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<h2>ADOdb Library for PHP</h2>
<p>V3.60 16 June 2003 (c) 2000-2003 John Lim (<a href="mailto:jlim#natsoft.com.my">jlim#natsoft.com.my</a>)</p>
<p><font size="1">This software is dual licensed using BSD-Style and LGPL. Where 
	there is any discrepancy, the BSD-Style license will take precedence. This 
	means you can use it in proprietary and commercial products.</font></p>
<p><a href="#intro"><b>Introduction</b></a><b><br>
	<a href="#features">Unique Features</a><br>
	<a href="#users">How People are using ADOdb</a><br>
	<a href="#bugs">Feature Requests and Bug Reports</a><br>
	</b><b><a href="#install">Installation<br>
	</a><a href="#coding">Initializing Code</a></b> <font size="2"><a href=#adonewconnection>ADONewConnection</a></font> 
	<font size="2"><a href=#adonewconnection>NewADOConnection</a></font><br>
	<b> <a href="#drivers">Supported Databases</a></b><br>
	<b> <a href="#quickstart">Tutorial</a></b><br>
	<a href="#ex1">Example 1: Select</a><br>
	<a href="#ex2">Example 2: Advanced Select</a><br>
	<a href="#ex3">Example 3: Insert</a><br>
	<a href="#ex4">Example 4: Debugging</a> &nbsp;<a href="#exrs2html">rs2html 
	example</a><br>
	<a href="#ex5">Example 5: MySQL and Menus</a><br>
	<a href="#ex6">Example 6: Connecting to Multiple Databases at once</a> <br>
	<a href="#ex7">Example 7: Generating Update and Insert SQL</a> <br>
	<a href="#ex8">Example 8: Implementing Scrolling with Next and Previous</a><br>
	<a href="#ex9">Example 9: Exporting in CSV or Tab-Delimited Format</a> <br>
	<a href="#ex10">Example 10: Custom filters</a><br>
	<a href="#ex11">Example 11: Smart Transactions</a><br>
	<br>
	<b> <a href="#errorhandling">Using Custom Error Handlers and PEAR_Error</a><br>
	<a href="#DSN">Data Source Names</a><br>
	<a href="#caching">Caching</a><br>
	<a href="#pivot">Pivot Tables</a></b> 
<p><a href="#ref"><b>REFERENCE</b></a>
<p> <font size="2">Variables: <a href="#adodb_countrecs">$ADODB_COUNTRECS</a> 
	<a href="#adodb_cache_dir">$ADODB_CACHE_DIR</a> </font><font size="2"><a href=#adodb_fetch_mode>$ADODB_FETCH_MODE</a> <a href=#adodb_lang>$ADODB_LANG</a><br>
	Constants: </font><font size="2"><a href=#adodb_assoc_case>ADODB_ASSOC_CASE</a> 
	</font><br>
	<a href="#ADOConnection"><b> ADOConnection</b></a><br>
	<font size="2">Connections: <a href="#connect">Connect</a> <a href="#pconnect">PConnect</a> 
	<a href="#nconnect">NConnect</a> <br>
	Executing SQL: <a href="#execute">Execute</a> <a href="#cacheexecute"><i>CacheExecute</i></a> 
	<a href="#SelectLimit">SelectLimit</a> <a href="#cacheSelectLimit"><i>CacheSelectLimit</i></a> 
	<a href="#prepare">Prepare</a> <a href=#preparesp>PrepareSP</a> <a href="#parameter">Parameter</a><br>
	&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 
	<a href="#getone">GetOne</a> <a href="#cachegetone"><i>CacheGetOne</i></a> 
	<a href="#getrow">GetRow</a> <a href="#cachegetrow"><i>CacheGetRow</i></a> 
	<a href="#getall">GetAll</a> <a href="#cachegetall"><i>CacheGetAll</i></a> 
	<a href="#getcol">GetCol</a> <a href="#cachegetcol"><i>CacheGetCol</i></a> 
	<a href="#replace">Replace</a> <br>
	&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="#executecursor">ExecuteCursor</a> 
	(oci8 only)<br>
	Generates SQL: <a href="#getupdatesql">GetUpdateSQL</a> <a href="#getinsertsql">GetInsertSQL</a><br>
	Blobs: <a href="#updateblob">UpdateBlob</a> <a href="#updateclob">UpdateClob</a> 
	<a href="#updateblobfile">UpdateBlobFile</a> <a href="#blobencode">BlobEncode</a> 
	<a href="#blobdecode">BlobDecode</a><br>
	Paging/Scrolling: <a href="#pageexecute">PageExecute</a> <a href="#cachepageexecute">CachePageExecute</a><br>
	Cleanup: <a href="#cacheflush">CacheFlush</a> <a href="#Close">Close</a><br>
	Transactions: <a href="#begintrans">BeginTrans</a> <a href="#committrans">CommitTrans</a> 
	<a href="#rollbacktrans">RollbackTrans</a> <a href="#starttrans">StartTrans</a> <a href="#completetrans">CompleteTrans</a> <br>
	Fetching Data: </font> <font size="2"><a href="#setfetchmode">SetFetchMode</a><br>
	Strings: <a href="#concat">concat</a> <a href="#qstr">qstr</a> <a href="#quote">quote</a><br>
	Dates: <a href="#dbdate">DBDate</a> <a href="#dbtimestamp">DBTimeStamp</a> 
	<a href="#unixdate">UnixDate</a> <a href="#unixtimestamp">UnixTimeStamp</a> 
	<a href="#OffsetDate">OffsetDate</a> <a href="#SQLDate">SQLDate</a> <br>
	Rows Management: <a href="#affected_rows">Affected_Rows</a> <a href="#inserted_id">Insert_ID</a> 
	<a href="#genid">GenID</a> <a href=#createseq>CreateSequence</a> <a href=#dropseq>DropSequence</a> 
	<br>
	Error Handling: <a href="#errormsg">ErrorMsg</a> <a href="#errorno">ErrorNo</a>
	 <a href="#metaerror">MetaError</a> <a href="#metaerrormsg">MetaErrorMsg</a><br>
	Data Dictionary (metadata): <a href="#metadatabases">MetaDatabases</a> <a href="#metatables">MetaTables</a> 
	<a href="#metacolumns">MetaColumns</a> <a href="#metacolumnames">MetaColumnNames</a> 
	<a href="#metaprimarykeys">MetaPrimaryKeys</a> <a href="#serverinfo">ServerInfo</a> 
	<br>
	Statistics and Query-Rewriting: <a href="#fnexecute">fnExecute and fnCacheExecute</a><br>
	</font><font size="2">Deprecated: <a href="#bind">Bind</a> <a href="#blankrecordset">BlankRecordSet</a></font><br>
	<a href="#adorecordSet"><b><br>
	ADORecordSet</b></a><br>
	<font size="2">Returns one row:<a href="#fetchrow">FetchRow</a> <a href="#fetchinto">FetchInto</a> 
	<a href="#fetchobject">FetchObject</a> <a href="#fetchnextobject">FetchNextObject</a> 
	<a href="#fetchobj">FetchObj</a> <a href="#fetchnextobj">FetchNextObj</a><br>
	Returns all rows:<a href="#getarray">GetArray</a> <a href="#getrows">GetRows</a> 
	<a href="#getassoc">GetAssoc</a><br>
	Scrolling:<a href="#move">Move</a> <a href="#movenext">MoveNext</a> <a href="#movefirst">MoveFirst</a> 
	<a href="#movelast">MoveLast</a> <a href="#abspos">AbsolutePosition</a> <a href="#currentrow">CurrentRow</a> 
	<a href="#atfirstpage">AtFirstPage</a> <a href="#atlastpage">AtLastPage</a> 
	<a href="#absolutepage">AbsolutePage</a> </font> <font size="2"><br>
	Menu generation:<a href="#getmenu">GetMenu</a> <a href="#getmenu2">GetMenu2</a><br>
	Dates:<a href="#userdate">UserDate</a> <a href="#usertimestamp">UserTimeStamp</a> 
	<a href="#unixdate">UnixDate</a> <a href="#unixtimestamp">UnixTimeStamp<br>
	</a>Recordset Info:<a href="#recordcount">RecordCount</a> <a href="#po_recordcount">PO_RecordSet</a> 
	<a href="#nextrecordset">NextRecordSet</a><br>
	Field Info:<a href="#fieldcount">FieldCount</a> <a href="#fetchfield">FetchField</a> 
	<a href="#metatype">MetaType</a><br>
	Cleanup: <a href="#rsclose">Close</a></font> <font size="2"><br>
	Deprecated: <a href="#getrowassoc">GetRowAssoc</a> <a href="#fields">Fields</a></font> 
<p><font size="2"><a href="#rs2html"><b>rs2html</b></a>&nbsp; <a href="#exrs2html">example</a></font><br>
  <a href="#adodiff">Differences between ADOdb and ADO</a><br>
  <a href="#driverguide"><b>Database Driver Guide<br>
  </b></a><b><a href="#changes">Change Log</a></b><br>
</p>
<h2>Introduction<a name="intro"></a></h2>
<p>PHP's database access functions are not standardised. This creates a need for 
  a database class library to hide the differences between the different database 
  API's (encapsulate the differences) so we can easily switch databases. PHP 4.0.5 or later
  is now required (because we use array-based str_replace).</p>
<p>We currently support MySQL, Oracle, Microsoft SQL Server, Sybase, Sybase SQL Anywhere, Informix, 
  PostgreSQL, FrontBase,  Interbase (Firebird and Borland variants), Foxpro, Access, ADO and ODBC. We have had successful reports of connecting
  to Progress and DB2 via ODBC. We hope more people 
  will contribute drivers to support other databases.</p>
<p>PHP4 supports session variables. You can store your session information using 
  ADOdb for true portability and scalability. See adodb-session.php for more information.</p>
<p>Also read <a href="http://php.weblogs.com/portable_sql">http://php.weblogs.com/portable_sql</a> 
  (also available as tips_portable_sql.htm in the release) for tips on writing 
  portable SQL.</p>
<h2>Unique Features of ADOdb<a name="features"></a></h2>
<ul>
  <li><b>Easy for Windows programmers</b> to adapt to because many of the conventions 
	are similar to Microsoft's ADO.</li>
  <li>Unlike other PHP database classes which focus only on select statements, 
	<b>we provide support code to handle inserts and updates which can be adapted 
	to multiple databases quickly.</b> Methods are provided for date handling, 
	string concatenation and string quoting characters for differing databases.</li>
  <li>A<b> metatype system </b>is built in so that we can figure out that types 
	such as CHAR, TEXT and STRING are equivalent in different databases.</li>
  <li><b>Easy to port</b> because all the database dependant code are stored in 
	stub functions. You do not need to port the core logic of the classes.</li>
  <li><b>PHP4 session support</b>. See adodb-session.php.</li>
</ul>
<h2>How People are using ADOdb<a name="users"></a></h2>
Here are some examples of how people are using ADOdb (for a much longer list, 
visit <a href="http://php.weblogs.com/adodb-cool-applications">http://php.weblogs.com/adodb-cool-applications</a>): 
<ul>
<li><a href="http://phplens.com/">PhpLens</a> is a commercial data grid component that allows both cool Web designers and serious unshaved programmers to develop and maintain databases on the Web easily. Developed by the author of ADOdb.<p>

<li><a href="http://www.interakt.ro/phakt/">PHAkt: PHP Extension for DreamWeaver Ultradev</a> allows you to script PHP in the popular Web page editor. Database handling provided by ADOdb.<p>

<li><a href="http://www.andrew.cmu.edu/~rdanyliw/snort/snortacid.html">Analysis Console for Intrusion Databases</a> (ACID): PHP-based analysis engine to search and process a database of security incidents generated by security-related software such as IDSes and firewalls (e.g. Snort, ipchains). By Roman Danyliw.<p>

<li><a href="http://www.postnuke.com/">PostNuke</a> is a very popular free content management
 system and weblog system. It offers full CSS support, HTML 4.01 transitional compliance throughout, an advanced blocks system, and is fully multi-lingual enabled. <p>

<li><a href=http://www.auto-net.no/easypublish.php?page=index&lang_id=2>EasyPublish CMS</a>  is another free content management system for managing information and integrated modules on your internet, intranet- and extranet-sites. From Norway.<p>

<li><a href="http://nola.noguska.com/">NOLA</a> is a full featured accounting, inventory, and job tracking application. It is licensed under the GPL, and developed by Noguska.
</ul><p>

<h2>Feature Requests and Bug Reports<a name="bugs"></a></h2>
<p>Feature requests and bug reports can be emailed to <a href="mailto:jlim#natsoft.com.my">jlim#natsoft.com.my</a> 
  or posted to the ADOdb Help forums at <a href="http://phplens.com/lens/lensforum/topics.php?id=4">http://phplens.com/lens/lensforum/topics.php?id=4</a>.</p>
<h2>Installation Guide<a name="install"></a></h2>
<p>Make sure you are running PHP 4.0.4 or later. 
  Unpack all the files into a directory accessible by your webserver.</p>
<p>To test, try modifying some of the tutorial examples. Make sure you customize 
  the connection settings correctly. You can debug using:</p>
<pre>&lt;?php
	include('adodb/adodb.inc.php');
	$db = <a href="#adonewconnection">ADONewConnection</a>($dbdriver); # eg 'mysql' or 'postgres'
	$db->debug = true;
	$db-><a href="#connect">Connect</a>($server, $user, $password, $database);
	$rs = $db-><a href="#execute">Execute</a>('select * from some_small_table');
	print &quot;&lt;pre&gt;&quot;;
	print_r($rs-><a href="#getrows">GetRows</a>());
	print &quot;&lt;/pre&gt;&quot;;
?&gt;</pre>
<h3>Code Initialization<a name="coding"></a></h3>
<p>When running ADOdb, at least two files are loaded. First is adodb/adodb.inc.php, 
 which contains all functions used by all database classes. The code specific 
 to a particular database is in the adodb/driver/adodb-????.inc.php file.</p>
<p>For example, to connect to a mysql database:</p>
<pre>
include('/path/to/set/here/adodb.inc.php');
$conn = &amp;ADONewConnection('mysql');
</pre>
<p>Whenever you need to connect to a database, you create a Connection object 
  using the <a name="adonewconnection">ADONewConnection</a>($driver) function. 
  NewADOConnection($driver) is an alternative name for the same function.</p>
<p>At this point, you are not connected to the database. 
You will use <code>$conn-><a href=#connect>Connect()</a></code> or 
<code>$conn-><a href=#pconnect>PConnect()</a></code> to perform the actual connection.</p>
<p>See the examples below in the Tutorial.</p>
 
