true)</p>
<p>The above function is no longer the prefered way of getting associative arrays. 
Use the <a href=#adodb_fetch_mode>$ADODB_FETCH_MODE</a> variable instead. </p>
<p>Returns an associative array containing the current row. The keys to the array 
  are the column names. The column names are upper-cased for easy access. To get 
  the next row, you will still need to call MoveNext(). </p>
<p>For example:<br>
  Array ( [ID] => 1 [FIRSTNAME] => Caroline [LASTNAME] => Miranda [CREATED] => 
  2001-07-05 ) </p>
<p>Note: do not use GetRowAssoc() with $ADODB_FETCH_MODE = ADODB_FETCH_ASSOC. Because
they have the same functionality, they will interfere with each other.</p>
<p><font color="#000000"><b>AbsolutePage<a name="absolutepage"></a>($page=-1) </b></font></p>
<p>Returns the current page. Requires PageExecute()/CachePageExecute() to be called. See <a href=#ex8>Example 8</a>.</p>
<font color="#000000"> 
<p><b>AtFirstPage<a name="AtFirstPage">($status='')</a></b></p>
<p>Returns true if at first page (1-based). Requires PageExecute()/CachePageExecute() to be called. See <a href=#ex8>Example 8</a>.</p>
<p><b>AtLastPage<a name="AtLastPage">($status='')</a></b></p>
<p>Returns true if at last page (1-based). Requires PageExecute()/CachePageExecute() to be called. See <a href=#ex8>Example 8</a>.</p>
<p><b>Fields</b><a name="fields"></a>(<b>$colname</b>)</p>
<p>Some database extensions (eg. MySQL) return arrays that are both associative 
  and indexed if you use the native extensions. GetRowAssoc() does not return 
  arrays that combine associative and indexed elements.</p>
<p>Returns the value of the associated column $<b>colname</b> for the current 
  row. The column name is case-insensitive.</p>
<p><b>FetchField<a name="FetchField"></a>($column_number)</b></p>
<p>Returns an object containing the <b>name</b>, <b>type</b> and <b>max_length</b> 
  of the associated field. If the max_length cannot be determined reliably, it 
  will be set to -1. The column numbers are zero-based. See <a href="#ex2">example 
<p><b>FieldCount<a name="FieldCount"></a>( )</b></p>
<p>Returns the number of fields (columns) in the record set.</p>
<p><b>RecordCount<a name="RecordCount"></a>( )</b></p>
<p>Returns the number of rows in the record set. Note that some databases do not 
  support this, and will return -1. RowCount is a synonym for RecordCount.</p>
<p>The following databases are known to return -1. Oci8, Oci8po, Oracle, Interbase.</p>
<p><b>FetchObject<a name="FetchObject"></a>($toupper=true)</b></p>
<p>Returns the current row as an object. If you set $toupper to true, then the 
  object fields are set to upper-case. Note: The newer FetchNextObject() is the 
  recommended way of accessing rows as objects. See below.</p>
<p><b>FetchNextObject<a name="FetchNextObject"></a>($toupper=true)</b></p>
<p>Gets the current row as an object and moves to the next row automatically. 
  Returns false if at end-of-file. If you set $toupper to true, then the object 
  fields are set to upper-case.</p>
$rs = $db->Execute('select firstname,lastname from table');
if ($rs) {
	while ($o = $rs->FetchNextObject()) {
		print "$o->FIRSTNAME, $o->LASTNAME&lt;BR>";
<p>There is some trade-off in speed in using FetchNextObject(). If performance 
  is important, you should access rows with the <code>fields[]</code> array. 
<p><b>CurrentRow<a name="CurrentRow"></a>( )</b></p>
<p>Returns the current row of the record set. 0 is the first row.</p>
<p><b>AbsolutePosition<a name="abspos"></a>( )</b></p>
<p>Synonym for <b>CurrentRow</b> for compatibility with ADO. Returns the current 
  row of the record set. 0 is the first row.</p>
<p><b>MetaType<a name="MetaType"></a>($nativeDBType[,$field_max_length],[$fieldobj])</b></p>
<p>Determine what <i>generic</i> meta type a database field type is given its 
  native type $<b>nativeDBType</b> and the length of the field $<b>field_max_length</b>. 