<h3><a name="drivers"></a>Databases Supported</h3>
<table width="100%" border="1">
  <tr valign="top"> 
	<td><b>Name</b></td>
	<td><b>Tested</b></td>
	<td><b>Database</b></td>
	<td><b><font size="2">RecordCount() usable</font></b></td>
	<td><b>Prerequisites</b></td>
	<td><b>Operating Systems</b></td>
  </tr>
  <tr valign="top"> 
	<td><b><font size="2">access</font></b></td>
	<td><font size="2">B</font></td>
	<td><font size="2">Microsoft Access/Jet. You need to create an ODBC DSN.</font></td>
	<td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
	<td><font size="2">ODBC </font></td>
	<td><font size="2">Windows only</font></td>
  </tr>
  <tr valign="top"> 
	<td><b><font size="2">ado</font></b></td>
	<td><font size="2">B</font></td>
	<td><p><font size="2">Generic ADO, not tuned for specific databases. Allows 
				DSN-less connections. For best performance, use an OLEDB provider. 
				This is the base class for all ado drivers.</font></p>
			<p><font size="2">You can set $db-&gt;codePage before connecting.</font></p></td>
	<td><font size="2">? depends on database</font></td>
	<td><font size="2">ADO or OLEDB provider</font></td>
	<td><font size="2">Windows only</font></td>
  </tr>
  <tr valign="top"> 
	<td><b><font size="2">ado_access</font></b></td>
	<td><font size="2">B</font></td>
	<td><font size="2">Microsoft Access/Jet using ADO. Allows DSN-less connections. 
	  For best performance, use an OLEDB provider.</font></td>
	<td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
	<td><font size="2">ADO or OLEDB provider</font></td>
	<td><font size="2">Windows only</font></td>
  </tr>
  <tr valign="top"> 
	<td><b><font size="2">ado_mssql</font></b></td>
	<td><font size="2">B</font></td>
	<td><font size="2">Microsoft SQL Server using ADO. Allows DSN-less connections. 
	  For best performance, use an OLEDB provider.</font></td>
	<td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
	<td><font size="2">ADO or OLEDB provider</font></td>
	<td><font size="2">Windows only</font></td>
  </tr>
  <tr valign="top"> 
	<td height="54"><b><font size="2">db2</font></b></td>
	<td height="54"><font size="2">A</font></td>
	<td height="54"><font size="2">DB2. Should work reliably as based on ODBC 
	  driver.</font></td>
	<td height="54"><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
	<td height="54"><font size="2">DB2 CLI/ODBC interface</font></td>
	<td height="54"> 
	  <p><font size="2">Unix and Windows. <a href="http://www.faqts.com/knowledge_base/view.phtml/aid/6283/fid/14">Unix 
		install hints</a>.</font></p>
	</td>
  </tr>
  <tr valign="top"> 
	<td><b><font size="2">vfp</font></b></td>
	<td><font size="2">A</font></td>
	<td><font size="2">Microsoft Visual FoxPro. You need to create an ODBC DSN.</font></td>
	<td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
	<td><font size="2">ODBC</font></td>
	<td><font size="2">Windows only</font></td>
  </tr>
  <tr valign="top"> 
	<td><b><font size="2">fbsql</font></b></td>
	<td><font size="2">C</font></td>
	<td><font size="2">FrontBase. </font></td>
	<td><font size="2">Y</font></td>
	<td><font size="2">?</font></td>
	<td> 
	  <p><font size="2">Unix and Windows</font></p>
	</td>
  </tr>
  <tr valign="top"> 
	<td><b><font size="2">ibase</font></b></td>
	<td><font size="2">B</font></td>
	    <td><font size="2">Interbase 6 or earlier. Some users report you might need 
			to use this<br>
			$db->PConnect('localhost:c:/ibase/employee.gdb', "sysdba", "masterkey") 
			to connect. Lacks Affected_Rows currently.<br>
			<br>
			You can set $db->dialect, $db-&gt;buffers and $db->charSet before 
			connecting.</font></td>
	<td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
	<td><font size="2">Interbase client</font></td>
	<td><font size="2">Unix and Windows</font></td>
  </tr>
  <tr valign="top"> 
	<td><b><i><font size="2">firebird</font></i></b></td>
	<td><font size="2">C</font></td>
	<td><font size="2">Firebird version of interbase.</font></td>
	<td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
	<td><font size="2">Interbase client</font></td>
	<td><font size="2">Unix and Windows</font></td>
  </tr>
  <tr valign="top"> 
	<td><b><i><font size="2">borland_ibase</font></i></b></td>
	<td><font size="2">C</font></td>
	<td><font size="2">Borland version of Interbase 6.5 or later. Very sad that 
	  the forks differ.</font></td>
	<td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
	<td><font size="2">Interbase client</font></td>
	<td><font size="2">Unix and Windows</font></td>
  </tr>
  <tr valign="top"> 
	<td><b><font size="2">informix72</font></b></td>
	<td><font size="2">C</font></td>
	<td><font size="2"> Informix databases before Informix 7.3 that do no support 
	  SELECT FIRST.</font></td>
	<td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
	<td><font size="2">Informix client</font></td>
	<td><font size="2">Unix and Windows</font></td>
  </tr>
  <tr valign="top"> 
	<td><b><font size="2">informix</font></b></td>
	<td><font size="2">C</font></td>
	<td><font size="2">Generic informix driver.</font></td>
	<td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
	<td><font size="2">Informix client</font></td>
	<td><font size="2">Unix and Windows</font></td>
  </tr>
  <tr valign="top"> 
	<td height="73"><b><font size="2">mssql</font></b></td>
	<td height="73"><font size="2">A</font></td>
	<td height="73"> 
	  <p><font size="2">Microsoft SQL Server 7 and later. Works with Microsoft SQL Server 
		2000 also. Note that date formating is problematic with this driver. For 
		example, the PHP mssql extension does not return the seconds for datetime!</font></p>
	</td>
	<td height="73"><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
	<td height="73"><font size="2">Mssql client</font></td>
	<td height="73"> 
	  <p><font size="2">Unix and Windows. <br>
	  <a href="http://phpbuilder.com/columns/alberto20000919.php3">Unix install howto</a> and
	  <a href=http://linuxjournal.com/article.php?sid=6636&mode=thread&order=0>another one</a>.
	  </font></p>
	</td>
  </tr>
	<tr valign="top"> 
	<td height="73"><b><font size="2">mssqlpo</font></b></td>
	<td height="73"><font size="2">A</font></td>
	<td height="73"> 
	  <p><font size="2">Portable mssql driver. Identical to above mssql driver, 
		except that '||', the concatenation operator, is converted to '+'. Useful 
		for porting scripts from most other sql variants that use ||.</font></p>
	</td>
	<td height="73"><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
	<td height="73"><font size="2">Mssql client</font></td>
	<td height="73"> 
	  <p><font size="2">Unix and Windows. <a href="http://phpbuilder.com/columns/alberto20000919.php3"><br>
		Unix install howto</a>.</font></p>
	</td>
  </tr>
  <tr valign="top"> 
	<td><b><font size="2">mysql</font></b></td>
	<td><font size="2">A</font></td>
	    <td><font size="2">MySQL without transaction support. You can also set 
			$db-&gt;clientFlags before connecting.</font></td>
	<td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
	<td><font size="2">MySQL client</font></td>
	<td><font size="2">Unix and Windows</font></td>
  </tr>
  <tr valign="top"> 
	<td><font size="2"><b>mysqlt</b> or <b>maxsql</b></font></td>
	<td><font size="2">A</font></td>
	<td> 
	  <p><font size="2">MySQL with transaction support. We recommend using || 
		as the concat operator for best portability. This can be done by running 
		MySQL using: <br>
		<i>mysqld --ansi</i> or <i>mysqld --sql-mode=PIPES_AS_CONCAT</i></font></p>
	  </td>
	<td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
	<td><font size="2">MySQL client</font></td>
	<td><font size="2">Unix and Windows</font></td>
  </tr>
  <tr valign="top"> 
	<td><b><font size="2">oci8</font></b></td>
	<td><font size="2">A</font></td>
	    <td><font size="2">Oracle 8/9. Has more functionality than <i>oracle</i> driver 
			(eg. Affected_Rows). You might have to putenv('ORACLE_HOME=...') before 
			Connect/PConnect. </font> 
			<p><font size="2"> There are 2 ways of connecting - with server IP 
				and service name: <br>
				<i>PConnect('serverip:1521','scott','tiger','service'</i>)<br>
				or using an entry in TNSNAMES.ORA or ONAMES or HOSTNAMES: <br>
				<i>PConnect(false, 'scott', 'tiger', $oraname)</i>. </font>
			<p><font size="2">Since 2.31, we support Oracle REF cursor variables directly 
				(see <a href="#executecursor">ExecuteCursor</a>).</font>
			</td>
	<td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
	<td><font size="2">Oracle client</font></td>
	<td><font size="2">Unix and Windows</font></td>
  </tr>
  <tr valign="top"> 
	<td><b><font size="2">oci805</font></b></td>
	<td><font size="2">C</font></td>
	<td><font size="2">Supports reduced Oracle functionality for Oracle 8.0.5. 
	  SelectLimit is not as efficient as in the oci8 or oci8po drivers.</font></td>
	<td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
	<td><font size="2">Oracle client</font></td>
	<td><font size="2">Unix and Windows</font></td>
  </tr>
  <tr valign="top"> 
	<td><b><font size="2">oci8po</font></b></td>
	<td><font size="2">A</font></td>
	<td><font size="2">Oracle 8/9 portable driver. This is nearly identical with 
	  the oci8 driver except (a) bind variables in Prepare() use the ? convention, 
	  instead of :bindvar, (b) field names use the more common PHP convention 
	  of lowercase names. </font> 
	  <p><font size="2">Use this driver if porting from other databases is important. 
		Otherwise the oci8 driver offers better performance. </font> 
	</td>
	<td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
	<td><font size="2">Oracle client</font></td>
	<td><font size="2">Unix and Windows</font></td>
  </tr>
  <tr valign="top"> 
	<td><b><font size="2">odbc</font></b></td>
	<td><font size="2">A</font></td>
	<td><font size="2">Generic ODBC, not tuned for specific databases. To connect, 
	  use <br>
			PConnect('DSN','user','pwd'). This is the base class for all odbc 
			derived drivers.</font></td>
	    <td><font size="2">? depends on database</font></td>
	<td><font size="2">ODBC</font></td>
	<td><font size="2">Unix and Windows. <a href="http://phpbuilder.com/columns/alberto20000919.php3?page=4">Unix 
	  hints.</a></font></td>
  </tr>
  <tr valign="top"> 
	<td><b><font size="2">odbc_mssql</font></b></td>
	<td><font size="2">C</font></td>
	<td><font size="2">Uses ODBC to connect to MSSQL</font></td>
	<td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
	<td><font size="2">ODBC</font></td>
	<td><font size="2">Unix and Windows. </font></td>
  </tr>
  <tr valign="top"> 
	<td><b><font size="2">odbc_oracle</font></b></td>
	<td><font size="2">C</font></td>
	<td><font size="2">Uses ODBC to connect to Oracle</font></td>
	<td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
	<td><font size="2">ODBC</font></td>
	<td><font size="2">Unix and Windows. </font></td>
  </tr>
  <tr valign="top"> 
	<td height="34"><b><font size="2">oracle</font></b></td>
	<td height="34"><font size="2">C</font></td>
	<td height="34"><font size="2">Implements old Oracle 7 client API. Use oci8 
	  driver if possible for better performance.</font></td>
	<td height="34"><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
	<td height="34"><font size="2">Oracle client</font></td>
	<td height="34"><font size="2">Unix and Windows</font></td>
  </tr>
  <tr valign="top"> 
	<td><b><font size="2">postgres</font></b></td>
	<td><font size="2">A</font></td>
	<td><font size="2">Generic PostgreSQL driver. Currently identical to postgres7 
	  driver. </font></td>
	<td><font size="2">Y</font></td>
	<td><font size="2">PostgreSQL client</font></td>
	<td><font size="2">Unix and Windows. </font></td>
  </tr>
  <tr valign="top"> 
	<td><b><font size="2">postgres64</font></b></td>
	<td><font size="2">A</font></td>
	<td><font size="2">For PostgreSQL 6.4 and earlier which does not support LIMIT 
	  internally.</font></td>
	<td><font size="2">Y</font></td>
	<td><font size="2">PostgreSQL client</font></td>
	<td><font size="2">Unix and Windows. </font></td>
  </tr>
  <tr valign="top"> 
	<td><b><font size="2">postgres7</font></b></td>
	<td><font size="2">A</font></td>
	<td><font size="2">PostgreSQL which supports LIMIT and other version 7 functionality.</font></td>
	<td><font size="2">Y</font></td>
	<td><font size="2">PostgreSQL client</font></td>
	<td><font size="2">Unix and Windows. </font></td>
  </tr>
  <tr valign="top"> 
	<td><b><font size="2">sqlanywhere</font></b></td>
	<td><font size="2">C</font></td>
	<td><font size="2">Sybase SQL Anywhere. Should work reliably as based on ODBC 
	  driver.</font></td>
	<td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
	<td><font size="2">SQL Anywhere ODBC client</font></td>
	<td> 
	  <p><font size="2">?</font></p>
	</td>
  </tr>
  <tr valign="top"> 
	<td><b><font size="2">sybase</font></b></td>
	<td><font size="2">C</font></td>
	<td><font size="2">Sybase. </font></td>
	<td><font size="2">Y/N</font></td>
	<td><font size="2">Sybase client</font></td>
	<td> 
	  <p><font size="2">Unix and Windows.</font></p>
	</td>
  </tr>
  <p> 
</table>
<h3></h3>
<p>The &quot;Tested&quot; column indicates how extensively the code has been tested 
  and used. <br>
  A = well tested and used by many people<br>
  B = tested and usable, but some features might not be implemented<br>
  C = user contributed or experimental driver. Might not fully support all of 
  the latest features of ADOdb. </p>
<p>The column &quot;RecordCount() usable&quot; indicates whether RecordCount() 
	return the number of rows, or returns -1 when a SELECT statement is executed. 
	If this column displays Y/N then the RecordCount() is emulated when the global 
	variable $ADODB_COUNTRECS=true (this is the default). Note that for large 
	recordsets, it might be better to disable RecordCount() emulation because 
	substantial amounts of memory are required to cache the recordset for counting. Also
	there is a speed penalty of 40-50% if emulation is required. This is emulated in
	most databases except for PostgreSQL and MySQL.
	This variable is checked every time a query is executed, so you can selectively 
	choose which recordsets to count.</p>
<p>

<hr>
<h1>Tutorial<a name="quickstart"></a></h1>
<h3>Example 1: Select Statement<a name="ex1"></a></h3>
<p>Task: Connect to the Access Northwind DSN, display the first 2 columns 
  of each row.</p>
<p>In this example, we create a ADOConnection object, which represents the connection 
 to the database. The connection is initiated with <a href="#pconnect"><font face="Courier New, Courier, mono">PConnect</font></a>, 
 which is a persistent connection. Whenever we want to query the database, we 
 call the <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono">ADOConnection.<a href="#execute">Execute</a>()</font> 
 function. This returns an ADORecordSet object which is actually a cursor that 
 holds the current row in the array <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono">fields[]</font>. 
 We use <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"><a href="#movenext">MoveNext</a>()</font> 
 to move from row to row.</p>
<p>NB: A useful function that is not used in this example is 
<font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"><a href="#selectlimit">SelectLimit</a></font>, which
allows us to limit the number of rows shown.
<pre>
&lt;?
<font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"><b>include</b>('adodb.inc.php');	   # load code common to ADOdb
$<font color="#660000">conn</font> = &amp;ADONewConnection('access');	# create a connection
$<font color="#660000">conn</font>->PConnect('northwind');   # connect to MS-Access, northwind DSN
$<font color="#660000">recordSet</font> = &amp;$<font color="#660000">conn</font>->Execute('select * from products');
if (!$<font color="#660000">recordSet</font>) 
	print $<font color="#660000">conn</font>-&gt;ErrorMsg();
else
<b>while</b> (!$<font color="#660000">recordSet</font>-&gt;EOF) &#123;
	<b>print</b> $<font color="#660000">recordSet</font>->fields[0].' '.$<font color="#660000">recordSet</font>->fields[1].'&lt;BR&gt;';
	$<font color="#660000">recordSet</font>-&gt;MoveNext();
&#125;</font><font face="Courier New, Courier, mono">

$<font color="#660000">recordSet</font>->Close(); # optional
$<font color="#660000">conn</font>->Close(); # optional
</font>
?>
</pre>
<p>The $<font face="Courier New, Courier, mono">recordSet</font> returned stores 
  the current row in the <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono">$recordSet-&gt;fields</font> 
  array, indexed by column number (starting from zero). We use the <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"><a href="#movenext">MoveNext</a>()</font> 
  function to move to the next row. The <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono">EOF</font> 
  property is set to true when end-of-file is reached. If an error occurs in Execute(), 
  we return false instead of a recordset.</p>
<p>The <code>$recordSet-&gt;fields[]</code> array is generated by the PHP database 
	extension. Some database extensions only index by number and do not index 
	the array by field name. To force indexing by name - that is associative arrays 
	- use the SetFetchMode function. Each recordset saves and uses whatever fetch 
	mode was set when the recordset was created in Execute() or SelectLimit(). 
<pre>
	$db->SetFetchMode(ADODB_FETCH_NUM);
	$rs1 = $db->Execute('select * from table');
	$db->SetFetchMode(ADODB_FETCH_ASSOC);
	$rs2 = $db->Execute('select * from table');
	print_r($rs1->fields); # shows <i>array([0]=>'v0',[1] =>'v1')</i>
	print_r($rs2->fields); # shows <i>array(['col1']=>'v0',['col2'] =>'v1')</i>
</pre>
<p>
 </p>
<p>To get the number of rows in the select statement, you can use <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono">$recordSet-&gt;<a href="#recordcount">RecordCount</a>()</font>. 
	Note that it can return -1 if the number of rows returned cannot be determined.</p>
<h3>Example 2: Advanced Select with Field Objects<a name="ex2"></a></h3>
<p>Select a table, display the first two columns. If the second column is a date or timestamp, reformat the date to US format.</p>
<pre>
&lt;?
<font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"><b>include</b>('adodb.inc.php');	   # load code common to ADOdb
$<font color="#660000">conn</font> = &amp;ADONewConnection('access');	# create a connection
$<font color="#660000">conn</font>->PConnect('northwind');   # connect to MS-Access, northwind dsn
$<font color="#660000">recordSet</font> = &amp;$<font color="#660000">conn</font>->Execute('select CustomerID,OrderDate from Orders');
if (!$<font color="#660000">recordSet</font>) 
	print $<font color="#660000">conn</font>-&gt;ErrorMsg();
else
<b>while</b> (!$<font color="#660000">recordSet</font>-&gt;EOF) &#123;
	$<font color="#660000">fld</font> = <font color="#336600"><b>$</b><font color="#660000">recordSet</font><b>-&gt;FetchField</b></font><font color="#006600">(</font>1<font color="#006600">);</font>
	$<font color="#660000">type</font> = <font color="#336600"><b>$</b><font color="#660000">recordSet</font><b>-&gt;MetaType</b></font>($fld-&gt;type);

	<b>if</b> ( $<font color="#660000">type</font> == 'D' || $<font color="#660000">type</font> == 'T') 
		<b>print</b> $<font color="#660000">recordSet</font>-&gt;fields[0].' '.
			<b><font color="#336600">$</font></b><font color="#660000">recordSet</font><b><font color="#336600">-&gt;UserDate</font></b>($<font color="#660000">recordSet</font>-&gt;fields[1],'<b>m/d/Y</b>').'&lt;BR&gt;';
	<b>else </b>
		<b>print</b> $<font color="#660000">recordSet</font>->fields[0].' '.$<font color="#660000">recordSet</font>->fields[1].'&lt;BR&gt;';

	$<font color="#660000">recordSet</font>-&gt;MoveNext();
&#125;</font><font face="Courier New, Courier, mono">
$<font color="#660000">recordSet</font>->Close(); # optional
$<font color="#660000">conn</font>->Close(); # optional
</font>
?>
</pre>
<p>In this example, we check the field type of the second column using <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"><a href="#fetchfield">FetchField</a>().</font> 
 This returns an object with at least 3 fields.</p>
<ul>
 <li><b>name</b>: name of column</li>
 <li> <b>type</b>: native field type of column</li>
 <li> <b>max_length</b>: maximum length of field. Some databases such as MySQL 
  do not return the maximum length of the field correctly. In these cases max_length 
  will be set to -1.</li>
</ul>
<p>We then use <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"><a href="#metatype">MetaType</a>()</font> 
 to translate the native type to a <i>generic</i> type. Currently the following 
 <i>generic</i> types are defined:</p>
<ul>
  <li><b>C</b>: character fields that should be shown in a &lt;input type=&quot;text&quot;&gt; 
	tag.</li>
  <li><b>X</b>: TeXt, large text fields that should be shown in a &lt;textarea&gt;</li>
  <li><b>B</b>: Blobs, or Binary Large Objects. Typically images. 
  <li><b>D</b>: Date field</li>
  <li><b>T</b>: Timestamp field</li>
  <li><b>L</b>: Logical field (boolean or bit-field)</li>
  <li><b>I</b>:&nbsp; Integer field</li>
  <li><b>N</b>: Numeric field. Includes autoincrement, numeric, floating point, 
	real and integer. </li>
  <li><b>R</b>: Serial field. Includes serial, autoincrement integers. This works 
	for selected databases. </li>
</ul>
<p>If the metatype is of type date or timestamp, then we print it using the user 
 defined date format with <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"><a href="#userdate">UserDate</a>(),</font> 
 which converts the PHP SQL date string format to a user defined one. Another 
 use for <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"><a href="#metatype">MetaType</a>()</font> 
 is data validation before doing an SQL insert or update.</p>
<h3>Example 3: Inserting<a name="ex3"></a></h3>
<p>Insert a row to the Orders table containing dates and strings that need to be quoted before they can be accepted by the database, eg: the single-quote in the word <i>John's</i>.</p>
<pre>
&lt;?
<b>include</b>('adodb.inc.php');	   # load code common to ADOdb
$<font color="#660000">conn</font> = &amp;ADONewConnection('access');	# create a connection

$<font color="#660000">conn</font>->PConnect('northwind');   # connect to MS-Access, northwind dsn
$<font color="#660000">shipto</font> = <font color="#006600"><b>$conn-&gt;qstr</b></font>(&quot;<i>John's Old Shoppe</i>&quot;);

$<font color="#660000">sql</font> = &quot;insert into orders (customerID,EmployeeID,OrderDate,ShipName) &quot;;
$<font color="#660000">sql</font> .= &quot;values ('ANATR',2,&quot;.<b><font color="#006600">$conn-&gt;DBDate(</font>time()<font color="#006600">)</font></b><font color="#006600">.</font>&quot;,$<font color="#660000">shipto</font>)&quot;;