  Note that field_max_length can be -1 if it is not known. The field object returned 
  by the database driver can be passed in $<b>fieldobj</b>. This is useful for 
  databases such as <i>mysql</i> which has additional properties in the field 
  object such as <i>primary_key</i>.</p>
<p>Uses the field <b>blobSize</b> and compares it with $<b>field_max_length</b> 
  to determine whether the character field is actually a blob.</p>
  <li><b>C</b>: Character fields that should be shown in a &lt;input type=&quot;text&quot;&gt; 
    tag. </li>
  <li><b>B</b>: Blob, or large text fields that should be shown in a &lt;textarea&gt;</li>
  <li><b>D</b>: Date field</li>
  <li><b>T</b>: Timestamp field</li>
  <li><b>L</b>: Logical field (boolean or bit-field)</li>
  <li><b>N</b>: Numeric field. Includes decimal, numeric, floating point, and 
    real. </li>
  <li><b>I</b>: Integer field. </li>
  <li><b>R</b>: Counter or Autoincrement field. Must be numeric.</li>
<p><b>Close( )<a name="rsclose"></a></b></p>
<p>Close the recordset.</p>
<h3>function rs2html<a name="rs2html"></a>($adorecordset,[$tableheader_attributes], 
<p>This is a standalone function (rs2html = recordset to html) that is similar 
  to PHP's <i>odbc_result_all</i> function, it prints a ADORecordSet, $<b>adorecordset</b> 
  as a HTML table. $<b>tableheader_attributes</b> allow you to control the table 
  <i>cellpadding</i>, <i>cellspacing</i> and <i>border</i> attributes. Lastly 
  you can replace the database column names with your own column titles with the 
  array $<b>col_titles</b>. This is designed more as a quick debugging mechanism, 
  not a production table recordset viewer.</p>
<p>You will need to include the file <i>tohtml.inc.php</i>.</p>
<p>Example of rs2html:<b><font color="#336600"><a name="exrs2html"></a></font></b></p>
<pre><b><font color="#336600">&lt;?
include('tohtml.inc.php')</font></b>; # load code common to ADODB 
<b>include</b>('adodb.inc.php'); # load code common to ADODB 
$<font color="#663300">conn</font> = &amp;ADONewConnection('mysql');   # create a connection 
$<font color="#663300">conn</font>->PConnect('localhost','userid','','agora');# connect to MySQL, agora db
<font color="#000000">$<font color="#663300">sql</font> = 'select CustomerName, CustomerID from customers'; 
$<font color="#663300">rs</font>   = $<font color="#663300">conn</font>->Execute($sql); 
<font color="#336600"><b>rs2html</b></font><b>($<font color="#663300">rs</font>,'<i>border=2 cellpadding=3</i>',array('<i>Customer Name','Customer ID</i>'));
<h3>Differences Between this ADODB library and Microsoft ADO<a name="adodiff"></a></h3>
  <li>ADODB only supports recordsets created by a connection object. Recordsets 
    cannot be created independently.</li>
  <li>ADO properties are implemented as functions in ADODB. This makes it easier 
    to implement any enhanced ADO functionality in the future.</li>
  <li>ADODB's <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono">ADORecordSet-&gt;Move()</font> 
    uses absolute positioning, not relative. Bookmarks are not supported.</li>
  <li><font face="Courier New, Courier, mono">ADORecordSet-&gt;AbsolutePosition() 
    </font>cannot be used to move the record cursor.</li>
  <li>ADO Parameter objects are not supported.</li>
  <li>Recordset properties for paging records are available, but implemented as in <a href=#ex8>Example 8</a>.</li>
<h1>Database Driver Guide<a name="DriverGuide"></a></h1>
<p>This describes how to create a class to connect to a new database. To ensure 
  there is no duplication of work, kindly email me at jlim#natsoft.com.my if you 
  decide to create such a class.</p>
<p>First decide on a name in lower case to call the database type. Let's say we 
  call it xbase. </p>
<p>Then we need to create two classes ADOConnection_xbase and ADORecordSet_xbase 
  in the file adodb-xbase.inc.php.</p>
<p>The simplest form of database driver is an adaptation of an existing ODBC driver. 