<b>if</b> ($<font color="#660000">conn</font>->Execute($<font color="#660000">sql</font>) <font color="#336600"><b>=== false</b></font>) &#123;
	<b>print</b> 'error inserting: '.<font color="#336600"><b>$conn-&gt;ErrorMsg()</b></font>.'&lt;BR&gt;';
&#125;
?>
</pre>
<p>In this example, we see the advanced date and quote handling facilities of 
  ADOdb. The unix timestamp (which is a long integer) is appropriately formated 
  for Access with <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"><a href="#dbdate">DBDate</a>()</font>, 
  and the right escape character is used for quoting the <i>John's Old Shoppe</i>, 
  which is<b> </b><i>John'<b>'</b>s Old Shoppe</i> and not PHP's default <i>John<b>'</b>s 
  Old Shoppe</i> with <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"><a href="#qstr">qstr</a>()</font>. 
</p>
<p>Observe the error-handling of the Execute statement. False is returned by<font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"> 
 <a href="#execute">Execute</a>() </font>if an error occured. The error message 
 for the last error that occurred is displayed in <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"><a href="#errormsg">ErrorMsg</a>()</font>. 
 Note: <i>php_track_errors</i> might have to be enabled for error messages to 
 be saved.</p>
<h3> Example 4: Debugging<a name="ex4"></a></h3>
<pre>&lt;?
<b>include</b>('adodb.inc.php');	   # load code common to ADOdb
$<font color="#663300">conn</font> = &amp;ADONewConnection('access');	# create a connection
$<font color="#663300">conn</font>->PConnect('northwind');   # connect to MS-Access, northwind dsn
<font color="#000000">$<font color="#663300">shipto</font> = <b>$conn-&gt;qstr</b>(&quot;John's Old Shoppe&quot;);
$<font color="#663300">sql</font> = &quot;insert into orders (customerID,EmployeeID,OrderDate,ShipName) &quot;;
$<font color="#663300">sql</font> .= &quot;values ('ANATR',2,&quot;.$<font color="#663300">conn</font>-&gt;FormatDate(time()).&quot;,$shipto)&quot;;
<b><font color="#336600">$<font color="#663300">conn</font>-&gt;debug = true;</font></b>
<b>if</b> ($<font color="#663300">conn</font>->Execute($sql) <b>=== false</b>) <b>print</b> 'error inserting';</font>
?&gt;
</pre>
<p>In the above example, we have turned on debugging by setting <b>debug = true</b>. 
 This will display the SQL statement before execution, and also show any error 
 messages. There is no need to call <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"><a href="#errormsg">ErrorMsg</a>()</font> 
 in this case. For displaying the recordset, see the <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"><a href="#exrs2html">rs2html</a>() 
 </font>example.</p>
 <p>Also see the section on <a href=#errorhandling>Custom Error Handlers</a>.</p>
<h3>Example 5: MySQL and Menus<a name="ex5"></a></h3>
<p>Connect to MySQL database <i>agora</i>, and generate a &lt;select&gt; menu 
 from an SQL statement where the &lt;option&gt; captions are in the 1st column, 
 and the value to send back to the server is in the 2nd column.</p>
<pre>&lt;?
<b>include</b>('adodb.inc.php'); # load code common to ADOdb
$<font color="#663300">conn</font> = &amp;ADONewConnection('mysql');  # create a connection
$<font color="#663300">conn</font>->PConnect('localhost','userid','','agora');# connect to MySQL, agora db
<font color="#000000">$<font color="#663300">sql</font> = 'select CustomerName, CustomerID from customers';
$<font color="#663300">rs</font> = $<font color="#663300">conn</font>->Execute($sql);
<b>print</b> <b><font color="#336600">$<font color="#663300">rs</font>-&gt;GetMenu('GetCust','Mary Rosli');
?&gt;</font></b></font></pre>
<p>Here we define a menu named GetCust, with the menu option 'Mary Rosli' selected. 
	See <a href="#getmenu"><font face="Courier New, Courier, mono">GetMenu</font></a><font face="Courier New, Courier, mono">()</font>. 
	We also have functions that return the recordset as an array: <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"><a href="#getarray">GetArray</a>()</font>, 
	and as an associative array with the key being the first column: <a href="#getassoc">GetAssoc</a>().</p>
<h3>Example 6: Connecting to 2 Databases At Once<a name="ex6"></a></h3>
<pre>&lt;?
<b>include</b>('adodb.inc.php');	 # load code common to ADOdb
$<font color="#663300">conn1</font> = &amp;ADONewConnection('mysql');  # create a mysql connection
$<font color="#663300">conn2</font> = &amp;ADONewConnection('oracle');  # create a oracle connection

$conn1-&gt;PConnect($server, $userid, $password, $database);
$conn2-&gt;PConnect(false, $ora_userid, $ora_pwd, $oraname);

$conn1-&gt;Execute('insert ...');
$conn2-&gt;Execute('update ...');
?&gt;</pre>
<p>

<h3>Example 7: Generating Update and Insert SQL<a name="ex7"></a></h3>
ADOdb 1.31 and later supports two new recordset functions: GetUpdateSQL( ) and 
GetInsertSQL( ). This allow you to perform a "SELECT * FROM table query WHERE...",
make a copy of the $rs->fields, modify the fields, and then generate the SQL to
update or insert into the table automatically.
<p>
We show how the functions can be used when
accessing a table with the following fields: (ID, FirstName, LastName, Created).
<p>
Before these functions can be called, you need to initialize the recordset by
performing a select on the table. Idea and code by Jonathan Younger jyounger#unilab.com.
<p>
<pre>&lt;?
#==============================================
# SAMPLE GetUpdateSQL() and GetInsertSQL() code
#==============================================
include('adodb.inc.php');
include('tohtml.inc.php');

#==========================
# This code tests an insert

$sql = "SELECT * FROM ADOXYZ WHERE id = -1"; 
# Select an empty record from the database

$conn = &ADONewConnection("mysql");  # create a connection
$conn->debug=1;
$conn->PConnect("localhost", "admin", "", "test"); # connect to MySQL, testdb
$rs = $conn->Execute($sql); # Execute the query and get the empty recordset

$record = array(); # Initialize an array to hold the record data to insert

# Set the values for the fields in the record
# Note that field names are case-insensitive
$record["firstname"] = "Bob";
$record["lastNamE"] = "Smith";
$record["creaTed"] = time();

# Pass the empty recordset and the array containing the data to insert
# into the GetInsertSQL function. The function will process the data and return
# a fully formatted insert sql statement.
$insertSQL = $conn->GetInsertSQL($rs, $record);

$conn->Execute($insertSQL); # Insert the record into the database

#==========================
# This code tests an update

$sql = "SELECT * FROM ADOXYZ WHERE id = 1"; 
# Select a record to update

$rs = $conn->Execute($sql); # Execute the query and get the existing record to update

$record = array(); # Initialize an array to hold the record data to update

# Set the values for the fields in the record
# Note that field names are case-insensitive
$record["firstname"] = "Caroline";
$record["LasTnAme"] = "Smith"; # Update Caroline's lastname from Miranda to Smith

# Pass the single record recordset and the array containing the data to update
# into the GetUpdateSQL function. The function will process the data and return
# a fully formatted update sql statement with the correct WHERE clause.
# If the data has not changed, no recordset is returned
$updateSQL = $conn->GetUpdateSQL($rs, $record);

$conn->Execute($updateSQL); # Update the record in the database
$conn->Close();
?>
</pre>
<h3>Example 8: Implementing Scrolling with Next and Previous<a name="ex8"></a></h3>
<p> The following code creates a very simple recordset pager, where you can scroll 
  from page to page of a recordset.</p>
  
<pre>
include_once('../adodb.inc.php');
include_once('../adodb-pager.inc.php');
session_start();

$db = NewADOConnection('mysql');

$db->Connect('localhost','root','','xphplens');

$sql = "select * from adoxyz ";

$pager = new ADODB_Pager($db,$sql);
$pager->Render($rows_per_page=5);</pre>
<p>This will create a basic record pager that looks like this: <a name="scr"></a>
<p>
<table border=1 bgcolor=beige><tr>
	<td> <a href="#scr"><code>|&lt;</code></a> &nbsp; <a href="#scr"><code>&lt;&lt;</code></a> 
	  &nbsp; <a href="#scr"><code>>></code></a> &nbsp; <a href="#scr"><code>>|</code></a> 
	  &nbsp; </td>
  </tr><tr><td><TABLE COLS=4 width=100% border=1 bgcolor=white>

<TH>ID</TH><TH>First Name</TH><TH>Last Name</TH><TH>Date Created</TH>

<TR>
	<TD align=right>36&nbsp;</TD>
	<TD>Alan&nbsp;</TD>
	<TD>Turing&nbsp;</TD>
	<TD>Sat 06, Oct 2001&nbsp;</TD>
</TR>

<TR>
	<TD align=right>37&nbsp;</TD>
	<TD>Serena&nbsp;</TD>
	<TD>Williams&nbsp;</TD>
	<TD>Sat 06, Oct 2001&nbsp;</TD>
</TR>

<TR>
	<TD align=right>38&nbsp;</TD>
	<TD>Yat Sun&nbsp;</TD>
	<TD>Sun&nbsp;</TD>
	<TD>Sat 06, Oct 2001&nbsp;</TD>
</TR>

<TR>
	<TD align=right>39&nbsp;</TD>
	<TD>Wai Hun&nbsp;</TD>
	<TD>See&nbsp;</TD>
	<TD>Sat 06, Oct 2001&nbsp;</TD>
</TR>

<TR>
	<TD align=right>40&nbsp;</TD>
	<TD>Steven&nbsp;</TD>
	<TD>Oey&nbsp;</TD>
	<TD>Sat 06, Oct 2001&nbsp;</TD>
</TR>

</TABLE>

</td></tr><tr><td><font size=-1>Page 8/10</font></td></tr></table>
<p>The number of rows to display at one time is controled by the Render($rows) 
  method. If you do not pass any value to Render(), ADODB_Pager will default to 
  10 records per page. 
<p>You can control the column titles by modifying your SQL (supported by most 
  databases):
<pre>$sql = 'select id as &quot;ID&quot;, firstname as &quot;First Name&quot;, 
		  lastname as &quot;Last Name&quot;, created as &quot;Date Created&quot; <br>		from adoxyz';</pre>
<p>The above code can be found in the <i>adodb/tests/testpaging.php</i> example 
  included with this release, and the class ADODB_Pager in <i>adodb/adodb-pager.inc.php</i>. 
  The ADODB_Pager code can be adapted by a programmer so that the text links can 
  be replaced by images, and the dull white background be replaced with more interesting 
  colors.
<p>You can also allow display of html by setting $pager->htmlSpecialChars = false.
<p>Some of the code used here was contributed by Iv&aacute;n Oliva and Cornel 
  G. </p>
<h3><a name="ex9"></a>Example 9: Exporting in CSV or Tab-Delimited Format</h3>
<p>We provide some helper functions to export in comma-separated-value (CSV) and 
  tab-delimited formats:</p>
<pre><b>include_once('/path/to/adodb/toexport.inc.php');</b><br>include_once('/path/to/adodb/adodb.inc.php');<br>
$db = &amp;NewADOConnection('mysql');<br>$db-&gt;Connect($server, $userid, $password, $database);<br><br>$rs = $db-&gt;Execute('select fname as &quot;First Name&quot;, surname as &quot;Surname&quot; from table');

print &quot;&lt;pre&gt;&quot;;<br>print <b>rs2csv</b>($rs); # return a string, CSV format<p>print '&lt;hr&gt;';
<br>$rs-&gt;MoveFirst(); # note, some databases do not support MoveFirst<br>print <b>rs2tab</b>($rs,<i>false</i>); # return a string, tab-delimited
						 # false == suppress field names in first line</p>print '&lt;hr&gt;';<br>$rs-&gt;MoveFirst();<br><b>rs2tabout</b>($rs); # send to stdout directly (there is also an rs2csvout function)
print &quot;&lt;/pre&gt;&quot;;

$rs-&gt;MoveFirst();<br><b></b>$fp = fopen($path, &quot;w&quot;);
if ($fp) {<br>  <b>rs2csvfile</b>($rs, $fp); # write to file (there is also an rs2tabfile function)
  fclose($fp);<br>}
</pre>
<p> Carriage-returns or newlines are converted to spaces. Field names are returned 
  in the first line of text. Strings containing the delimiter character are quoted 
  with double-quotes. Double-quotes are double-quoted again. This conforms to 
  Excel import and export guide-lines. 
<p>All the above functions take as an optional last parameter, $addtitles which 
  defaults to <i>true</i>. When set to <i>false</i> field names in the first line 
  are suppressed. <br>
<h3>Example 10: Recordset Filters<a name="ex10"></a></h3>
<p>Sometimes we want to pre-process all rows in a recordset before we use it. For example,
we want to ucwords all text in recordset.
<pre>
include_once('adodb/rsfilter.inc.php');
include_once('adodb/adodb.inc.php');

// ucwords() every element in the recordset
function do_ucwords(&$arr,$rs)
&#123;
	foreach($arr as $k => $v) &#123;
		$arr[$k] = ucwords($v);
	&#125;
&#125;

$db = NewADOConnection('mysql');
$db->PConnect('server','user','pwd','db');

$rs = $db->Execute('select ... from table');
$rs = <b>RSFilter</b>($rs,'do_ucwords');
</pre>
<p>The <i>RSFilter</i> function takes 2 parameters, the recordset, and the name 
	of the <i>filter</i> function. It returns the processed recordset scrolled 
	to the first record. The <i>filter</i> function takes two parameters, the 
	current row as an array, and the recordset object. For future compatibility, 
	you should not use the original recordset object. </p>
<h3>Example 11:<a name="ex11"></a> Smart Transactions</h3>
The old way of doing transactions required you to use 
<pre>
$conn-><b>BeginTrans</b>();
$ok = $conn->Execute($sql);
if ($ok) $ok = $conn->Execute($sql2);
if (!$ok) $conn-><b>RollbackTrans</b>();
else $conn-><b>CommitTrans</b>();
</pre>
This is very complicated for large projects because you have to track the error 
status. Smart Transactions is much simpler. You start a smart transaction by calling StartTrans(): 
<pre>
$conn-><b>StartTrans</b>();
$conn->Execute($sql);
$conn->Execute($Sql2);
$conn-><b>CompleteTrans</b>();
</pre>

CompleteTrans() detects when an SQL error occurs, and
will Rollback/Commit as appropriate.

To specificly force a rollback even if no error occured,
use FailTrans(). Note that the rollback is done in
CompleteTrans(), and not in FailTrans().
 
<pre>
$conn-><b>StartTrans</b>();
$conn->Execute($sql);
if (!CheckRecords()) $conn-><strong>FailTrans</strong>();
$conn->Execute($Sql2);
$conn-><b>CompleteTrans</b>();
</pre>
Lastly, StartTrans/CompleteTrans is nestable, and only the outermost block is 
executed. In contrast, BeginTrans/CommitTrans/RollbackTrans is NOT nestable. 
<pre>
$conn-><strong>StartTrans</strong>();
$conn->Execute($sql);
  $conn-><strong>StartTrans</strong>();    <font color="#006600"># ignored</font>
  if (!CheckRecords()) $conn->FailTrans();
  $conn-><strong>CompleteTrans</strong>(); <font color="#006600"># ignored</font>
$conn->Execute($Sql2);
$conn-><strong>CompleteTrans</strong>();
</pre>
<p>Note: Savepoints 
are currently not supported. 
<h2><a name="errorhandling"></a>Using Custom Error Handlers and PEAR_Error</h2>
Apart from the old $con->debug = true; way of debugging, ADOdb 1.50 onwards provides 
another way of handling errors using ADOdb's custom error handlers. 
<p>
ADOdb provides two custom handlers which you can modify for your needs.
The first one is in the <b>adodb-errorhandler.inc.php</b> file. This makes
use of the standard PHP functions <a href=http://php.net/error_reporting>error_reporting</a>
to control what error messages types to display,
and <a href=http://php.net/trigger_error>trigger_error</a> which invokes the default
PHP error handler.
<p>
Including the above file  will cause <i>trigger_error($errorstring,E_USER_ERROR)</i>
to be called when<br>
(a) Connect() or PConnect() fails, or  <br>
(b) a function that executes SQL statements such as Execute() or SelectLimit() has an error.<br>
(c) GenID() appears to go into an infinite loop.
 <p>
The $errorstring is generated by ADOdb and will contain useful debugging information similar
to the error.log data generated below. 
This file adodb-errorhandler.inc.php should be included before you create any ADOConnection objects. 
<p>
 If you define error_reporting(0), no errors will be shown. 
 If you set error_reporting(E_ALL), all errors will be displayed on the screen.
 <pre>
&lt;?php
<b>error_reporting(E_ALL); # show any error messages triggered
include('adodb-errorhandler.inc.php');</b>
include('adodb.inc.php');
include('tohtml.inc.php');
$c = NewADOConnection('mysql');
$c->PConnect('localhost','root','','northwind');
$rs=$c->Execute('select * from productsz'); #invalid table productsz');
if ($rs) $rs2html($rs);
?>
</pre>
 <p>
 If you want to log the error message, you can do so by defining the following optional
  constants ADODB_ERROR_LOG_TYPE and ADODB_ERROR_LOG_DEST. ADODB_ERROR_LOG_TYPE is 
  the error log message type (see <a href=http://php.net/error_log>error_log</a>
  in the PHP manual). In this case we set 
  it to 3, which means log to the file defined by the constant ADODB_ERROR_LOG_DEST.
 
<pre>
&lt;?php
<b>error_reporting(0); # do not echo any errors
define('ADODB_ERROR_LOG_TYPE',3);
define('ADODB_ERROR_LOG_DEST','C:/errors.log');
include('adodb-errorhandler.inc.php');</b>
include('adodb.inc.php');
include('tohtml.inc.php');

$c = NewADOConnection('mysql');
$c->PConnect('localhost','root','','northwind');
$rs=$c->Execute('select * from productsz'); ## invalid table productsz
if ($rs) $rs2html($rs);
?>
</pre>
The following message will be logged in the error.log file:
<pre>
(2001-10-28 14:20:38) mysql error: [1146: Table 'northwind.productsz' doesn't exist] in
 EXECUTE("select * from productsz")
</pre>
The second error handler is <b>adodb-errorpear.inc.php</b>. This will create a 
PEAR_Error derived object whenever an error occurs. The last PEAR_Error object 
created can be retrieved using ADODB_Pear_Error(). 
<pre>
&lt;?php
<b>include('adodb-errorpear.inc.php');</b>
include('adodb.inc.php');
include('tohtml.inc.php');
$c = NewADOConnection('mysql');
$c->PConnect('localhost','root','','northwind');
$rs=$c->Execute('select * from productsz'); #invalid table productsz');
if ($rs) $rs2html($rs);
else &#123;
	<b>$e = ADODB_Pear_Error();
	echo '&lt;p>',$e->message,'&lt;/p>';</b>
&#125;
?>
</pre>
<p>
You can use a PEAR_Error derived class by defining the constant ADODB_PEAR_ERROR_CLASS 
before the adodb-errorpear.inc.php file is included. For easy debugging, you can 
set the default error handler in the beginning of the PHP script to PEAR_ERROR_DIE, 
which will cause an error message to be printed, then halt script execution: 
<pre>
include('PEAR.php');
PEAR::setErrorHandling('PEAR_ERROR_DIE');
</pre>
<p> Note that we do not explicitly return a PEAR_Error object to you when an error 
	occurs. We return false instead. You have to call ADODB_Pear_Error() to get 
	the last error or use the PEAR_ERROR_DIE technique. 
<h4>Error Messages</h4>
<p>Error messages are outputted using the static method ADOConnnection::outp($msg,$newline=true). 
	By default, it sends the messages to the client. You can override this to 
	perform error-logging.
<h2><a name="dsn"></a> Data Source Names</h2>
<p>We now support connecting using PEAR style DSN's. A DSN is a connection string 
  of the form:</p>
<p>$dsn = <i>&quot;$driver://$username:$password@$hostname/$databasename&quot;</i>;</p>
<p>You pass the DSN to the static class function DB::Connect. An example:</p>
<pre>   include_once('../adodb/adodb-pear.inc.php');
   $username = 'root';
   $password = '';
   $hostname = 'localhost';
   $databasename = 'xphplens';
   $driver = 'mysql';
   $dsn = &quot;$driver://$username:$password@$hostname/$databasename&quot;;</pre>
<pre>   $db = DB::Connect($dsn);<br>   $rs = $db-&gt;Execute('select firstname,lastname from adoxyz');
   $cnt = 0;
   while ($arr = $rs-&gt;FetchRow()) {
		print_r($arr); print &quot;&lt;br&gt;&quot;;
   }</pre>
<p>This requires PEAR to be installed and in the default include path in php.ini.</p>
<h2><a name="caching"></a>Caching of Recordsets</h2>
<p>ADOdb now supports caching of recordsets using the  CacheExecute( ), 
CachePageExecute( ) and CacheSelectLimit( ) functions. There are similar to the
non-cache functions, except that they take a new first parameter, $secs2cache.
<p> An example: 
<pre>
<b>include</b>('adodb.inc.php'); # load code common to ADOdb
$ADODB_CACHE_DIR = '/usr/ADODB_cache';
$<font color="#663300">conn</font> = &amp;ADONewConnection('mysql');  # create a connection
$<font color="#663300">conn</font>->PConnect('localhost','userid','','agora');# connect to MySQL, agora db
<font color="#000000">$<font color="#663300">sql</font> = 'select CustomerName, CustomerID from customers';
$<font color="#663300">rs</font> = $<font color="#663300">conn</font>->CacheExecute(15,$sql);</font></pre>
<p><font color="#000000"> The first parameter is the number of seconds to cache 
  the query. Subsequent calls to that query will used the cached version stored 
  in $ADODB_CACHE_DIR. To force a query to execute and flush the cache, call CacheExecute() 
  with the first parameter set to zero. Alternatively, use the CacheFlush($sql) 
  call. </font></p>
<p><font color="#000000">For the sake of security, we recommend you set <i>register_globals=off</i> 
  in php.ini if you are using $ADODB_CACHE_DIR.</font></p>
<p>In ADOdb 1.80 onwards, the secs2cache parameter is optional in CacheSelectLimit() and
CacheExecute(). If you leave it out, it will use the $connection->cacheSecs parameter, which defaults
to 60 minutes.
<pre>
	$conn->Connect(...);
	$conn->cacheSecs = 3600*24; # cache 24 hours
	$rs = $conn->CacheExecute('select * from table');
</pre>
<p>Please note that magic_quotes_runtime should be turned off. <a href=http://phplens.com/lens/lensforum/msgs.php?LeNs#LensBM_forummsg>More info</a>.
<font color="#000000"> 
<h2><a name="pivot"></a>Pivot Tables</h2>
</font>
<p><font color="#000000">Since ADOdb 2.30, we support the generation of SQL to 
	create pivot tables, also known as cross-tabulations. For further explanation 
	read this DevShed <a href=http://www.devshed.com/Server_Side/MySQL/MySQLWiz/>Cross-Tabulation 
	tutorial</a>. We assume that your database supports the SQL case-when expression. 
	</font></p>
<font color="#000000"> 
<p>In this example, we will use the Northwind database from Microsoft. In the 
  database, we have a products table, and we want to analyze this table by <i>suppliers 
  versus product categories</i>. We will place the suppliers on each row, and 
  pivot on categories. So from the table on the left, we generate the pivot-table on the right:</p>
</font> 
<table border="0" cellspacing="2" cellpadding="2" align="center">
  <tr>
	<td>
	  <table border="1" cellspacing="2" cellpadding="2" align="center" width="142">
		<tr> 
		  <td><i>Supplier</i></td>
		  <td><i>Category</i></td>
		</tr>
		<tr> 
		  <td>supplier1</td>
		  <td>category1</td>
		</tr>
		<tr> 
		  <td>supplier2</td>
		  			<td>category1</td>
		</tr>
		<tr> 
		  			<td>supplier2</td>
		  <td>category2</td>
		</tr>
	  </table>
	</td>
	<td> <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono">--&gt;</font></td>
	<td>
	  <table border="1" cellspacing="2" cellpadding="2" align="center">
		<tr> 
		  <td>&nbsp;</td>
		  <td><i>category1</i></td>
		  <td><i>category2</i></td>
		  <td><i>total</i></td>
		</tr>
		<tr> 
		  <td><i>supplier1</i></td>
		  <td align="right">1</td>
		  <td align="right">0</td>
		  <td align="right">1</td>
		</tr>
		<tr> 
		  <td><i>supplier2</i></td>
		  <td align="right">1</td>
		  <td align="right">1</td>
		  <td align="right">2</td>
		</tr>
	  </table>
	</td>
  </tr>
</table>
<font color="#000000"> 
<p>The following code will generate the SQL for a cross-tabulation: 
<pre>
# Query the main "product" table
# Set the rows to CompanyName
# and the columns to the values of Categories
# and define the joins to link to lookup tables 
# "categories" and "suppliers"
#
 include &quot;adodb/pivottable.php&quot;;
 $sql = PivotTableSQL(
 	$gDB,                                      # adodb connection
 	'products p ,categories c ,suppliers s',   # tables
	'CompanyName',                             # rows (multiple fields allowed)
	'CategoryName',                            # column to pivot on 
	'p.CategoryID = c.CategoryID and s.SupplierID= p.SupplierID' # joins/where
);
</pre>
</font> 
<p><font color="#000000"> This will generate the following SQL:</font></p>
<p><code><font size="2">SELECT CompanyName, <br>
  SUM(CASE WHEN CategoryName='Beverages' THEN 1 ELSE 0 END) AS &quot;Beverages&quot;, 
  <br>
  SUM(CASE WHEN CategoryName='Condiments' THEN 1 ELSE 0 END) AS &quot;Condiments&quot;, 
  <br>
  SUM(CASE WHEN CategoryName='Confections' THEN 1 ELSE 0 END) AS &quot;Confections&quot;, 
  <br>
  SUM(CASE WHEN CategoryName='Dairy Products' THEN 1 ELSE 0 END) AS &quot;Dairy 
  Products&quot;, <br>
  SUM(CASE WHEN CategoryName='Grains/Cereals' THEN 1 ELSE 0 END) AS &quot;Grains/Cereals&quot;, 
  <br>
  SUM(CASE WHEN CategoryName='Meat/Poultry' THEN 1 ELSE 0 END) AS &quot;Meat/Poultry&quot;, 
  <br>
  SUM(CASE WHEN CategoryName='Produce' THEN 1 ELSE 0 END) AS &quot;Produce&quot;, 
  <br>
  SUM(CASE WHEN CategoryName='Seafood' THEN 1 ELSE 0 END) AS &quot;Seafood&quot;, 
  <br>
  SUM(1) as Total <br>
  FROM products p ,categories c ,suppliers s WHERE p.CategoryID = c.CategoryID 
  and s.SupplierID= p.SupplierID <br>
  GROUP BY CompanyName</font></code></p>
<p> You can also pivot on <i>numerical columns</i> and <i>generate totals</i> 
	by using ranges. <font color="#000000">This code was revised in ADODB 2.41 
	and is not backward compatible.</font> The second example shows this:</p>
<pre>
 $sql = PivotTableSQL(
 	$gDB,                                       # adodb connection
 	'products p ,categories c ,suppliers s',    # tables
	'CompanyName',                              #<font color="#000000"> rows (multiple fields allowed)</font>
   array(                                       # column ranges
	' 0 '      => 'UnitsInStock <= 0',
	"1 to 5"   => '0 < UnitsInStock and UnitsInStock <= 5',
	"6 to 10"  => '5 < UnitsInStock and UnitsInStock <= 10',
	"11 to 15" => '10 < UnitsInStock and UnitsInStock <= 15',
	"16+"      => '15 < UnitsInStock'
	),
	' p.CategoryID = c.CategoryID and s.SupplierID= p.SupplierID', # joins/where
	'UnitsInStock',                             # sum this field
	'Sum '                                      # sum label prefix
);
</pre> 
<p>Which generates: </p>
<p> <code> <font size="2">SELECT CompanyName, <br>
	SUM(CASE WHEN UnitsInStock &lt;= 0 THEN UnitsInStock ELSE 0 END) AS &quot;Sum 
	0 &quot;, <br>
	SUM(CASE WHEN 0 &lt; UnitsInStock and UnitsInStock &lt;= 5 THEN UnitsInStock 
	ELSE 0 END) AS &quot;Sum 1 to 5&quot;,<br>
	SUM(CASE WHEN 5 &lt; UnitsInStock and UnitsInStock &lt;= 10 THEN UnitsInStock 
	ELSE 0 END) AS &quot;Sum 6 to 10&quot;,<br>
	SUM(CASE WHEN 10 &lt; UnitsInStock and UnitsInStock &lt;= 15 THEN UnitsInStock 
	ELSE 0 END) AS &quot;Sum 11 to 15&quot;, <br>
	SUM(CASE WHEN 15 &lt; UnitsInStock THEN UnitsInStock ELSE 0 END) AS &quot;Sum 
	16+&quot;, <br>
	SUM(UnitsInStock) AS "Sum UnitsInStock", <br>
	SUM(1) as Total,<br>
	FROM products p ,categories c ,suppliers s WHERE p.CategoryID = c.CategoryID 
	and s.SupplierID= p.SupplierID <br>
	GROUP BY CompanyName</font></code><font size="2"><br>
	</font> </p>
<font color="#000000"><hr>
<h1>Class Reference<a name="ref"></a></h1>
<p>Function parameters with [ ] around them are optional.</p>
</font> 
<h2>Global Variables</h2>
<h3><font color="#000000"><a name="adodb_countrecs"></a></font>$ADODB_COUNTRECS</h3>
<p>If the database driver API does not support counting the number of records 
	returned in a SELECT statement, the function RecordCount() is emulated when 
	the global variable $ADODB_COUNTRECS is set to true, which is the default. 
	We emulate this by buffering the records, which can take up large amounts 
	of memory for big recordsets. Set this variable to false for the best performance. 
	This variable is checked every time a query is executed, so you can selectively 
	choose which recordsets to count.</p>
<h3><font color="#000000"><a name="adodb_cache_dir"></a>$ADODB_CACHE_DIR</font></h3>
<font color="#000000"> 
<p>If you are using recordset caching, this is the directory to save your recordsets 
  in. Define this before you call any caching functions such as CacheExecute( 
  ). We recommend setting <i>register_globals=off</i> in php.ini if you use this 
  feature for security reasons.</p>
<p>If you are using Unix and apache, you might need to set your cache directory 
  permissions to something similar to the following:</p>
</font> 
<p>chown -R apache /path/to/adodb/cache<br>
  chgrp -R apache /path/to/adodb/cache </p>
<font color="#000000">
<h3><font color="#000000"><a name="adodb_lang"></a></font>$ADODB_LANG</h3>
<p>Determines the language used in MetaErrorMsg(). The default is 'en', for English. 
To find out what languages are supported, see the files 
in adodb/lang/adodb-$lang.inc.php, where $lang is the supported langauge.
<h3><a name="adodb_fetch_mode"></a>$ADODB_FETCH_MODE</h3>
<p>This is a global variable that determines how arrays are retrieved by recordsets. 
  The recordset saves this value on creation (eg. in Execute( ) or SelectLimit( 
  )), and any subsequent changes to $ADODB_FETCH_MODE have no affect on existing 
  recordsets, only on recordsets created in the future.</p>
<p>The following constants are defined:</p>
</font> 
<p><font color="#000000">define('ADODB_FETCH_DEFAULT',0);<br>
  define('ADODB_FETCH_NUM',1);<br>
  define('ADODB_FETCH_ASSOC',2);<br>
  define('ADODB_FETCH_BOTH',3); </font></p>
<font color="#000000"> 
<p> An example: 
<pre>
	$ADODB_<b>FETCH_MODE</b> = ADODB_FETCH_NUM;
	$rs1 = $db->Execute('select * from table');
	$ADODB_<b>FETCH_MODE</b> = ADODB_FETCH_ASSOC;
	$rs2 = $db->Execute('select * from table');
	print_r($rs1->fields); # shows <i>array([0]=>'v0',[1] =>'v1')</i>
	print_r($rs2->fields); # shows <i>array(['col1']=>'v0',['col2'] =>'v1')</i>
</pre>
<p> As you can see in the above example, both recordsets store and use different 
	fetch modes based on the $ADODB_FETCH_MODE setting when the recordset was 
	created by Execute().</p>
<p>If no fetch mode is predefined, the fetch mode defaults to ADODB_FETCH_DEFAULT. 
	The behaviour of this default mode varies from driver to driver, so do not 
	rely on ADODB_FETCH_DEFAULT. For portability, we recommend sticking to ADODB_FETCH_NUM 
	or ADODB_FETCH_ASSOC. Many drivers do not support ADODB_FETCH_BOTH.</p>
<p><strong>SetFetchMode Function</strong></p>
<p>Some programmers prefer to use a more object-oriented solution, where the fetch 
	mode is set by a object function, <a href="#setfetchmode">SetFetchMode</a>. 
	Once this function is called for a connection object, that connection object 
	will ignore the global variable $ADODB_FETCH_MODE and will use the internal 
	fetchMode property exclusively.</p>
<pre>
	$db->SetFetchMode(ADODB_FETCH_NUM);
	$rs1 = $db->Execute('select * from table');
	$db->SetFetchMode(ADODB_FETCH_ASSOC);
	$rs2 = $db->Execute('select * from table');
	print_r($rs1->fields); # shows <i>array([0]=>'v0',[1] =>'v1')</i>
	print_r($rs2->fields); # shows <i>array(['col1']=>'v0',['col2'] =>'v1')</i></pre>
<p>To retrieve the previous fetch mode, you can use check the $db-&gt;fetchMode 
	property, or use the return value of SetFetchMode( ). 
<p><strong><a name="adodb_assoc_case"></a>ADODB_ASSOC_CASE</strong></p>
<p>You can control the associative fetch case for certain drivers which behave 
	differently. For the sybase, oci8po, mssql, odbc and ibase drivers and all 
	drivers derived from them, ADODB_ASSOC_CASE will by default generate recordsets 
	where the field name keys are lower-cased. Use the constant ADODB_ASSOC_CASE 
	to change the case of the keys. There are 3 possible values:</p>
<p>0 = assoc lowercase field names. $rs-&gt;fields['orderid']<br>
	1 = assoc uppercase field names. $rs-&gt;fields['ORDERID']<br>
	2 = use native-case field names. $rs-&gt;fields['OrderID'] -- this is the 
	default since ADOdb 2.90</p>
<p>To use it, declare it before you incldue adodb.inc.php.</p>
<p>define('ADODB_ASSOC_CASE', 2); # use native-case for ADODB_FETCH_ASSOC<br>
	include('adodb.inc.php'); </p>
<hr>
<h2>ADOConnection<a name="adoconnection"></a></h2>
<p>Object that performs the connection to the database, executes SQL statements 
	and has a set of utility functions for standardising the format of SQL statements 
	for issues such as concatenation and date formats.</p>
<h3>ADOConnection Fields</h3>
<p><b>databaseType</b>: Name of the database system we are connecting to. Eg. 
	<b>odbc</b> or <b>mssql</b> or <b>mysql</b>.</p>
<p><b>dataProvider</b>: The underlying mechanism used to connect to the database. 
	Normally set to <b>native</b>, unless using <b>odbc</b> or <b>ado</b>.</p>
<p><b>host: </b>Name of server or data source name (DSN) to connect to.</p>
<p><b>database</b>: Name of the database or to connect to. If ado is used, it 
	will hold the ado data provider.</p>
<p><b>user</b>: Login id to connect to database. Password is not saved for security 
	reasons.</p>
<p><b>raiseErrorFn</b>: Allows you to define an error handling function. See adodb-errorhandler.inc.php 
	for an example.</p>
<p><b>debug</b>: Set to <i>true</i> to make debug statements to appear.</p>
<p><b>concat_operator</b>: Set to '+' or '||' normally. The operator used to concatenate 
	strings in SQL. Used by the <b><a href="#concat">Concat</a></b> function.</p>
<p><b>fmtDate</b>: The format used by the <b><a href="#dbdate">DBDate</a></b> 
	function to send dates to the database. is '#Y-m-d#' for Microsoft Access, 
	and ''Y-m-d'' for MySQL.</p>
<p><b>fmtTimeStamp: </b>The format used by the <b><a href="#dbtimestamp">DBTimeStamp</a></b> 
	function to send timestamps to the database. </p>
<p><b>true</b>: The value used to represent true.Eg. '.T.'. for Foxpro, '1' for 
	Microsoft SQL.</p>
<p><b>false: </b> The value used to represent false. Eg. '.F.'. for Foxpro, '0' 
	for Microsoft SQL.</p>
<p><b>replaceQuote</b>: The string used to escape quotes. Eg. double single-quotes 
	for Microsoft SQL, and backslash-quote for MySQL. Used by <a href="#qstr">qstr</a>.</p>
<p><b>autoCommit</b>: indicates whether automatic commit is enabled. Default is 
	true.</p>
<p><b>charSet</b>: set the default charset to use. Currently only interbase supports 
	this.</p>
<p><b>dialect</b>: set the default sql dialect to use. Currently only interbase 
	supports this.</p>
<p><b>metaTablesSQL</b>: SQL statement to return a list of available tables. Eg. 
	<i>SHOW TABLES</i> in MySQL.</p>
<p><b>genID</b>: The latest id generated by GenID() if supported by the database.</p>
<p><b>cacheSecs</b>: The number of seconds to cache recordsets if CacheExecute() 
	or CacheSelectLimit() omit the $secs2cache parameter. Defaults to 60 minutes.</p>
<p><b>sysDate</b>: String that holds the name of the database function to call 
	to get the current date. Useful for inserts and updates.</p>
<p><b>sysTimeStamp</b>: String that holds the name of the database function to 
	call to get the current timestamp/datetime value.</p>
<p><b>leftOuter</b>: String that holds operator for left outer join, if known. 
	Otherwise set to false.</p>
<p><b>rightOuter</b>: String that holds operator for left outer join, if known. 
	Otherwise set to false.</p>
<p><b>ansiOuter</b>: Boolean that if true indicates that ANSI style outer joins 
	are permitted. Eg. <i>select * from table1 left join table2 on p1=p2.</i></p>
<p><b>connectSID</b>: Boolean that indicates whether to treat the $database parameter 
	in connects as the SID for the oci8 driver. Defaults to false. Useful for 
	Oracle 8.0.5 and earlier.</p>
<p><b>autoRollback</b>: Persistent connections are auto-rollbacked in PConnect( 
	) if this is set to true. Default is false.</p>
<hr>
<h3>ADOConnection Main Functions</h3>
<p><b>ADOConnection( )</b></p>
<p>Constructor function. Do not call this directly. Use ADONewConnection( ) instead.</p>
<p><b>Connect<a name="connect"></a>($host,[$user],[$password],[$database])</b></p>
<p>Non-persistent connect to data source or server $<b>host</b>, using userid 
	$<b>user </b>and password $<b>password</b>. If the server supports multiple 
	databases, connect to database $<b>database</b>. </p>
<p>Returns true/false depending on connection.</p>
<p>ADO Note: If you are using a Microsoft ADO and not OLEDB, you can set the $database 
	parameter to the OLEDB data provider you are using.</p>
<p>PostgreSQL: An alternative way of connecting to the database is to pass the 
	standard PostgreSQL connection string in the first parameter $host, and the 
	other parameters will be ignored.</p>
<p>For Oracle and Oci8, there are two ways to connect. First is to use the TNS 
	name defined in your local tnsnames.ora (or ONAMES or HOSTNAMES). Place the 
	name in the $database field, and set the $host field to false. Alternatively, 
	set $host to the server, and $database to the database SID, this bypassed 
	tnsnames.ora. 
<p>Examples: 
<pre> # $oraname in tnsnames.ora/ONAMES/HOSTNAMES
 $conn->Connect(false, 'scott', 'tiger', $oraname); 
 $conn->Connect('server:1521', 'scott', 'tiger', 'ServiceName'); # bypass tnsnames.ora</pre>
<p>There are many examples of connecting to a database at <a href="http://php.weblogs.com/adodb">php.weblogs.com/ADOdb</a>, 
	and in the testdatabases.inc.php file included in the release.</p>
<p><b>PConnect<a name="pconnect"></a>($host,[$user],[$password],[$database])</b></p>
<p>Persistent connect to data source or server $<b>host</b>, using userid $<b>user</b> 
	and password $<b>password</b>. If the server supports multiple databases, 
	connect to database $<b>database</b>.</p>
<p>We now perform a rollback on persistent connection for selected databases since 
	2.21, as advised in the PHP manual. See change log or source code for which 
	databases are affected. 
<p>Returns true/false depending on connection. See Connect( ) above for more info.</p>
<p>Since ADOdb 2.21, we also support autoRollback. If you set:</p>
</font> 
<pre> $conn = &amp;NewADOConnection('mysql');
 $conn-&gt;autoRollback = true; # default is false
 $conn-&gt;PConnect(...); # rollback here</pre>
<p> Then when doing a persistent connection with PConnect( ), ADOdb will 
  perform a rollback first. This is because it is documented that PHP is 
  not guaranteed to rollback existing failed transactions when 
  persistent connections are used. This is implemented in Oracle, 
  MySQL, PgSQL, MSSQL, ODBC currently. 
<p>Since ADOdb 3.11, you can force non-persistent 
connections even if PConnect is called by defining the constant 
ADODB_NEVER_PERSIST  before you call PConnect.
<p><b>NConnect<a name="nconnect"></a>($host,[$user],[$password],[$database])</b></p>
<p>Always force a new connection. In contrast, PHP sometimes reuses connections 
	when you use Connect() or PConnect(). Currently works only on mysql (PHP 4.3.0 
	or later) and oci8-derived drivers. For other drivers, NConnect() works like 
	Connect(). 
<font color="#000000"> 
<p><b>Execute<a name="execute"></a>($sql,$inputarr=false)</b></p>
<p>Execute SQL statement $<b>sql</b> and return derived class of ADORecordSet 
	if successful. Note that a record set is always returned on success, even 
	if we are executing an insert or update statement.</p>
<p>Returns derived class of ADORecordSet. Eg. if connecting via mysql, then ADORecordSet_mysql 
	would be returned. False is returned if there was an error in executing the 
	sql.</p>
<p>The $inputarr parameter can be used for binding variables to parameters. Below 
	is an Oracle example:</p>
<pre>
 $conn->Execute("SELECT * FROM TABLE WHERE COND=:val", array('val'=> $val));
 </pre>
<p>Another example, using ODBC,which uses the ? convention:</p>
<pre>
  $conn->Execute("SELECT * FROM TABLE WHERE COND=?", array($val));
</pre>
<i>Binding variables</i><br>
Variable binding speeds the compilation and caching of SQL statements, leading 
to higher performance. Currently Oracle and ODBC support variable binding. ODBC 
style ? binding is emulated in databases that do not support binding. 
<p> Variable binding in the odbc and oci8po drivers. 
<pre>
$rs = $db->Execute('select * from table where val=?', array('10'));
</pre>
Variable binding in the oci8 driver. 
<pre>
$rs = $db->Execute('select name from table where val=:key', 
  array('key' => 10));
</pre>
<p><b>CacheExecute<a name="cacheexecute"></a>([$secs2cache,]$sql,$inputarr=false)</b></p>
<p>Similar to Execute, except that the recordset is cached for $secs2cache seconds 
	in the $ADODB_CACHE_DIR directory. If CacheExecute() is called again with 
	the same parameters, same database, same userid, same password, and the cached 
	recordset has not expired, the cached recordset is returned. 
<pre>
  include('adodb.inc.php'); 
  include('tohtml.inc.php');
  $ADODB_<b>CACHE_DIR</b> = '/usr/local/ADOdbcache';
  $conn = &ADONewConnection('mysql'); 
  $conn->PConnect('localhost','userid','password','database');
  $rs = $conn-><b>CacheExecute</b>(15, 'select * from table'); # cache 15 secs
  rs2html($rs); /* recordset to html table */  
</pre>
<p></p>
<p> Alternatively, since ADOdb 1.80, the $secs2cache parameter is optional:</p>
<pre>	$conn-&gt;Connect(...);
   	$conn-&gt;cacheSecs = 3600*24; // cache 24 hours
	$rs = $conn-&gt;CacheExecute('select * from table');
</pre>
Note that the $secs2cache parameter is optional. If omitted, we use the value 
in $connection-&gt;cacheSecs (default is 3600 seconds, or 1 hour). Use CacheExecute() 
only with SELECT statements. 
<p>Performance note: I have done some benchmarks and found that they vary so greatly 
	that it's better to talk about when caching is of benefit. When your database 
	server is <i>much slower </i>than your Web server or the database is <i>very 
	overloaded </i>then ADOdb's caching is good because it reduces the load on 
	your database server. If your database server is lightly loaded or much faster 
	than your Web server, then caching could actually reduce performance. </p>
<p><b>ExecuteCursor<a name="executecursor"></a>($sql,$cursorName='rs',$parameters=false)</b></p>
<p>Execute an Oracle stored procedure, and returns an Oracle REF cursor variable as 
	a regular ADOdb recordset. Does not work with any other database except oci8. 
	Thanks to Robert Tuttle for the design.
<pre>
    $db = ADONewConnection("oci8"); 
    $db->Connect("foo.com:1521", "uid", "pwd", "FOO"); 
    $rs = $db->ExecuteCursor("begin :cursorvar := getdata(:param1); end;", 
					'cursorvar',
					array('param1'=>10)); 
    # $rs is now just like any other ADOdb recordset object<br>    rs2html($rs);</pre>
<p>ExecuteCursor() is a helper function that does the following internally: 
<pre>
	$stmt = $db->Prepare("BEGIN :RS := SP_FOO(); END;");
	$db->Parameter($stmt, $cur, 'RS', false, -1, OCI_B_CURSOR);
	$rs = $db->Execute($stmt);</pre>
<p><b>SelectLimit<a name="selectlimit"></a>($sql,$numrows=-1,$offset=-1,$inputarr=false)</b></p>
<p>Returns a recordset if successful. Returns false otherwise. Performs a select 
	statement, simulating PostgreSQL's SELECT statement, LIMIT $numrows OFFSET 
	$offset clause.</p>
<p>In PostgreSQL, SELECT * FROM TABLE LIMIT 3 will return the first 3 records 
	only. The equivalent is <code>$connection->SelectLimit('SELECT * FROM TABLE',3)</code>. 
	This functionality is simulated for databases that do not possess this feature.</p>
<p>And SELECT * FROM TABLE LIMIT 3 OFFSET 2 will return records 3, 4 and 5 (eg. 
	after record 2, return 3 rows). The equivalent in ADOdb is <code>$connection->SelectLimit('SELECT 
	* FROM TABLE',3,2)</code>.</p>
<p>Note that this is the <i>opposite</i> of MySQL's LIMIT clause. You can also 
	set <code>$connection->SelectLimit('SELECT * FROM TABLE',-1,10)</code> to 
	get rows 11 to the last row.</p>
<p>The last parameter $inputarr is for databases that support variable binding 
	such as Oracle oci8. This substantially reduces SQL compilation overhead. 
	Below is an Oracle example:</p>
<pre>
 $conn->SelectLimit("SELECT * FROM TABLE WHERE COND=:val", 100,-1,array('val'=> $val));
 </pre>
<p>The oci8po driver (oracle portable driver) uses the more standard bind variable 
	of ?: 
<pre>
 $conn->SelectLimit("SELECT * FROM TABLE WHERE COND=?", 100,-1,array('val'=> $val));
</pre>
<p> 
<p>Ron Wilson reports that SelectLimit does not work with UNIONs. 
<p><b>CacheSelectLimit<a name="cacheselectlimit"></a>([$secs2cache,] $sql, $numrows=-1,$offset=-1,$inputarr=false)</b></p>
<p>Similar to SelectLimit, except that the recordset returned is cached for $secs2cache 
	seconds in the $ADODB_CACHE_DIR directory. </p>
<p>Since 1.80, $secs2cache has been optional, and you can define the caching time 
	in $connection-&gt;cacheSecs.</p>
</font> 
<pre><font color="#000000">	$conn-&gt;Connect(...);
   $conn-&gt;cacheSecs = 3600*24; // cache 24 hours
	$rs = $conn-&gt;CacheSelectLimit('select * from table',10);</font></pre>
<font color="#000000"> 
<p><b>CacheFlush<a name="cacheflush"></a>($sql=false,$inputarr=false)</b></p>
<p>Flush (delete) any cached recordsets for the SQL statement $sql in $ADODB_CACHE_DIR. 
<p>If no parameter is passed in, then all adodb_*.cache files are deleted. 
<p> If you want to flush all cached recordsets manually, execute the following 
	PHP code (works only under Unix): <br>
	<code> &nbsp; system(&quot;rm -f `find &quot;.$ADODB_CACHE_DIR.&quot; -name 
	adodb_*.cache`&quot;);</code></p>
<p>For general cleanup of all expired files, you should use <a href="http://www.superscripts.com/tutorial/crontab.html">crontab</a> 
	on Unix, or at.exe on Windows, and a shell script similar to the following:<font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"><br>
	#------------------------------------------------------ <br>
	# This particular example deletes files in the TMPPATH <br>
	# directory with the string &quot;.cache&quot; in their name that <br>
	# are more than 7 days old. <br>
	#------------------------------------------------------ <br>
	AGED=7 <br>
	find ${TMPPATH} -mtime +$AGED | grep &quot;\.cache&quot; | xargs rm -f <br>
	</font> </p>
<p><b>MetaError<a name="metaerror"></a>($errno=false)</b></p>
<p>Returns a virtualized error number, based on PEAR DB's error number system. You might
need to include adodb-error.inc.php before you call this function. The parameter $errno
is the native error number you want to convert. If you do not pass any parameter, MetaError
will call ErrorNo() for you and convert it. If the error number cannot be virtualized, MetaError 
will return -1 (DB_ERROR).</p>