  Then we just need to create the class <i>ADOConnection_xbase extends ADOConnection_odbc</i> 
  to support the new <b>date</b> and <b>timestamp</b> formats, the <b>concatenation</b> 
  operator used, <b>true</b> and <b>false</b>. For the<i> ADORecordSet_xbase extends 
  ADORecordSet_odbc </i>we need to change the <b>MetaType</b> function. See<b> 
  adodb-vfp.inc.php</b> as an example.</p>
<p>More complicated is a totally new database driver that connects to a new PHP 
  extension. Then you will need to implement several functions. Fortunately, you 
  do not have to modify most of the complex code. You only need to override a 
  few stub functions. See <b>adodb-mysql.inc.php</b> for example.</p>
<p>The default date format of ADODB internally is YYYY-MM-DD (Ansi-92). All dates 
  should be converted to that format when passing to an ADODB date function. See 
  Oracle for an example how we use ALTER SESSION to change the default date format 
  in _pconnect _connect.</p>
<p><b>ADOConnection Functions to Override</b></p>
<p>Defining a constructor for your ADOConnection derived function is optional. 
  There is no need to call the base class constructor.</p>
<p>_<b>connect</b>: Low level implementation of Connect. Returns true or false. 
  Should set the _<b>connectionID</b>.</p>
<p>_<b>pconnect:</b> Low level implemention of PConnect. Returns true or false. 
  Should set the _<b>connectionID</b>.</p>
<p>_<b>query</b>: Execute a query. Returns the queryID, or false.</p>
<p>_<b>close: </b>Close the connection -- PHP should clean up all recordsets. 
<p><b>ErrorMsg</b>: Stores the error message in the private variable _errorMsg. 
<p>The ADOConnection functions BeginTrans( ), CommitTrans( ), RollbackTrans( ) 
  are reserved for future expansion.</p>
<p><b>ADOConnection Fields to Set</b></p>
<p>_<b>bindInputArray</b>: Set to true if binding of parameters for SQL inserts 
  and updates is allowed using ?, eg. as with ODBC.</p>
<p><b>hasLimit</b> support SELECT * FROM TABLE LIMIT 10 of MySQL.</p>
<p><b>hasTop</b> support Microsoft style SELECT TOP 10 * FROM TABLE.</p>
<p><b>ADORecordSet Functions to Override</b></p>
<p>You will need to define a constructor for your ADORecordSet derived class that 
  calls the parent class constructor.</p>
<p><b>FetchField: </b> as documented above in ADORecordSet</p>
<p>_<b>initrs</b>: low level initialization of the recordset: setup the _<b>numOfRows</b> 
  and _<b>numOfFields</b> fields -- called by the constructor.</p>
<p>_<b>seek</b>: seek to a particular row. Do not load the data into the fields 
  array. This is done by _fetch. Returns true or false. Note that some implementations 
  such as Interbase do not support seek. Set canSeek to false.</p>
<p>_<b>fetch</b>: fetch a row using the database extension function and then move 
  to the next row. Sets the <b>fields</b> array. If the parameter $ignore_fields 
  is true then there is no need to populate the <b>fields</b> array, just move 
  to the next row. then Returns true or false.</p>
<p>_<b>close</b>: close the recordset</p>
<p><b>Fields</b>: If the array row returned by the PHP extension is not an associative 
  one, you will have to override this. See adodb-odbc.inc.php for an example. 
  For databases such as MySQL and MSSQL where an associative array is returned, 
  there is no need to override this function.</p>
<p><b>ADOConnection Fields to Set</b></p>
<p>canSeek: Set to true if the _seek function works.</p>
<p>See the <a href=http://php.weblogs.com/adodb-todo-roadmap>RoadMap</a> article.</p>
<p>Also see the ADODB <a href=http://php.weblogs.com/adodb_csv>proxy</a> article for 
bridging Windows and Unix databases.</p>

Change Log<a name="Changes"></a></h2>
 <p><b>1.71 18 Jan 2002</b></p>
 <p>Sequence start id support. Now $conn->Gen_ID('seqname', 50) to start sequence from 50.