<p><b>MetaErrorMsg<a name="metaerrormsg"></a>($errno)</b></p>
<p>Pass the error number returned by MetaError() for the equivalent textual error message.</p>
<p><b>ErrorMsg<a name="errormsg"></a>()</b></p>
<p>Returns the last status or error message. This can return a string even if 
	no error occurs. In general you do not need to call this function unless an 
	ADOdb function returns false on an error. </p>
<p>Note: If <b>debug</b> is enabled, the SQL error message is always displayed 
	when the <b>Execute</b> function is called.</p>
<p><b>ErrorNo<a name="errorno"></a>()</b></p>
<p>Returns the last error number. Note that old versions of PHP (pre 4.0.6) do 
	not support error number for ODBC. In general you do not need to call this 
	function unless an ADOdb function returns false on an error.</p>
</font>
<p><font color="#000000"><b>SetFetchMode<a name="setfetchmode"></a>($mode)</b></font></p>
<p><font color="#000000">Sets the current fetch mode for the connection and stores 
	it in $db-&gt;fetchMode. Legal modes are ADODB_FETCH_ASSOC and ADODB_FETCH_NUM. 
	For more info, see <a href="#adodb_fetch_mode">$ADODB_FETCH_MODE</a>.</font></p>
<p><font color="#000000">Returns the previous fetch mode, which could be false 
	if SetFetchMode( ) has not been called before.</font></p>
<font color="#000000"> 
<p><b>CreateSequence<a name="createseq"></a>($seqName = 'adodbseq',$startID=1)</b></p>
<p>Create a sequence. The next time GenID( ) is called, the value returned will 
	be $startID. Added in 2.60. 
<p><b>DropSequenceD<a name="dropseq"></a>($seqName = 'adodbseq')</b></p>
<p>Delete a sequence. Added in 2.60. 
<p><b>GenID<a name="genid"></a>($seqName = 'adodbseq',$startID=1)</b></p>
<p>Generate a sequence number . Works for interbase, 
	mysql, postgresql, oci8, oci8po, mssql, ODBC based (access,vfp,db2,etc) drivers 
	currently. Uses $seqName as the name of the sequence. GenID() will automatically 
	create the sequence for you if it does not exist (provided the userid has 
	permission to do so). Otherwise you will have to create the sequence yourself. 
<p> If your database driver emulates sequences, the name of the table is the sequence 
	name. The table has one column, "id" which should be of type integer, or if 
	you need something larger - numeric(16). 
<p> For ODBC and databases that do not support sequences natively (eg mssql, mysql), 
	we create a table for each sequence. If the sequence has not been defined 
	earlier, it is created with the starting value set in $startID.</p>
<p>Note that the mssql driver's GenID() before 1.90 used to generate 16 byte GUID's.</p>
<p><b>UpdateBlob<a name="updateblob"></a>($table,$column,$val,$where)</b></p>
Allows you to store a blob (in $val) into $table into $column in a row at $where. 
<p> Usage: 
<p> 
<pre>
	# for oracle
	$conn->Execute('INSERT INTO blobtable (id, blobcol) VALUES (1, empty_blob())');
	$conn->UpdateBlob('blobtable','blobcol',$blobvalue,'id=1');
	
	# non oracle databases
	$conn->Execute('INSERT INTO blobtable (id, blobcol) VALUES (1, null)');
	$conn->UpdateBlob('blobtable','blobcol',$blobvalue,'id=1');
</pre>
<p> Returns true if succesful, false otherwise. Supported by MySQL, PostgreSQL, 
	Oci8, Oci8po and Interbase drivers. Other drivers might work, depending on 
	the state of development.</p>
<p>Note that when an Interbase blob is retrieved using SELECT, it still needs 
	to be decoded using $connection->DecodeBlob($blob); to derive the original 
	value in versions of PHP before 4.1.0. 
<p>For PostgreSQL, you can store your blob using blob oid's or as a bytea field. 
	You can use bytea fields but not blob oid's currently with UpdateBlob( ). 
	Conversely UpdateBlobFile( ) supports oid's, but not bytea data.<br>
	<br>
	If you do not pass in an oid, then UpdateBlob() assumes that you are storing 
	in bytea fields.
<p><b>UpdateClob<a name="updateclob"></a>($table,$column,$val,$where)</b></p>
Allows you to store a clob (in $val) into $table into $column in a row at $where. 
Similar to UpdateBlob (see above), but for Character Large OBjects. 
<p> Usage:
<pre>
	# for oracle
	$conn->Execute('INSERT INTO clobtable (id, clobcol) VALUES (1, empty_clob())');
	$conn->UpdateBlob('clobtable','clobcol',$clobvalue,'id=1');
	
	# non oracle databases
	$conn->Execute('INSERT INTO clobtable (id, clobcol) VALUES (1, null)');
	$conn->UpdateBlob('clobtable','clobcol',$clobvalue,'id=1');
</pre>
<p><b>UpdateBlobFile<a name="updateblobfile"></a>($table,$column,$path,$where,$blobtype='BLOB')</b></p>
<p>Similar to UpdateBlob, except that we pass in a file path to where the blob 
	resides.
<p>For PostgreSQL, if you are using blob oid's, use this interface. This interface 
	does not support bytea fields.
<p>Returns true if successful, false otherwise. 
<p><b>BlobEncode<a name="blobencode" id="blobencode"></a>($blob)</b> 
<p>Some databases require blob's to be encoded manually before upload. Note if 
	you use UpdateBlob( ) or UpdateBlobFile( ) the conversion is done automatically 
	for you and you do not have to call this function. For PostgreSQL, currently, 
	BlobEncode() can only be used for bytea fields.
<p>Returns the encoded blob value.
<p>Note that there is a connection property called <em>blobEncodeType</em> which 
	has 3 legal values: 
<p>false - no need to perform encoding or decoding.<br>
	'I' - blob encoding required, and returned encoded blob is a numeric value 
	(no need to quote).<br>
	'C' - blob encoding required, and returned encoded blob is a character value 
	(requires quoting).
<p>This is purely for documentation purposes, so that programs that accept multiple 
	database drivers know what is the right thing to do when processing blobs.
<p><strong>BlobDecode<a name="blobdecode"></a>($blob)</strong> 
<p>Some databases require blob's to be decoded manually after doing a select statement. 
	If the database does not require decoding, then this function will return 
	the blob unchanged. Currently BlobDecode is only required for one database, 
	PostgreSQL, and only if you are using blob oid's (if you are using bytea fields, 
	we auto-decode for you).</font><font color="#000000">
<pre>$rs = $db-&gt;Execute(&quot;select bloboid from postgres_table where id=$key&quot;);
$blob = $db-&gt;BlobDecode( reset($rs-&gt;fields) );</pre>
<p><b>Replace<a name="replace"></a>($table, $arrFields, $keyCols,$autoQuote=false)</b></p>
<p>Try to update a record, and if the record is not found, an insert statement 
	is generated and executed. Returns 0 on failure, 1 if update statement worked, 
	2 if no record was found and the insert was executed successfully. This differs 
	from MySQL's replace which deletes the record and inserts a new record. This 
	also means you cannot update the primary key. The only exception to this is 
	Interbase and its derivitives, which uses delete and insert because of some 
	Interbase API limitations. 
<p>The parameters are $table which is the table name, the $keyCols which is an 
	associative array where the keys are the field names, and keyCols is the name 
	of the primary key, or an array of field names if it is a compound key. If 
	$autoQuote is set to true, then Replace() will quote all values that are non-numeric; 
	auto-quoting will not quote nulls. Note that auto-quoting will not work if 
	you use SQL functions or operators. 
<p>Examples: 
<pre>
# single field primary key
$ret = $db->Replace('atable', 
	array('id'=>1000,'firstname'=>'Harun','lastname'=>'Al-Rashid'),
	'id',
	'firstname',$autoquote = true);	
# generates UPDATE atable SET firstname='Harun',lastname='Al-Rashid' WHERE id=1000
# or INSERT INTO atable (id,firstname,lastname) VALUES (1000,'Harun','Al-Rashid')

# compound key
$ret = $db->Replace('atable2', 
	array('firstname'=>'Harun','lastname'=>'Al-Rashid', 'age' => 33, 'birthday' => 'null'),
	array('lastname','firstname'),
	'firstname',$autoquote = true);

# no auto-quoting
$ret = $db->Replace('atable2', 
	array('firstname'=>"'Harun'",'lastname'=>"'Al-Rashid'", 'age' => 'null'),
	array('lastname','firstname'),
	'firstname');	