 <p>CSV driver fix for selectlimit, from Andreas - akaiser#vocote.de.
<P>Gam3r spotted that a global variable was undefined in the session handler. 
<p>Mssql date regex had error. Fixed - reported by Minh Hoang vb_user#yahoo.com.
<p>DBTimeStamp() and DBDate() now accept iso dates and unix timestamps. This means
that the PostgreSQL handling of dates in GetInsertSQL() and GetUpdateSQL() can
be removed. Also if these functions are passed '' or null or false, we return a SQL null.
<p>GetInsertSQL() and GetUpdateSQL() now accept a new parameter, $magicq to 
indicate whether quotes should be inserted based on magic quote settings - suggested by
<p>Reformated docs slightly based on suggestions by Chris Small.
 <p><b>1.65 28 Dec 2001</b></p>
 <p>Fixed borland_ibase class naming bug.
 <p>Now instead of using $rs->fields[0] internally, we use reset($rs->fields) so 
 that we are compatible with ADODB_FETCH_ASSOC mode. Reported by Nico S.
 <p>Changed recordset constructor and _initrs() for oci8 so that it returns the field definitions even
 if no rows in the recordset. Reported by Rick Hickerson (rhickers#mv.mv.com).
 <p>Improved support for postgresql in GetInsertSQL and GetUpdateSQL by
  "mike" mike#partner2partner.com  and "Ryan Bailey" rebel#windriders.com
 <p><b>1.64 20 Dec 2001</b></p>
<p>Danny Milosavljevic <danny.milo#gmx.net> added some patches for MySQL error handling
and displaying default values.
<p>Fixed some ADODB_FETCH_BOTH inconsistencies in odbc and interbase.
<p>Added more tests to test suite to cover ADODB_FETCH_* and ADODB_ERROR_HANDLER.
<p>Added firebird (ibase) driver
<p>Added borland_ibase driver for interbase 6.5
<p><b>1.63 13 Dec 2001</b></p>
Absolute to the adodb-lib.inc.php file not set properly. Fixed.

<p><b>1.62 11 Dec 2001</b></p>
<p>Major speedup of ADODB for low-end web sites by reducing the php code loading and compiling
cycle. We conditionally compile not so common functions. 
Moved csv code to adodb-csvlib.inc.php to reduce adodb.inc.php parsing. This file
is loaded only when the csv/proxy driver is used, or CacheExecute() is run.
Also moved PageExecute(), GetSelectSQL() and GetUpdateSQL() core code to adodb-lib.inc.php.
This reduced the 70K main adodb.inc.php file to 55K, and since at least 20K of the file
is comments, we have reduced 50K of code in adodb.inc.php to 35K. There
 should be 35% reduction in memory and thus 35% speedup in compiling the php code for the
main adodb.inc.php file.
<p>Highly tuned SelectLimit() for oci8 for massive speed improvements on large files. 
Selecting 20 rows starting from the 20,000th row of a table is now 7 times faster. 
Thx to Tomas V V Cox.
<p>Allow . and # in table definitions in GetInsertSQL and GetUpdateSQL.
 See ADODB_TABLE_REGEX constant. Thx to Ari Kuorikoski.
<p>Added ADODB_PREFETCH_ROWS constant, defaulting to 10. This determines the number
of records to prefetch in a SELECT statement. Only used by oci8.</p>
<p>Added high portability Oracle class called oci8po. This uses ? for bind variables, and 
lower cases column names.</p>
<p>Now all database drivers support $ADODB_FETCH_MODE, including interbase, ado, and odbc:
ADODB_FETCH_NUM and ADODB_FETCH_ASSOC. ADODB_FETCH_BOTH is not fully implemented for all 
database drivers.
<p><b>1.61 Nov 2001</b></p>
<p>Added PO_RecordCount() and PO_Insert_ID(). PO stands for portable. 
Pablo Roca [pabloroca#mvps.org]</p>

<p>GenID now returns 0 if not available. Safer is that you should check $conn->hasGenID 
for availability.</p>

<p>M'soft ADO we now correctly close recordset in _close() peterd#telephonetics.co.uk</p>

<p>MSSQL now supports GenID(). It generates a 16-byte GUID from mssql newid() function.</p>

<p>Changed ereg_replace to preg_replace in SelectLimit. This is a fix for mssql. 
Ereg doesn't support \t or \n! Reported by marino Carlos xaplo#postnuke-espanol.org</p>

<p>Added $recordset->connection. This is the ADOConnection object for the recordset. 
Works with cached and normal recordsets. Surprisingly, this had no affect on performance!</p>
<p><b>1.54 15 Nov 2001</b></p>
Fixed some more bugs in PageExecute().  I am getting sick of bug in this and will have to 
reconsider my QA here. The main issue is that I don't use PageExecute() and 
to check whether it is working requires a visual inspection of the html generated currently.
It is possible to write a test script but it would be quite complicated :(<p>
More speedups of SelectLimit() for DB2, Oci8, access, vfp, mssql.<p>

<p><b>1.53 7 Nov 2001</b></p>
Added support for ADODB_FETCH_ASSOC for ado and odbc drivers.<p>
Tuned GetRowAssoc(false) in postgresql and mysql.<p>
Stephen Van Dyke contributed adodb icon, accepted with some minor mods.<p>
Enabled Affected_Rows() for postgresql<p>
Speedup for Concat() using implode() - Benjamin Curtis ben_curtis#yahoo.com<p>
Fixed some more bugs in PageExecute() to prevent infinite loops<p>
<p><b>1.52 5 Nov 2001</b></p>
Spelling error in CacheExecute() caused it to fail. $ql should be $sql in line 625!<p>
Added fixes for parsing [ and ] in GetUpdateSQL().
<p><b>1.51 5 Nov 2001</b></p>
<p>Oci8 SelectLimit() speedup by using OCIFetch().
<p>Oci8 was mistakenly reporting errors when $db->debug = true.
<p>If a connection failed with ODBC, it was not correctly reported - fixed.
<p>_connectionID was inited to -1, changed to false.
<p>Added $rs->FetchRow(), to simplify API, ala PEAR DB
<p>Added PEAR DB compat mode, which is still faster than PEAR! See adodb-pear.inc.php.
<p>Removed postgres pconnect debugging statement.
<p><b>1.50 31 Oct 2001</b></p>
<p>ADODBConnection renamed to ADOConnection, and ADODBFieldObject to ADOFieldObject.
<p>PageExecute() now checks for empty $rs correctly, and the errors in the docs on this subject have been fixed.
<p>odbc_error() does not return 6 digit error correctly at times. Implemented workaround.
<p>Added ADORecordSet_empty class. This will speedup INSERTS/DELETES/UPDATES because the return
object created is much smaller.
<p>Added Prepare() to odbc, and oci8 (but doesn't work properly for oci8 still).
<p>Made pgsql a synonym for postgre7, and changed SELECT LIMIT to use OFFSET for compat with 
postgres 7.2.
<p>Revised adodb-cryptsession.php thanks to Ari.
<p>Set resources to false on _close, to force freeing of resources.
<p>Added adodb-errorhandler.inc.php, adodb-errorpear.inc.php and raiseErrorFn on Freek's urging.
<p>GetRowAssoc($toUpper=true): $toUpper added as default.
<p>Errors when connecting to a database were not captured formerly. Now we do it correctly.
<p><b>1.40 19 September 2001</b></p>
<p>PageExecute() to implement page scrolling added. Code and idea by Iván Oliva.</p>
<p>Some minor postgresql fixes.</p>
<p>Added sequence support using GenID() for postgresql, oci8, mysql, interbase.</p>
<p>Added UpdateBlob support for interbase (untested).</p>
<p>Added encrypted sessions (see adodb-cryptsession.php). By Ari Kuorikoski <kuoriari#finebyte.com></p>
<p><b>1.31 21 August 2001</b></p>
<p>Many bug fixes thanks to "GaM3R (Cameron)" <gamr#outworld.cx>. Some session changes due to Gam3r.
<p>Fixed qstr() to quote \ also.
<p>rs2html() now pretty printed.