</pre>
<p><b>GetUpdateSQL<a name="getupdatesql"></a>(&$rs, $arrFields, $forceUpdate=false,$magicq=false)</b></p>
<p>Generate SQL to update a table given a recordset $rs, and the modified fields 
	of the array $arrFields (which must be an associative array holding the column 
	names and the new values) are compared with the current recordset. If $forceUpdate 
	is true, then we also generate the SQL even if $arrFields is identical to 
	$rs-&gt;fields. Requires the recordset to be associative. $magicq is used 
	to indicate whether magic quotes are enabled (see qstr()). The field names in the array 
	are case-insensitive.</p>
<p><b>GetInsertSQL<a name="getinsertsql"></a>(&$rs, $arrFields,$magicq=false)</b></p>
<p>Generate SQL to insert into a table given a recordset $rs. Requires the query 
	to be associative. $magicq is used to indicate whether magic quotes are enabled 
	(for qstr()). The field names in the array are case-insensitive.</p>
<b>PageExecute<a name="pageexecute"></a>($sql, $nrows, $page, $inputarr=false)</b> 
<p>Used for pagination of recordset. $page is 1-based. See <a href="#ex8">Example 
	8</a>.</p>
</font> 
<p><font color="#000000"><b>CachePageExecute<a name="cachepageexecute"></a>($secs2cache, 
  $sql, $nrows, $page, $inputarr=false)</b> </font></p>
<p><font color="#000000">Used for pagination of recordset. $page is 1-based. See 
  <a href="#ex8">Example 8</a>. Caching version of PageExecute.</font></p>
<font color="#000000"> 
<p></p>
<p><b>Close<a name="close"></a>( )</b></p>
<p>Close the database connection. PHP4 proudly states that we no longer have to 
  clean up at the end of the connection because the reference counting mechanism 
  of PHP4 will automatically clean up for us.</p>
  <p><b>StartTrans<a name="starttrans"></a>( )</b></p>
  <p>Start a monitored transaction. As SQL statements are executed, ADOdb will monitor
  for SQL errors, and if any are detected, when CompleteTrans() is called, we auto-rollback.
  <p>
  <p> To understand why StartTrans() is superior to BeginTrans(), 
  let us examine a few ways of using BeginTrans().
  The following is the wrong way to use transactions: 
<pre>
$DB->BeginTrans();
$DB->Execute("update table1 set val=$val1 where id=$id");
$DB->Execute("update table2 set val=$val2 where id=$id");
$DB->CommitTrans();
</pre>
<p>because you perform no error checking. It is possible to update table1 and 
  for the update on table2 to fail. Here is a better way: 
<pre>
$DB->BeginTrans();
$ok = $DB->Execute("update table1 set val=$val1 where id=$id");
if ($ok) $ok = $DB->Execute("update table2 set val=$val2 where id=$id");
if ($ok) $DB->CommitTrans();
else $DB->RollbackTrans();
</pre>
<p>Another way is (since ADOdb 2.0): 
<pre>
$DB->BeginTrans();
$ok = $DB->Execute("update table1 set val=$val1 where id=$id");
if ($ok) $ok = $DB->Execute("update table2 set val=$val2 where id=$id");
$DB->CommitTrans($ok);
</pre>
<p> Now it is a headache monitoring $ok all over the place. StartTrans() is an
improvement because it monitors all SQL errors for you. This is particularly
useful if you are calling black-box functions in which SQL queries might be executed.
 Also all BeginTrans, CommitTrans and RollbackTrans calls inside a StartTrans block 
  will be disabled, so even if the black box function does a commit, it will be ignored.
<pre>
$DB->StartTrans();
CallBlackBox();
$DB->Execute("update table1 set val=$val1 where id=$id");
$DB->Execute("update table2 set val=$val2 where id=$id");
$DB->CompleteTrans($ok);
</pre>
<p>Note that a StartTrans blocks are nestable, the inner blocks are ignored.
 <p><b>CompleteTrans<a name="completetrans"></a>($autoComplete=true)</b></p>
  <p>Complete a transaction called with StartTrans(). This function monitors
  for SQL errors, and will commit if no errors have occured, otherwise it will rollback. 
  Returns true on commit, false on rollback. If the parameter $autoComplete is true
  monitor sql errors and commit and rollback as appropriate. Set $autoComplete to false 
  to force rollback even if no SQL error detected.
<p><b>BeginTrans<a name="begintrans"></a>( )</b></p>
<p>Begin a transaction. Turns off autoCommit. Returns true if successful. Some 
  databases will always return false if transaction support is not available. 
   Any open transactions will be rolled back when the connection is closed. Among the
   databases that support transactions are Oracle, PostgreSQL, Interbase, MSSQL, certain
    versions of MySQL, DB2, Informix, Sybase, etc.</p>
 <p>Note that <a href=#starttrans>StartTrans()</a> and CompleteTrans() is a superior method of 
 handling transactions, available since ADOdb 3.40. For a explanation, see the <a href=#starttrans>StartTrans()</a> documentation.

<p>You can also use the ADOdb <a href=#errorhandling>error handler</a> to die 
  and rollback your transactions for you transparently. Some buggy database extensions 
  are known to commit all outstanding tranasactions, so you might want to explicitly 
  do a $DB->RollbackTrans() in your error handler for safety. 
 <h4>Detecting Transactions</h4>
 <p>Since ADOdb 2.50, you are able to detect when you are inside a transaction. Check
 that $connection->transCnt > 0. This variable is incremented whenever BeginTrans() is called,
 and decremented whenever RollbackTrans() or CommitTrans() is called.
<p><b>CommitTrans<a name="committrans"></a>($ok=true)</b></p>
<p>End a transaction successfully. Returns true if successful. If the database 
  does not support transactions, will return true also as data is always committed. 
</p>
<p>If you pass the parameter $ok=false, the data is rolled back. See example in 
  BeginTrans().</p>
<p><b>RollbackTrans<a name="rollbacktrans"></a>( )</b></p>
<p>End a transaction, rollback all changes. Returns true if successful. If the 
  database does not support transactions, will return false as data is never rollbacked. 
</p>
<p><b>GetOne<a name="getone"></a>($sql,$inputarr=false)</b></p>
<p>Executes the SQL and returns the first field of the first row. The recordset 
  and remaining rows are discarded for you automatically. If an error occur, false 
  is returned.</p>
<p><b>GetRow<a name="getrow"></a>($sql,$inputarr=false)</b></p>
<p>Executes the SQL and returns the first row as an array. The recordset and remaining 
  rows are discarded for you automatically. If an error occurs, false is returned.</p>
<p><b>GetAll<a name="getall"></a>($sql)</b></p>
</font>
<p><font color="#000000">Executes the SQL and returns the all the rows as a 2-dimensional 
  array. The recordset is discarded for you automatically. If an error occurs, 
  false is returned.</font></p>
 <p><b>GetCol<a name="getcol"></a>($sql,$inputarr=false,$trim=false)</b></p>

<p><font color="#000000">Executes the SQL and returns all elements of the first column as a 
1-dimensional array. The recordset is discarded for you automatically. If an error occurs, 
  false is returned.</font></p>
<p><font color="#000000"><b>CacheGetOne<a name="cachegetone"></a>([$secs2cache,] 
  $sql,$inputarr=false), CacheGetRow<a name="cachegetrow"></a>([$secs2cache,] $sql,$inputarr=false), CacheGetAll<a name="cachegetall"></a>([$secs2cache,] 
  $sql,$inputarr=false), CacheGetCol<a name="cachegetcol"></a>([$secs2cache,] 
  $sql,$inputarr=false,$trim=false)</b></font></p>
<font color="#000000"> 
<p>Similar to above Get* functions, except that the recordset is serialized and 
  cached in the $ADODB_CACHE_DIR directory for $secs2cache seconds. Good for speeding 
  up queries on rarely changing data. Note that the $secs2cache parameter is optional. 
  If omitted, we use the value in $connection-&gt;cacheSecs (default is 3600 seconds, 
  or 1 hour).</p>
<p><b>Prepare<a name="prepare"></a>($sql )</b></p>
</font> 
<p><font color="#000000">Prepares an SQL query for repeated execution. Only supported 
  internally by interbase, oci8 and selected ODBC-based drivers, otherwise it 
  is emulated. There is no performance advantage to using Prepare() with emulation. 
  </font></p>
<p><font color="#000000">Returns an array containing the original sql statement 
  in the first array element; the remaining elements of the array are driver dependent. 
  If there is an error, or we are emulating Prepare( ), we return the original 
  $sql string. This is because all error-handling has been centralized in Execute( 
  ). </font></p>
<p>Example:</p>
<pre><font color="#000000">$stmt = $DB-&gt;Prepare('insert into table (col1,col2) values (?,?)');
for ($i=0; $i &lt; $max; $i++)<br></font>	$DB-&gt;<font color="#000000">Execute($stmt,array((string) rand(), $i));
</font></pre><font color="#000000">
<p>
Important: Due to limitations or bugs in PHP, if you are getting errors when you using prepared queries, try
setting $ADODB_COUNTRECS = false before preparing. This behaviour has been observed with ODBC. 
<p><b>PrepareSP</b><b><a name="preparesp"></a></b><b>($sql)</b></p>
<p>In the mssql driver, preparing stored procedures requires a special function 
  call, mssql_init( ), which is called by this function. PrepareSP( ) is available 
  in all other drivers, and is emulated by calling Prepare( ). For examples of 
  usage, see Parameter( ) below.</p>
<p>Returns the same array or $sql string as Prepare( ) above.</p>
<p><b> Parameter<a name="parameter"></a>($stmt, $var, $name, $isOutput=false, 
  $maxLen = 4000, $type = false )</b></p>
<p>Adds a bind parameter in a fashion that is compatible with Microsoft SQL Server 
  and Oracle oci8. The parameters are:<br>
  <br>
  $<i><b>stmt</b></i> Statement returned by Prepare() or PrepareSP().<br>
  $<i><b>var</b></i> PHP variable to bind to. Make sure you pre-initialize it!<br>
  $<i><b>name</b></i> Name of stored procedure variable name to bind to.<br>
  [$<i><b>isOutput</b></i>] Indicates direction of parameter 0/false=IN 1=OUT 
  2= IN/OUT. This is ignored in oci8 as this driver auto-detects the direction.<br>
  [$<b>maxLen</b>] Maximum length of the parameter variable.<br>
  [$<b>type</b>] Consult <a href="http://php.net/mssql_bind">mssql_bind</a> and <a href="http://php.net/ocibindbyname">ocibindbyname</a> 
  docs at php.net for more info on legal values for type.</p>
<p>In mssql, $opt can hold the following elements: array('type' =&gt; integer, 
  maxLen =&gt;integer). Example:</p>
</font> 
<pre><font color="#000000"><font color="green"># @RETVAL = SP_RUNSOMETHING @myid,@group</font><br>$stmt = $db-&gt;PrepareSP(<font color="#993333">'<font color="#993300">SP_RUNSOMETHING</font>'</font>); <br><font color="green"># note that the parameter name does not have @ in front!</font><br>$db-&gt;Parameter($stmt,$id,'myid'); <br>$db-&gt;Parameter($stmt,$group,'group',false,64);<br><font color="green"># return value in mssql - RETVAL is hard-coded name</font> <br>$db-&gt;Parameter($stmt,$ret,'RETVAL',true); <br>$db-&gt;Execute($stmt); </font></pre>
<p><font color="#000000">An oci8 example: </font></p>
<font color="#000000"> 
<pre><font color="green"># For oracle, Prepare and PrepareSP are identical</font>
$stmt = $db-&gt;PrepareSP(
	<font color="#993300">&quot;declare RETVAL integer; <br>	 begin <br>		:RETVAL := </font><font color="#993300">SP_RUNSOMETHING</font><font color="#993300">(:myid,:group); <br>	 end;&quot;</font>);<br>$db-&gt;Parameter($stmt,$id,'myid');<br>$db-&gt;Parameter($stmt,$group,'group',false,64);
$db-&gt;Parameter($stmt,$ret,'RETVAL',true);<br>$db-&gt;Execute($stmt);
</pre>
<p>Note that the only difference between the oci8 and mssql implementations is 
  the syntax of $sql.</p>
If $type parameter is set to false, in mssql, $type will be dynamicly determined 
based on the type of the PHP variable passed <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono">(string 
=&gt; SQLCHAR, boolean =&gt;SQLINT1, integer =&gt;SQLINT4 or float/double=&gt;SQLFLT8)</font>. 
In oci8, $type can be set to OCI_B_FILE (Binary-File), OCI_B_CFILE (Character-File), 
OCI_B_CLOB (Character-LOB), OCI_B_BLOB (Binary-LOB) and OCI_B_ROWID (ROWID). To 
pass in a null, use<font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"> $db-&gt;Parameter($stmt, 
$null=null, 'param')</font>. 
<p>Lastly, in oci8, bind parameters can be reused without calling PrepareSP( ) 
  or Parameters again. This is not possible with mssql. An oci8 example:</p>
<pre>$id = 0; $i = 0;
$stmt = $db-&gt;PrepareSP( <font color="#993300">&quot;update table set val=:i where id=:id&quot;</font>);
$db-&gt;Parameter($stmt,$id,'id');
$db-&gt;Parameter($stmt,$i, 'i');
for ($cnt=0; $cnt &lt; 1000; $cnt++) {
	$id = $cnt; <br>	$i = $cnt * $cnt; <font color="green"># works with oci8!</font>
	$db-&gt;Execute($stmt); <br>}</pre>
<p><b>Bind<a name="bind"></a>($stmt, $var, $size=4001, $type=false, $name=false)</b></p>
</font> 
<p><font color="#000000">This is a low-level function supported only by the oci8 
  driver. <b>Avoid using</b> unless you only want to support Oracle. The Parameter( 
  ) function is the recommended way to go with bind variables.</font></p>
<p><font color="#000000">Bind( ) allows you to use bind variables in your sql 
  statement. This binds a PHP variable to a name defined in an Oracle sql statement 
  that was previously prepared using Prepare(). Oracle named variables begin with 
  a colon, and ADOdb requires the named variables be called :0, :1, :2, :3, etc. 
  The first invocation of Bind() will match :0, the second invocation will match 
  :1, etc. Binding can provide 100% speedups for insert, select and update statements. 
  </font></p>
<p>The other variables, $size sets the buffer size for data storage, $type is the optional
descriptor type OCI_B_FILE (Binary-File), OCI_B_CFILE (Character-File), OCI_B_CLOB (Character-LOB), OCI_B_BLOB (Binary-LOB) and OCI_B_ROWID (ROWID). 
Lastly, instead of using the default :0, :1, etc names, you can define your own bind-name using
$name.
<p><font color="#000000">The following example shows 3 bind variables being used: 
  p1, p2 and p3. These variables are bound to :0, :1 and :2.</font></p>
<pre>$stmt = $DB-&gt;Prepare(&quot;insert into table (col0, col1, col2) values (:0, :1, :2)&quot;);
$DB-&gt;Bind($stmt, $p1);
$DB-&gt;Bind($stmt, $p2);
$DB-&gt;Bind($stmt, $p3);
for ($i = 0; $i &lt; $max; $i++) { 
   $p1 = ?; $p2 = ?; $p3 = ?;
   $DB-&gt;Execute($stmt);
}</pre>
<p>You can also use named variables:</p>
<pre>
$stmt = $DB-&gt;Prepare(&quot;insert into table (col0, col1, col2) values (:name0, :name1, :name2)&quot;);
$DB-&gt;Bind($stmt, $p1, &quot;name0&quot;);
$DB-&gt;Bind($stmt, $p2, &quot;name1&quot;);
$DB-&gt;Bind($stmt, $p3, &quot;name2&quot;);
for ($i = 0; $i &lt; $max; $i++) { 
   $p1 = ?; $p2 = ?; $p3 = ?;
   $DB-&gt;Execute($stmt);
}</pre>
<font color="#000000"> </font>
<p><font color="#000000"><b>fnExecute and fnCacheExecute properties<a name="fnexecute" id="fnexecute"></a></b></font></p>
<p>These two properties allow you to define bottleneck functions for all sql statements 
	processed by ADOdb. This allows you to perform statistical analysis and query-rewriting 
	of your sql. For example, to count all cached queries and non-cached queries, 
	you can do this:</p>
<pre><font color="#006600"># $db is the connection object</font>
function CountExecs($db, $sql, $inputarray)
{<br>global $EXECS;  $EXECS++;
}