<p>Jonathan Younger jyounger#unilab.com contributed the great idea GetUpdateSQL() and GetInsertSQL() which
generates SQL to update and insert into a table from a recordset. Modify the recordset fields
array, then can this function to generate the SQL (the SQL is not executed).
<p>"Nicola Fankhauser" <nicola.fankhauser#couniq.com> found some bugs in date handling for mssql.</p>
<p>Added minimal Oracle support for LOBs. Still under development.</p>
Added $ADODB_FETCH_MODE so you can control whether recordsets return arrays which are
numeric, associative or both. This is a global variable you set. Currently only MySQL, Oci8, Postgres
drivers support this.
<p>PostgreSQL properly closes recordsets now. Reported by several people.
Added UpdateBlob() for Oracle. A hack to make it easier to save blobs.
Oracle timestamps did not display properly. Fixed.
<p><b>1.20 6 June 2001</b></p>
<p>Now Oracle can connect using tnsnames.ora or server and service name</p>
<p>Extensive Oci8 speed optimizations. 
Oci8 code revised to support variable binding, and /*+ FIRST_ROWS */ hint.</p>
<p>Worked around some 4.0.6 bugs in odbc_fetch_into().</p>
<p>Paolo S. Asioli paolo.asioli#libero.it suggested GetRowAssoc().</p>
<p>Escape quotes for oracle wrongly set to \'. Now '' is used.</p>
<p>Variable binding now works in ODBC also.</p>
<p>Jumped to version 1.20 because I don't like 13 :-)</p>
<p><b>1.12 6 June 2001</b></p>
<p>Changed $ADODB_DIR to ADODB_DIR constant to plug a security loophole.</p>
<p>Changed _close() to close persistent connections also. Prevents connection leaks.</p>
<p>Major revision of oracle and oci8 drivers. 
Added OCI_RETURN_NULLS and OCI_RETURN_LOBS to OCIFetchInto(). BLOB, CLOB and VARCHAR2 recognition
in MetaType() improved. MetaColumns() returns columns in correct sort order.</p>
<p>Interbase timestamp input format was wrong. Fixed.</p>
<p><b>1.11 20 May 2001</b></p>
<p>Improved file locking for Windows.</p>
<p>Probabilistic flushing of cache to avoid avalanche updates when cache timeouts.</p>
<p>Cached recordset timestamp not saved in some scenarios. Fixed.</p>
<p><b>1.10 19 May 2001</b></p>
<p>Added caching. CacheExecute() and CacheSelectLimit().
<p>Added csv driver. See <a href=http://php.weblogs.com/adodb_csv>http://php.weblogs.com/adodb_csv</a>.
<p>Fixed SelectLimit(), SELECT TOP not working under certain circumstances.
<p>Added better Frontbase support of MetaTypes() by Frank M. Kromann.
<p><b>1.01 24 April 2001</b></p>
<p>Fixed SelectLimit bug. \ not quoted properly.
<p>SelectLimit: SELECT TOP -1 * FROM TABLE not support by Microsoft. Fixed.</p>
<p>GetMenu improved by glen.davies#cce.ac.nz to support multiple hilited items<p>
<p>FetchNextObject() did not work with only 1 record returned. Fixed bug reported by $tim#orotech.net</p>
<p>Fixed mysql field max_length problem. Fix suggested by Jim Nicholson (jnich#att.com)</p>
<p><b>1.00 16 April 2001</b></p>
<p>Given some brilliant suggestions on how to simplify ADODB by akul. You no longer need to
setup $ADODB_DIR yourself, and ADOLoadCode() is automatically called by ADONewConnection(), 
simplifying the startup code.</p>
<p>FetchNextObject() added. Suggested by Jakub Marecek. This makes FetchObject() obsolete, as
this is more flexible and powerful.</p>
<p>Misc fixes to SelectLimit() to support Access (top must follow distinct) and Fields() 
in the array recordset. From Reinhard Balling.</p>
<p><b>0.96 27 Mar 2001</b></p>
<p>ADOConnection Close() did not return a value correctly. Thanks to akul#otamedia.com.</p>
<p>When the horrible magic_quotes is enabled, back-slash (\) is changed to double-backslash (\\).
This doesn't make sense for Microsoft/Sybase databases. We fix this in qstr().</p>
<p>Fixed Sybase date problem in UnixDate() thanks to Toni Tunkkari. Also fixed MSSQL problem
in UnixDate() - thanks to milhouse31#hotmail.com.</p>
<p>MoveNext() moved to leaf classes for speed in MySQL/PostgreSQL. 10-15% speedup.</p>
<p>Added null handling in bindInputArray in Execute() -- Ron Baldwin suggestion.</p>
<p>Fixed some option tags. Thanks to john#jrmstudios.com.</p>
<p><b>0.95 13 Mar 2001</b></p>
<p>Added postgres7 database driver which supports LIMIT and other version 7 stuff in the future.</p>
<p>Added SelectLimit to ADOConnection to simulate PostgreSQL's "select * from table limit 10 offset 3".
Added helper function GetArrayLimit() to ADORecordSet.</p>
<p>Fixed mysql metacolumns bug. Thanks to Freek Dijkstra (phpeverywhere#macfreek.com).</p>
<p>Also many PostgreSQL changes by Freek. He almost rewrote the whole PostgreSQL driver!</p>
<p>Added fix to input parameters in Execute for non-strings by Ron Baldwin.</p>
<p>Added new metatype, X for TeXt. Formerly, metatype B for Blob also included
text fields. Now 'B' is for binary/image data. 'X' for textual data.</p>
<p>Fixed $this->GetArray() in GetRows().</p>
<p>Oracle and OCI8: 1st parameter is always blank -- now warns if it is filled.</p>
<p>Now <i>hasLimit</i> and <i>hasTop</i> added to indicate whether 
SELECT * FROM TABLE LIMIT 10 or SELECT TOP 10 * FROM TABLE are supported.</p>
<p><b>0.94 04 Feb 2001</b></p>
<p>Added ADORecordSet::GetRows() for compatibility with Microsoft ADO. Synonym for GetArray().</p>
<p>Added new metatype 'R' to represent autoincrement numbers.</p>
<p>Added ADORecordSet.FetchObject() to return a row as an object.</p>
<p>Finally got a Linux box to test PostgreSql. Many fixes.</p>
<p>Fixed copyright misspellings in 0.93.</p>
<p>Fixed mssql MetaColumns type bug.</p>
<p>Worked around odbc bug in PHP4 for sessions.</p>
<p>Fixed many documentation bugs (affected_rows, metadatabases, qstr).</p>
<p>Fixed MySQL timestamp format (removed comma).</p>
<p>Interbase driver did not call ibase_pconnect(). Fixed.</p>
<p><b>0.93 18 Jan 2001</b></p>
<p>Fixed GetMenu bug.</p>
<p>Simplified Interbase commit and rollback.</p>
<p>Default behaviour on closing a connection is now to rollback all active transactions.</p>
<p>Added field object handling for array recordset for future XML compatibility.</p>
<p>Added arr2html() to convert array to html table.</p>
<p><b>0.92 2 Jan 2001</b></p>
<p>Interbase Commit and Rollback should be working again.</p>
<p>Changed initialisation of ADORecordSet. This is internal and should not affect users. We
are doing this to support cached recordsets in the future.</p>
<p>Implemented ADORecordSet_array class. This allows you to simulate a database recordset
with an array.</p>
<p>Added UnixDate() and UnixTimeStamp() to ADORecordSet.</p>
<p><b>0.91 21 Dec 2000</b></p>
<p>Fixed ODBC so ErrorMsg() is working.</p>
<p>Worked around ADO unrecognised null (0x1) value problem in COM.</p>
<p>Added Sybase support for FetchField() type</p>
<p>Removed debugging code and unneeded html from various files</p>
<p>Changed to javadoc style comments to adodb.inc.php.</p>
<p>Added maxsql as synonym for mysqlt</p>
<p>Now ODBC downloads first 8K of blob by default
<p><b>0.90 15 Nov 2000</b></p>
<p>Lots of testing of Microsoft ADO. Should be more stable now.</p>
<p>Added $ADODB_COUNTREC. Set to false for high speed selects.</p>
<p>Added Sybase support. Contributed by Toni Tunkkari (toni.tunkkari#finebyte.com). Bug in Sybase 
  API: GetFields is unable to determine date types.</p>
<p>Changed behaviour of RecordSet.GetMenu() to support size parameter (listbox) properly.</p>
<p>Added emptyDate and emptyTimeStamp to RecordSet class that defines how to represent 
  empty dates.</p>
<p>Added MetaColumns($table) that returns an array of ADOFieldObject's listing 
  the columns of a table.</p>
<p>Added transaction support for PostgresSQL -- thanks to "Eric G. Werk" egw#netguide.dk.</p>
<p>Added adodb-session.php for session support.</p>
<p><b>0.80 30 Nov 2000</b></p>
<p>Added support for charSet for interbase. Implemented MetaTables for most databases. 