<font color="#006600"># $db is the connection object</font>
function CountCachedExecs($db, $secs2cache, $sql, $inputarray)
{<br>global $CACHED; $CACHED++;
}
<br>$db = NewADOConnection('mysql');
$db-&gt;Connect(...);
$db-&gt;<strong>fnExecute</strong> = 'CountExecs';
$db-&gt;<strong>fnCacheExecute</strong> = 'CountCachedExecs';
 :
 :<br><font color="#006600"># After many sql statements:</font>`
printf(&quot;&lt;p&gt;Total queries=%d; total cached=%d&lt;/p&gt;&quot;,$EXECS+$CACHED, $CACHED);</pre>
<p>The fnExecute function is called before the sql is parsed and executed, so 
	you can perform a query rewrite. If you are passing in a prepared statement, 
	then $sql is an array (see <a href="#prepare">Prepare</a>). The fnCacheExecute 
	function is only called if the recordset returned was cached.<font color="#000000"> 
	The function parameters match the Execute and CacheExecute functions respectively, 
	except that $this (the connection object) is passed as the first parameter.</font></p>
<font color="#000000">
<hr>
<h3>ADOConnection Utility Functions</h3>
<p><b>BlankRecordSet<a name="blankrecordset"></a>([$queryid])</b></p>
<p>No longer available - removed since 1.99.</p>
<p><b>Concat<a name="concat"></a>($s1,$s2,....)</b></p>
<p>Generates the sql string used to concatenate $s1, $s2, etc together. Uses the 
	string in the concat_operator field to generate the concatenation. Override 
	this function if a concatenation operator is not used, eg. MySQL.</p>
<p>Returns the concatenated string.</p>
<p><b>DBDate<a name="dbdate"></a>($date)</b></p>
<p>Format the $<b>date</b> in the format the database accepts; this can be a Unix 
	integer timestamp or an ISO format Y-m-d. Uses the fmtDate field, which holds 
	the format to use. If null or false or '' is passed in, it will be converted 
	to an SQL null.</p>
<p>Returns the date as a quoted string.</p>
<p><b>DBTimeStamp<a name="dbtimestamp"></a>($ts)</b></p>
<p>Format the timestamp $<b>ts</b> in the format the database accepts; this can 
	be a Unix integer timestamp or an ISO format Y-m-d H:i:s. Uses the fmtTimeStamp 
	field, which holds the format to use. If null or false or '' is passed in, 
	it will be converted to an SQL null.</p>
<p>Returns the timestamp as a quoted string.</p>
<p><b>qstr<a name="qstr"></a>($s,[$magic_quotes_enabled</b>=false]<b>)</b></p>
<p>Quotes a string to be sent to the database. The $<b>magic_quotes_enabled</b> 
	parameter may look funny, but the idea is if you are quoting a string extracted 
	from a POST/GET variable, then pass get_magic_quotes_gpc() as the second parameter. 
	This will ensure that the variable is not quoted twice, once by <i>qstr</i> 
	and once by the <i>magic_quotes_gpc</i>.</p>
<p>Eg.<font face="Courier New, Courier, mono"> $s = $db-&gt;qstr(HTTP_GET_VARS['name'],get_magic_quotes_gpc());</font></p>
<p>Returns the quoted string.</p>
<p><b>Quote<a name="quote"></a>($s)</b></p>
<p>Quotes the string, automatically checking get_magic_quotes_gpc() first. If 
	get_magic_quotes_gpc() is set, then we do not quote the string. 
<p><b>Affected_Rows<a name="affected_rows"></a>( )</b></p>
<p>Returns the number of rows affected by a update or delete statement. Returns 
	false if function not supported.</p>
<p>Not supported by interbase/firebird currently. </p>
<p><b>Insert_ID<a name="inserted_id"></a>( )</b></p>
<p>Returns the last autonumbering ID inserted. Returns false if function not supported. 
</p>
<p>Only supported by databases that support auto-increment or object id's, such 
	as PostgreSQL, MySQL and MSSQL currently. PostgreSQL returns the OID, which 
	can change on a database reload.</p>
<p><b>MetaDatabases<a name="metadatabases"></a>()</b></p>
<p>Returns a list of databases available on the server as an array. You have to 
	connect to the server first. Only available for ODBC, MySQL and ADO.</p>
<p><b>MetaTables<a name="metatables"></a>()</b></p>
<p>Returns an array of tables and views for the current database as an array. 
	The array should exclude system catalog tables if possible.</p>
<p><b>MetaColumns<a name="metacolumns"></a>($table)</b></p>
<p>Returns an array of ADOFieldObject's, one field object for every column of 
	$table. Currently Sybase does not recognise date types, and ADO cannot identify 
	the correct data type (so we default to varchar).. </p>
<p><b>MetaColumnNames<a name="metacolumnames"></a>($table)</b></p>
<p>Returns an array of column names for $table. 
<p><font color="#000000"><b>MetaPrimaryKeys<a name="metaprimarykeys"></a>($table)</b></font></font> 
<p><font color="#000000">Returns an array containing column names that are the 
	primary keys of $table. Only supported by mysql, postgres, oci8 currently. </font><font color="#000000">
<p><font color="#000000"><b>ServerInfo<a name="serverinfo" id="serverinfo"></a>($table)</b></font></font> 
<p><font color="#000000">Returns an array of containing two elements 'description' 
	and 'version'. The 'description' element contains the string description of 
	the database. The 'version' naturally holds the version number (which is also 
	a string).</font><font color="#000000">
<hr>
<h2>ADORecordSet<a name="adorecordset"></a></h2>
<p>When an SQL statement successfully is executed by <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono">ADOConnection-&gt;Execute($sql),</font>an 
	ADORecordSet object is returned. This object contains a virtual cursor so 
	we can move from row to row, functions to obtain information about the columns 
	and column types, and helper functions to deal with formating the results 
	to show to the user.</p>
<h3>ADORecordSet Fields</h3>
<p><b>fields: </b>Array containing the current row. This is not associative, but 
	is an indexed array from 0 to columns-1. See also the function <b><a href="#fields">Fields</a></b>, 
	which behaves like an associative array.</p>
<p><b>dataProvider</b>: The underlying mechanism used to connect to the database. 
	Normally set to <b>native</b>, unless using <b>odbc</b> or <b>ado</b>.</p>
<p><b>blobSize</b>: Maximum size of a char, string or varchar object before it 
	is treated as a Blob (Blob's should be shown with textarea's). See the <a href="#metatype">MetaType</a> 
	function.</p>
<p><b>sql</b>: Holds the sql statement used to generate this record set.</p>
<p><b>canSeek</b>: Set to true if Move( ) function works.</p>
<p><b>EOF</b>: True if we have scrolled the cursor past the last record.</p>
<h3>ADORecordSet Functions</h3>
<p><b>ADORecordSet( )</b></p>
<p>Constructer. Normally you never call this function yourself.</p>
<p><b>GetAssoc<a name="getassoc"></a>([$force_array])</b></p>
<p>Generates an associative array from the recordset if the number of columns 
	is greater than 2. The array is generated from the current cursor position 
	till EOF. The first column of the recordset becomes the key to the rest of 
	the array. If the columns is equal to two, then the key directly maps to the 
	value unless $force_array is set to true, when an array is created for each 
	key. Inspired by PEAR's getAssoc.</p>
<p>Example:</p>
<p>We have the following data in a recordset:</p>
<p>row1: Apple, Fruit, Edible<br>
	row2: Cactus, Plant, Inedible<br>
	row3: Rose, Flower, Edible</p>
<p>GetAssoc will generate the following associative array:</p>
<p>Apple =&gt; [Fruit, Edible]<br>
	Cactus =&gt; [Plant, Inedible]<br>
	Rose =&gt; [Flower,Edible]</p>
<p>Returns:</p>
<p>The associative array, or false if an error occurs.</p>
<p><b>GetArray<a name="getarray"></a>([$number_of_rows])</b></p>
<p>Generate a 2-dimensional array of records from the current cursor position, 
	indexed from 0 to $number_of_rows - 1. If $number_of_rows is undefined, till 
	EOF.</p>
<p><b>GetRows<a name="getrows"></a>([$number_of_rows])</b></p>
Generate a 2-dimensional array of records from the current cursor position. Synonym 
for GetArray() for compatibility with Microsoft ADO. 
<p> <b>GetMenu<a name="getmenu"></a>($name, [$default_str=''], [$blank1stItem=true], 
	[$multiple_select=false], [$size=0], [$moreAttr=''])</b></p>
<p>Generate a HTML menu (&lt;select&gt;&lt;option&gt;&lt;option&gt;&lt;/select&gt;). 
	The first column of the recordset (fields[0]) will hold the string to display 
	in the option tags. If the recordset has more than 1 column, the second column 
	(fields[1]) is the value to send back to the web server.. The menu will be 
	given the name $<i>name</i>. 
<p> If $<i>default_str</i> is defined, then if $<i>default_str</i> == fields[0], 
	that field is selected. If $<i>blank1stItem</i> is true, the first option 
	is empty. You can also set the first option strings by setting $blank1stItem 
	= "$value:$text".</p>
<p>$<i>Default_str</i> can be array for a multiple select listbox.</p>
<p>To get a listbox, set the $<i>size</i> to a non-zero value (or pass $default_str 
	as an array). If $<i>multiple_select</i> is true then a listbox will be generated 
	with $<i>size</i> items (or if $size==0, then 5 items) visible, and we will 
	return an array to a server. Lastly use $<i>moreAttr </i> to add additional 
	attributes such as javascript or styles. </p>
<p>Menu Example 1: <code>GetMenu('menu1','A',true)</code> will generate a menu: 
	<select name='menu1'>
		<option> 
		<option value=1 selected>A 
		<option value=2>B 
		<option value=3>C 
	</select>
	for the data (A,1), (B,2), (C,3). Also see <a href="#ex5">example 5</a>.</p>
<p>Menu Example 2: For the same data, <code>GetMenu('menu1',array('A','B'),false)</code> 
	will generate a menu with both A and B selected: <br>
	<select name='menu1' multiple size=3>
		<option value=1 selected>A 
		<option value=2 selected>B 
		<option value=3>C 
	</select>
<p> <b>GetMenu2<a name="getmenu2"></a>($name, [$default_str=''], [$blank1stItem=true], 
	[$multiple_select=false], [$size=0], [$moreAttr=''])</b></p>
<p>This is nearly identical to GetMenu, except that the $<i>default_str</i> is 
	matched to fields[1] (the option values).</p>
<p>Menu Example 3: Given the data in menu example 2, <code>GetMenu2('menu1',array('1','2'),false)</code> 
	will generate a menu with both A and B selected in menu example 2, but this 
	time the selection is based on the 2nd column, which holds the values to return 
	to the Web server. 
<p><b>UserDate<a name="userdate"></a>($str, [$fmt])</b></p>
<p>Converts the date string $<b>str</b> to another format.UserDate calls UnixDate 
	to parse $<b>str</b>, and $<b>fmt</b> defaults to Y-m-d if not defined.</p>
<p><b>UserTimeStamp<a name="usertimestamp"></a>($str, [$fmt])</b></p>
<p>Converts the timestamp string $<b>str</b> to another format. The timestamp 
	format is Y-m-d H:i:s, as in '2002-02-28 23:00:12'. UserTimeStamp calls UnixTimeStamp 
	to parse $<b>str</b>, and $<b>fmt</b> defaults to Y-m-d H:i:s if not defined. 
</p>
<p><b>UnixDate<a name="unixdate"></a>($str)</b></p>
<p>Parses the date string $<b>str</b> and returns it in unix mktime format (eg. 
	a number indicating the seconds after January 1st, 1970). Expects the date 
	to be in Y-m-d H:i:s format, except for Sybase and Microsoft SQL Server, where 
	M d Y is also accepted (the 3 letter month strings are controlled by a global 
	array, which might need localisation).</p>
<p>This function is available in both ADORecordSet and ADOConnection since 1.91.</p>
<p><b>UnixTimeStamp<a name="unixtimestamp"></a>($str)</b></p>
<p>Parses the timestamp string $<b>str</b> and returns it in unix mktime format 
	(eg. a number indicating the seconds after January 1st, 1970). Expects the 
	date to be in Y-m-d H:i:s format, except for Sybase and Microsoft SQL Server, 
	where M d Y h:i:sA is also accepted (the 3 letter month strings are controlled 
	by a global array, which might need localisation).</p>
</font> 
<p><font color="#000000">This function is available in both ADORecordSet and ADOConnection 
  since 1.91. </font></p>
<p><font color="#000000"><b>OffsetDate<a name="offsetdate"></a>($dayFraction, 
  $basedate=false)</b></font></p>
<p><font color="#000000">Allows you to calculate future and past dates based on 
  $basedate in a portable fashion. If $basedate is not defined, then the current 
  date (at 12 midnight) is used. Returns the SQL string that performs the calculation 
  when passed to Execute(). </font></p>
<p><font color="#000000">For example, in Oracle, to find the date and time that 
  is 2.5 days from today, you can use:</font></p>
<pre><font color="#000000"># get date one week from now
$fld = $conn-&gt;OffsetDate(7); // returns &quot;(trunc(sysdate)+7&quot;)</font></pre>
<pre><font color="#000000"># get date and time that is 60 hours from current date and time
$fld = $conn-&gt;OffsetDate(2.5, $conn-&gt;sysTimeStamp);	// returns &quot;(sysdate+2.5)&quot;</font>

$conn-&gt;Execute(&quot;UPDATE TABLE SET dodate=$fld WHERE ID=$id&quot;);</pre>
<p> This function is available for mysql, mssql, oracle, oci8 and postgresql drivers 
  since 2.13. It might work with other drivers<font color="#000000"> provided 
  they allow performing numeric day arithmetic on dates.</font></p>
<font color="#000000">
<p><font color="#000000"><b>SQLDate<a name="sqldate"></a>($dateFormat, 
  $basedate=false)</b></font></p>
 Use the native SQL functions to format a date or date column $basedate,
  using a case-sensitive $dateFormat, which supports:
 <pre>
 Y: 4-digit Year
 Q: Quarter (1-4)
 m: Month (01-12)
 d: Day (01-31)
 H: Hour (00-23)
 h: Hour (1-12)
 i: Minute (00-59)
 s: Second (00-60)
 A: AM/PM indicator</pre>
 <p>All other characters are treated as strings. You can also use \ to escape characters. Available
 on selected databases, including mysql, postgresql, mssql, oci8 and DB2.
 <p>This is useful in writing portable sql statements that GROUP BY on dates. For example to display
 total cost of goods sold broken by quarter (dates are stored in a field called postdate):
 <pre>
 $sqlfn = $db->SQLDate('Y-\QQ','postdate'); # get sql that formats postdate to output 2002-Q1
 $sql = "SELECT $sqlfn,SUM(cogs) FROM table GROUP BY $sqlfn ORDER BY 1 desc";
 </pre>
<p><b>MoveNext<a name="movenext"></a>( )</b></p>
<p>Move the internal cursor to the next row. The <i>$this->fields</i> array is automatically 
  updated. Return false if unable to do so (normally because EOF has been reached), otherwise true.
  If EOF is reached, then the $this->fields array is set to false (this was only implemented consistently
  in ADOdb 3.30).
  Note that if false is returned, then the previous array in <b>$this->fields</b> is preserved.</p>
<p>Example:</p>
<pre>$rs = $db-&gt;Execute($sql);
if ($rs) 
	while (!$rs-&gt;EOF) {
 		ProcessArray($rs->fields);	
		$rs->MoveNext();
	} </pre>
<p><b>Move<a name="move"></a>($to)</b></p>
<p>Moves the internal cursor to a specific row $<b>to</b>. Rows are zero-based 
  eg. 0 is the first row. The <b>fields</b> array is automatically updated. For 
  databases that do not support scrolling internally, ADOdb will simulate forward 
  scrolling. Some databases do not support backward scrolling. If the $<b>to</b> 
  position is after the EOF, $<b>to</b> will move to the end of the RecordSet 
  for most databases. Some obscure databases using odbc might not behave this 
  way.</p>
<p>Note: This function uses <i>absolute positioning</i>, unlike Microsoft's ADO.</p>
<p>Returns true or false. If false, the internal cursor is not moved in most implementations, 
  so AbsolutePosition( ) will return the last cursor position before the Move( 
  ). </p>
<p><b>MoveFirst<a name="movefirst"></a>()</b></p>
<p>Internally calls Move(0). Note that some databases do not support this function.</p>
<p><b>MoveLast<a name="movelast"></a>()</b></p>
<p>Internally calls Move(RecordCount()-1). Note that some databases do not support 
  this function.</p>
<p><b>GetRowAssoc</b><a name="getrowassoc"></a>($toUpper=true)</p>
<p>The above function is no longer the prefered way of getting associative arrays. 
  Use the <a href=#adodb_fetch_mode>$ADODB_FETCH_MODE</a> variable instead. </p>
<p>Returns an associative array containing the current row. The keys to the array 
  are the column names. The column names are upper-cased for easy access. To get 
  the next row, you will still need to call MoveNext(). </p>
<p>For example:<br>
  Array ( [ID] => 1 [FIRSTNAME] => Caroline [LASTNAME] => Miranda [CREATED] => 
  2001-07-05 ) </p>
<p>Note: do not use GetRowAssoc() with $ADODB_FETCH_MODE = ADODB_FETCH_ASSOC. 
  Because they have the same functionality, they will interfere with each other.</p>
</font> 
<p><font color="#000000"><b>AbsolutePage<a name="absolutepage"></a>($page=-1) </b></font></p>
<p>Returns the current page. Requires PageExecute()/CachePageExecute() to be called. See <a href=#ex8>Example 8</a>.</p>
<font color="#000000"> 
<p><b>AtFirstPage<a name="atfirstpage">($status='')</a></b></p>
<p>Returns true if at first page (1-based). Requires PageExecute()/CachePageExecute() 
  to be called. See <a href=#ex8>Example 8</a>.</p>
<p><b>AtLastPage<a name="atlastpage">($status='')</a></b></p>
<p>Returns true if at last page (1-based). Requires PageExecute()/CachePageExecute() 
  to be called. See <a href=#ex8>Example 8</a>.</p>
<p><b>Fields</b><a name="fields"></a>(<b>$colname</b>)</p>
<p>This function is deprecated. Use <a href="#adodb_fetch_mode">$ADODB_FETCH_MODE</a> 
  instead. </p>
<p>Some database extensions (eg. MySQL) return arrays that are both associative 
  and indexed if you use the native extensions. GetRowAssoc() does not return 
  arrays that combine associative and indexed elements. Returns the value of the 
  associated column $<b>colname</b> for the current row. The column name is case-insensitive.</p>
<p><b>FetchRow</b><a name="fetchrow"></a>()</p>
</font>
<p><font color="#000000">Returns array containing current row, or false if EOF. 
  FetchRow( ) internally moves to the next record after returning the current 
  row. </font></p>
<p><font color="#000000">Warning: Do not mix using FetchRow() with MoveNext().</font></p>
<p><font color="#000000">Usage:</font></p>
<pre><font color="#000000">$rs = $db-&gt;Execute($sql);
if ($rs)
	while ($arr = $rs-&gt;FetchRow()) &#123;
	   &nbsp;&nbsp;# process $arr	
</font><font color="#000000">	&#125;</font></pre>
<p><font color="#000000"><b>FetchInto</b><a name="fetchinto"></a>(<b>&amp;$array</b>)</font></p>
<p><font color="#000000"> Sets $array to the current row. Returns PEAR_Error object 
  if EOF, 1 if ok (DB_OK constant). If PEAR is undefined, false is returned when 
  EOF. </font><font color="#000000">FetchInto( ) internally moves to the next 
  record after returning the current row. </font></p>
<p><font color="#000000"> FetchRow() is easier to use. See above.</font></p>
<font color="#000000"> 
<p><b>FetchField<a name="fetchfield"></a>($column_number)</b></p>
<p>Returns an object containing the <b>name</b>, <b>type</b> and <b>max_length</b> 
	of the associated field. If the max_length cannot be determined reliably, 
	it will be set to -1. The column numbers are zero-based. See <a href="#ex2">example 
	2.</a></p>
<p><b>FieldCount<a name="fieldcount"></a>( )</b></p>
<p>Returns the number of fields (columns) in the record set.</p>
<p><b>RecordCount<a name="recordcount"></a>( )</b></p>
<p>Returns the number of rows in the record set. If the number of records returned 
	cannot be determined from the database driver API, we will buffer all rows 
	and return a count of the rows after all the records have been retrieved. 
	This buffering can be disabled (for performance reasons) by setting the global 
	variable $ADODB_COUNTRECS = false. When disabled, RecordCount( ) will return 
	-1 for certain databases. See the supported databases list above for more 
	details. </p>
<p> RowCount is a synonym for RecordCount.</p>
<p><b>PO_RecordCount<a name="po_recordcount"></a>($table, $where)</b></p>
<p>Returns the number of rows in the record set. If the database does not support 
	this, it will perform a SELECT COUNT(*) on the table $table, with the given 
	$where condition to return an estimate of the recordset size.</p>
<p>$numrows = $rs-&gt;PO_RecordCount(&quot;articles_table&quot;, &quot;group=$group&quot;);</p>
<b> NextRecordSet<a name="nextrecordset" id="nextrecordset"></a>()</b> 
<p>For databases that allow multiple recordsets to be returned in one query, this 
	function allows you to switch to the next recordset. Currently only supported 
	by mssql driver.</p>
<pre>
$rs = $db-&gt;Execute('execute return_multiple_rs');
$arr1 = $rs-&gt;GetArray();
$rs-&gt;NextRecordSet();
$arr2 = $rs-&gt;GetArray();</pre>
<p><b>FetchObject<a name="fetchobject"></a>($toupper=true)</b></p>
<p>Returns the current row as an object. If you set $toupper to true, then the 
	object fields are set to upper-case. Note: The newer FetchNextObject() is 
	the recommended way of accessing rows as objects. See below.</p>
<p><b>FetchNextObject<a name="fetchnextobject"></a>($toupper=true)</b></p>
<p>Gets the current row as an object and moves to the next row automatically. 
	Returns false if at end-of-file. If you set $toupper to true, then the object 
	fields are set to upper-case.</p>
<pre>
$rs = $db->Execute('select firstname,lastname from table');
if ($rs) &#123;
	while ($o = $rs->FetchNextObject()) &#123;
		print "$o->FIRSTNAME, $o->LASTNAME&lt;BR>";
	&#125;
&#125;
</pre>
<p>There is some trade-off in speed in using FetchNextObject(). If performance 
	is important, you should access rows with the <code>fields[]</code> array. 
<b>FetchObj<a name="fetchobj" id="fetchobj"></a>()</b> 
<p>Returns the current record as an object. Fields are not upper-cased, unlike 
	FetchObject.
</font>
<p><font color="#000000"><b>FetchNextObj<a name="fetchnextobj" id="fetchnextobj"></a>()</b> </font></p>
<p><font color="#000000">Returns the current record as an object and moves to 
	the next record. If EOF, false is returned. Fields are not upper-cased, unlike 
	FetctNextObject. </font></p>
<font color="#000000">
<p><b>CurrentRow<a name="currentrow"></a>( )</b></p>
<p>Returns the current row of the record set. 0 is the first row.</p>
<p><b>AbsolutePosition<a name="abspos"></a>( )</b></p>
<p>Synonym for <b>CurrentRow</b> for compatibility with ADO. Returns the current 
	row of the record set. 0 is the first row.</p>
<p><b>MetaType<a name="metatype"></a>($nativeDBType[,$field_max_length],[$fieldobj])</b></p>
<p>Determine what <i>generic</i> meta type a database field type is given its 
	native type $<b>nativeDBType</b> as a string and the length of the field $<b>field_max_length</b>. 
	Note that field_max_length can be -1 if it is not known. The field object 
	returned by the database driver can be passed in $<b>fieldobj</b>. This is 
	useful for databases such as <i>mysql</i> which has additional properties 
	in the field object such as <i>primary_key</i>. </p>
<p>Uses the field <b>blobSize</b> and compares it with $<b>field_max_length</b> 
	to determine whether the character field is actually a blob.</p>
For example, $db-&gt;MetaType('char') will return 'C'. 
<p>Returns:</p>
<ul>
	<li><b>C</b>: Character fields that should be shown in a &lt;input type=&quot;text&quot;&gt; 
		tag. </li>
	<li><b>X</b>: Clob (character large objects), or large text fields that should 
		be shown in a &lt;textarea&gt;</li>
	<li><b>D</b>: Date field</li>
	<li><b>T</b>: Timestamp field</li>
	<li><b>L</b>: Logical field (boolean or bit-field)</li>
	<li><b>N</b>: Numeric field. Includes decimal, numeric, floating point, and 
		real. </li>
	<li><b>I</b>:&nbsp; Integer field. </li>
	<li><b>R</b>: Counter or Autoincrement field. Must be numeric.</li>
	<li><b>B</b>: Blob, or binary large objects.<font color="#000000"> </font></li>
</ul>
</font> 
<p><font color="#000000"> Since ADOdb 3.0, MetaType accepts $fieldobj as the first 
	parameter, instead of $nativeDBType. </font></p>
<font color="#000000">
<p><b>Close( )<a name="rsclose"></a></b></p>
<p>Close the recordset.</p>
<hr>
<h3>function rs2html<a name="rs2html"></a>($adorecordset,[$tableheader_attributes], 
	[$col_titles])</h3>
<p>This is a standalone function (rs2html = recordset to html) that is similar 
	to PHP's <i>odbc_result_all</i> function, it prints a ADORecordSet, $<b>adorecordset</b> 
	as a HTML table. $<b>tableheader_attributes</b> allow you to control the table 
	<i>cellpadding</i>, <i>cellspacing</i> and <i>border</i> attributes. Lastly 
	you can replace the database column names with your own column titles with 
	the array $<b>col_titles</b>. This is designed more as a quick debugging mechanism, 
	not a production table recordset viewer.</p>
<p>You will need to include the file <i>tohtml.inc.php</i>.</p>
<p>Example of rs2html:<b><font color="#336600"><a name="exrs2html"></a></font></b></p>
<pre><b><font color="#336600">&lt;?
include('tohtml.inc.php')</font></b>; # load code common to ADOdb 
<b>include</b>('adodb.inc.php'); # load code common to ADOdb 
$<font color="#663300">conn</font> = &amp;ADONewConnection('mysql');   # create a connection 
$<font color="#663300">conn</font>->PConnect('localhost','userid','','agora');# connect to MySQL, agora db
$<font color="#663300">sql</font> = 'select CustomerName, CustomerID from customers'; 
$<font color="#663300">rs</font>   = $<font color="#663300">conn</font>->Execute($sql); 
<font color="#336600"><b>rs2html</b></font><b>($<font color="#663300">rs</font>,'<i>border=2 cellpadding=3</i>',array('<i>Customer Name','Customer ID</i>'));
?&gt;</b></pre>
<hr>
<h3>Differences between this ADOdb library and Microsoft ADO<a name="adodiff"></a></h3>
<ol>
	<li>ADOdb only supports recordsets created by a connection object. Recordsets 
		cannot be created independently.</li>
	<li>ADO properties are implemented as functions in ADOdb. This makes it easier 
		to implement any enhanced ADO functionality in the future.</li>
	<li>ADOdb's <font face="Courier New, Courier, mono">ADORecordSet-&gt;Move()</font> 
		uses absolute positioning, not relative. Bookmarks are not supported.</li>
	<li><font face="Courier New, Courier, mono">ADORecordSet-&gt;AbsolutePosition() 
		</font>cannot be used to move the record cursor.</li>
	<li>ADO Parameter objects are not supported. Instead we have the ADOConnection::<a href="#parameter">Parameter</a>( 
		) function, which provides a simpler interface for calling preparing parameters 
		and calling stored procedures.</li>
	<li>Recordset properties for paging records are available, but implemented 
		as in <a href=#ex8>Example 8</a>.</li>
</ol>
<hr>
<h1>Database Driver Guide<a name="driverguide"></a></h1>
<p>This describes how to create a class to connect to a new database. To ensure 
	there is no duplication of work, kindly email me at jlim#natsoft.com.my if 
	you decide to create such a class.</p>
<p>First decide on a name in lower case to call the database type. Let's say we 
	call it xbase. </p>
<p>Then we need to create two classes ADODB_xbase and ADORecordSet_xbase 
	in the file adodb-xbase.inc.php.</p>
<p>The simplest form of database driver is an adaptation of an existing ODBC driver. 
	Then we just need to create the class <i>ADODB_xbase extends ADODB_odbc</i> 
	to support the new <b>date</b> and <b>timestamp</b> formats, the <b>concatenation</b> 
	operator used, <b>true</b> and <b>false</b>. For the<i> ADORecordSet_xbase 
	extends ADORecordSet_odbc </i>we need to change the <b>MetaType</b> function. 
	See<b> adodb-vfp.inc.php</b> as an example.</p>
<p>More complicated is a totally new database driver that connects to a new PHP 
	extension. Then you will need to implement several functions. Fortunately, 
	you do not have to modify most of the complex code. You only need to override 
	a few stub functions. See <b>adodb-mysql.inc.php</b> for example.</p>
<p>The default date format of ADOdb internally is YYYY-MM-DD (Ansi-92). All dates 
	should be converted to that format when passing to an ADOdb date function. 
	See Oracle for an example how we use ALTER SESSION to change the default date 
	format in _pconnect _connect.</p>
<p><b>ADOConnection Functions to Override</b></p>
<p>Defining a constructor for your ADOConnection derived function is optional. 
	There is no need to call the base class constructor.</p>
<p>_<b>connect</b>: Low level implementation of Connect. Returns true or false. 
	Should set the _<b>connectionID</b>.</p>
<p>_<b>pconnect:</b> Low level implemention of PConnect. Returns true or false. 
	Should set the _<b>connectionID</b>.</p>
<p>_<b>query</b>: Execute a query. Returns the queryID, or false.</p>
<p>_<b>close: </b>Close the connection -- PHP should clean up all recordsets. 
</p>
<p><b>ErrorMsg</b>: Stores the error message in the private variable _errorMsg. 
</p>
<p><b>ADOConnection Fields to Set</b></p>
<p>_<b>bindInputArray</b>: Set to true if binding of parameters for SQL inserts 
	and updates is allowed using ?, eg. as with ODBC.</p>
<p><b>fmtDate</b></p>
<p><b>fmtTimeStamp</b></p>
<p><b>true</b></p>
<p><b>false</b></p>
<p><b>concat_operator</b></p>
<p><b>replaceQuote</b></p>
<p><b>hasLimit</b> support SELECT * FROM TABLE LIMIT 10 of MySQL.</p>
<p><b>hasTop</b> support Microsoft style SELECT TOP 10 * FROM TABLE.</p>
<p><b>ADORecordSet Functions to Override</b></p>
<p>You will need to define a constructor for your ADORecordSet derived class that 
	calls the parent class constructor.</p>
<p><b>FetchField: </b> as documented above in ADORecordSet</p>
<p>_<b>initrs</b>: low level initialization of the recordset: setup the _<b>numOfRows</b> 
	and _<b>numOfFields</b> fields -- called by the constructor.</p>
<p>_<b>seek</b>: seek to a particular row. Do not load the data into the fields 
	array. This is done by _fetch. Returns true or false. Note that some implementations 
	such as Interbase do not support seek. Set canSeek to false.</p>
<p>_<b>fetch</b>: fetch a row using the database extension function and then move 
	to the next row. Sets the <b>fields</b> array. If the parameter $ignore_fields 
	is true then there is no need to populate the <b>fields</b> array, just move 
	to the next row. then Returns true or false.</p>
<p>_<b>close</b>: close the recordset</p>
<p><b>Fields</b>: If the array row returned by the PHP extension is not an associative 
	one, you will have to override this. See adodb-odbc.inc.php for an example. 
	For databases such as MySQL and MSSQL where an associative array is returned, 
	there is no need to override this function.</p>
<p><b>ADOConnection Fields to Set</b></p>
<p>canSeek: Set to true if the _seek function works.</p>
<h2>ToDo:</h2>
<p>See the <a href=http://php.weblogs.com/adodb-todo-roadmap>RoadMap</a> article.</p>
<p>Also see the ADOdb <a href=http://php.weblogs.com/adodb_csv>proxy</a> article 
	for bridging Windows and Unix databases using http remote procedure calls. 
	For your education, visit <a href=http://palslib.com/>palslib.com</a> for 
	database info, and read this article on <a href=http://phplens.com/lens/php-book/optimizing-debugging-php.php>Optimizing 
	PHP</a>. </p>
</font>
<h2>Change Log<a name="Changes"></a><a name="changelog"></a></h2>