  PostgreSQL more extensively tested.</p>
<p><b>0.71 22 Nov 2000</b></p>
<p>Switched from using require_once to include/include_once for backward compatability with PHP 4.02 and earlier.</p>
<p><b>0.70 15 Nov 2000</b></p>
<p>Calls by reference have been removed (call_time_pass_reference=Off) to ensure compatibility with future versions of PHP, 
except in Oracle 7 driver due to a bug in php_oracle.dll.</p>
<p>PostgreSQL database driver contributed by Alberto Cerezal (acerezalp#dbnet.es). 
<p>Oci8 driver for Oracle 8 contributed by George Fourlanos (fou#infomap.gr).</p>
<p>Added <i>mysqlt</i> database driver to support MySQL 3.23 which has transaction 
 support. </p>
<p>Oracle default date format (DD-MON-YY) did not match ADODB default date format (which is YYYY-MM-DD). Use ALTER SESSION to force the default date.</p>
<p>Error message checking is now included in test suite.</p>
<p>MoveNext() did not check EOF properly -- fixed.</p>
<p><b>0.60 Nov 8 2000</b></p>
<p>Fixed some constructor bugs in ODBC and ADO. Added ErrorNo function to ADOConnection 
 class. </p>
<p><b>0.51 Oct 18 2000</b></p>
<p>Fixed some interbase bugs.</p>
<p><b>0.50 Oct 16 2000</b></p>
<p>Interbase commit/rollback changed to be compatible with PHP 4.03. </p>
<p>CommitTrans( ) will now return true if transactions not supported. </p>
<p>Conversely RollbackTrans( ) will return false if transactions not supported. 
<p><b>0.46 Oct 12</b></p>
Many Oracle compatibility issues fixed. 
<p><b>0.40 Sept 26</b></p>
<p>Many bug fixes</p>
<p>Now Code for BeginTrans, CommitTrans and RollbackTrans is working. So is the Affected_Rows
and Insert_ID. Added above functions to test.php.</p>
<p>ADO type handling was busted in 0.30. Fixed.</p>
<p>Generalised Move( ) so it works will all databases, including ODBC.</p>
<p><b>0.30 Sept 18</b></p>
<p>Renamed ADOLoadDB to ADOLoadCode. This is clearer.</p>
<p>Added BeginTrans, CommitTrans and RollbackTrans functions.</p>
<p>Added Affected_Rows() and Insert_ID(), _affectedrows() and _insertID(), ListTables(), 
 ListDatabases(), ListColumns().</p>
<p>Need to add New_ID() and hasInsertID and hasAffectedRows, autoCommit </p>
<p><b>0.20 Sept 12</b></p>
<p>Added support for Microsoft's ADO.</p>
<p>Added new field to ADORecordSet -- canSeek</p>
<p>Added new parameter to _fetch($ignore_fields = false). Setting to true will 
 not update fields array for faster performance.</p>
<p>Added new field to ADORecordSet/ADOConnection -- dataProvider to indicate whether 
 a class is derived from odbc or ado.</p>
<p>Changed class ODBCFieldObject to ADOFieldObject -- not documented currently.</p>
<p>Added benchmark.php and testdatabases.inc.php to the test suite.</p>
<p>Added to ADORecordSet FastForward( ) for future high speed scrolling. Not documented.</p>
<p>Realised that ADO's Move( ) uses relative positioning. ADODB uses absolute. 
<p><b>0.10 Sept 9 2000</b></p>
<p>First release</p>
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