<p><b>3.60 16 June 2003</b>

<p>We now SET CONCAT_NULL_YIELDS_NULL OFF for odbc_mssql driver to be compat with mssql driver.

<p>The property $emptyDate missing from connection class. Also changed 1903 to constant (TIMESTAMP_FIRST_YEAR=100). 
Thx to Sebastiaan van Stijn.
<p>ADOdb speedup optimization - we now return all arrays by reference.
<p>Now DBDate() and DBTimeStamp() now accepts the string 'null' as a parameter. Suggested by vincent.
<p>Added GetArray() to connection class.
<p>Added not_null check in informix metacolumns().
<p>Connection parameters for postgresql did not work correctly when port was defined.
<p>DB2 is now a tested driver, making adodb 100% compatible. 
Extensive changes to odbc driver for DB2, including implementing serverinfo() and SQLDate(), 
switching to SQL_CUR_USE_ODBC as the cursor mode, 
and lastAffectedRows and SelectLimit() fixes.
<p>The odbc driver's FetchField() field names did not obey ADODB_ASSOC_CASE. Fixed.
<p>Some bugs in adodb_backtrace() fixed.
<p>Added "INT IDENTITY" type to adorecordset::MetaType() to support odbc_mssql properly.
<p>MetaColumns() for oci8, mssql, odbc revised to support scale. Also minor revisions to odbc
MetaColumns() for vfp and db2 compat.
<p>Added unsigned support to mysql datadict class. Thx to iamsure.
<p>Infinite loop in mssql MoveNext() fixed when ADODB_FETCH_ASSOC used. Thx to Josh R, Night_Wulfe#hotmail.com.
<p>ChangeTableSQL contributed by Florian Buzin.
<p>The odbc_mssql driver now sets CONCAT_NULL_YIELDS_NULL OFF for compat with mssql driver.
<p><b>3.50 19 May 2003</b></p>
<p>Fixed mssql compat with FreeTDS. FreeTDS does not implement mssql_fetch_assoc(). 
<p>Merged back connection and recordset code into adodb.inc.php.
<p>ADOdb sessions using oracle clobs contributed by achim.gosse#ddd.de. See adodb-session-clob.php.
<p>Added /s modifier to preg_match everywhere, which ensures that regex does not stop at /n. Thx Pao-Hsi Huang.
<p>Fixed error in metacolumns() for mssql.
<p>Added time format support for SQLDate.
<p>Image => B added to metatype.
<p>MetaType now checks empty($this->blobSize) instead of empty($this).
<p>Datadict has beta support for informix, sybase (mapped to mssql), db2 and generic (which is a fudge).
<p>BlobEncode for postgresql uses pg_escape_bytea, if available. Needed for compat with 7.3.
<p>Added $ADODB_LANG, to support multiple languages in MetaErrorMsg().
<p>Datadict can now parse table definition as declarative text.
<p>For DataDict, oci8 autoincrement trigger missing semi-colon. Fixed.
<p>For DataDict, when REPLACE flag enabled, drop sequence in datadict for autoincrement field in postgres and oci8.s
<p>Postgresql defaults to template1 database if no database defined in connect/pconnect.
<p>We now clear _resultid in postgresql if query fails.
<p><b>3.40 19 May 2003</b></p>
<p>Added insert_id for odbc_mssql.
<p>Modified postgresql UpdateBlobFile() because it did not work in safe mode.
<p>Now connection object is passed to raiseErrorFn as last parameter. Needed by StartTrans().
<p>Added StartTrans() and CompleteTrans(). It is recommended that you do not modify transOff, but
use the above functions.
<p>oci8po now obeys ADODB_ASSOC_CASE settings.
<p>Added virtualized error codes, using PEAR DB equivalents. Requires you to manually include
	adodb-error.inc.php yourself, with MetaError() and MetaErrorMsg($errno).
<p>GetRowAssoc for mysql and pgsql were flawed. Fix by Ross Smith.
<p>Added to datadict types I1, I2, I4 and I8. Changed datadict type 'T' to map to
timestamp instead of datetime for postgresql.
<p>Error handling in ExecuteSQLArray(), adodb-datadict.inc.php did not work. 
<p>We now auto-quote postgresql connection parameters when building connection string.
<p>Added session expiry notification.
<p>We now test with odbc mysql - made some changes to odbc recordset constructor.
<p>MetaColumns now special cases access and other databases for odbc.
<p><b>3.31 17 March 2003</b></p>
<p>Added row checking for _fetch in postgres.
<p>Added Interval type to MetaType for postgres.
<p>Remapped postgres driver to call postgres7 driver internally.
<p>Adorecordset_array::getarray() did not return array when nRows >= 0.
<p>Postgresql: at times, no error message returned by pg_result_error()
 but error message returned in pg_last_error(). Recoded again.
<p>Interbase blob's now use chunking for updateblob.
<p>Move() did not set EOF correctly. Reported by Jorma T.
<p>We properly support mysql timestamp fields when we are creating mysql
 tables using the data-dict interface.
<p>Table regex includes backticks character now.
<p><b>3.30 3 March 2003</b></p>
<p>Added $ADODB_EXTENSION and $ADODB_COMPAT_FETCH constant.
<p>Made blank1stItem configurable using syntax "value:text" in GetMenu/GetMenu2. Thx to Gabriel Birke.
<p>Previously ADOdb differed from the Microsoft standard because it did not define 
	what to set $this->fields when EOF was reached. Now at EOF, ADOdb sets $this->fields 
	to false for all databases, which is consist with Microsoft's implementation. 
	Postgresql and mysql have always worked this way (in 3.11 and earlier). If 
	you are experiencing compatibility problems (and you are not using postgresql 
	nor mysql) on upgrading to 3.30, try setting the global variables $ADODB_COUNTRECS 
	= true (which is the default) and $ADODB_FETCH_COMPAT = true (this is a new 
	global variable). 
<p>We now check both pg_result_error and pg_last_error as sometimes pg_result_error does not display anything.
 Iman Mayes 
<p>
We no longer check for magic quotes gpc in Quote().
<p>
Misc fixes for table creation in adodb-datadict.inc.php. Thx to iamsure.
<p>
Time calculations use adodb_time library for all negative timestamps
due to problems in Red Hat 7.3 or later. Formerly, only did this for 
Windows.
<p>
In mssqlpo, we now check if $sql in _query is a string before we change || to +. This is
to support prepared stmts.
<p>
Move() and MoveLast() internals changed to support to support EOF and $this->fields change.
<p>
Added ADODB_FETCH_BOTH support to mssql. Thx to Angel Fradejas afradejas#mediafusion.es
<p>
We now check if link resource exists before we run mysql_escape_string in qstr().
<p>
Before we flock in csv code, we check that it is not a http url.
<p><b>3.20 17 Feb 2003</b></p>
<p>Added new Data Dictionary classes for creating tables and indexes. Warning - this is very much alpha quality code.
The API can still change. See adodb/tests/test-datadict.php for more info.
<p>We now ignore $ADODB_COUNTRECS for mysql, because PHP truncates incomplete recordsets 
	when mysql_unbuffered_query() is called a second time.
<p>Now postgresql works correctly when $ADODB_COUNTRECS = false.
<p>Changed _adodb_getcount to properly support SELECT DISTINCT.
<p>Discovered that $ADODB_COUNTRECS=true has some problems with prepared queries - suspect
PHP bug.
<p>Now GetOne and GetRow run in $ADODB_COUNTRECS=false mode for better performance.
<p>Added support for mysql_real_escape_string() and pg_escape_string() in qstr().
<p>Added an intermediate variable for mysql _fetch() and MoveNext() to store fields, to prevent
overwriting field array with boolean when mysql_fetch_array() returns false.
<p>Made arrays for getinsertsql and getupdatesql case-insensitive. Suggested by Tim Uckun" tim#diligence.com
<p><b>3.11 11 Feb 2003</b></p>
<p>Added check for ADODB_NEVER_PERSIST constant in PConnect(). 
If defined, then PConnect() will actually call non-persistent Connect().
<p>Modified interbase to properly work with Prepare().
<p>Added $this->ibase_timefmt to allow you to change the date and time format.
<p>Added support for $input_array parameter in CacheFlush().
<p>Added experimental support for dbx, which was then removed when i found that
it was slower than using native calls.
<p>Added MetaPrimaryKeys for mssql and ibase/firebird.
<p>Added new $trim parameter to GetCol and CacheGetCol
<p>Uses updated adodb-time.inc.php 0.06.
<p><b>3.10 27 Jan 2003</b>
<p>Added adodb_date(), adodb_getdate(), adodb_mktime() and adodb-time.inc.php.
<p>For interbase, added code to handle unlimited number of bind parameters. 
From Daniel Hasan daniel#hasan.cl.
<p>Added BlobDecode and UpdateBlob for informix. Thx to Fernando Ortiz.
<p>Added constant ADODB_WINDOWS. If defined, means that running on Windows.
<p>Added constant ADODB_PHPVER which stores php version as a hex num. Removed $ADODB_PHPVER variable.
<p>Felho Bacsi reported a minor white-space regular expression problem in GetInsertSQL.
<p>Modified ADO to use variant to store _affectedRows
<p>Changed ibase to use base class Replace(). Modified base class Replace() to support ibase.
<p>Changed odbc to auto-detect when 0 records returned is wrong due to bad odbc drivers.
<p>Changed mssql to use datetimeconvert ini setting only when 4.30 or later (does not work in 4.23).
<p>ExecuteCursor($stmt, $cursorname, $params) now accepts a new $params array of additional bind 
parameters -- William Lovaton walovaton#yahoo.com.mx.
<p>Added support for sybase_unbuffered_query if ADODB_COUNTRECS == false. Thx to chuck may.
<p>Fixed FetchNextObj() bug. Thx to Jorma Tuomainen.
<p>We now use SCOPE_IDENTITY() instead of @@IDENTITY for mssql - thx to marchesini#eside.it
<p>Changed postgresql movenext logic to prevent illegal row number from being passed to pg_fetch_array().
<p>Postgresql initrs bug found by "Bogdan RIPA" bripa#interakt.ro $f1 accidentally named $f
<p><b>3.00 6 Jan 2003</b>
<p>Fixed adodb-pear.inc.php syntax error.
<p>Improved  _adodb_getcount() to use SELECT COUNT(*) FROM ($sql) for languages that
accept it.
<p>Fixed _adodb_getcount() caching error.
<p>Added sql to retrive table and column info for odbc_mssql.
<p><strong>2.91 3 Jan 2003</strong>
<p>Revised PHP version checking to use $ADODB_PHPVER with legal values 0x4000, 0x4050, 0x4200, 0x4300.
<p>Added support for bytea fields and oid blobs in postgres by allowing BlobDecode() 
	to detect and convert non-oid fields. Also added BlobEncode to postgres when 
	you want to encode oid blobs.
<p>Added blobEncodeType property for connections to inform phpLens what encoding
method to use for blobs.
<p>Added BlobDecode() and BlobEncode() to base ADOConnection class.
<p>Added umask() to _gencachename() when creating directories.
<p>Added charPage for ado drivers, so you can set the code page.
<pre>
$conn->charPage = CP_UTF8;
$conn->Connect($dsn);
</pre>
<p>Modified _seek in mysql to check for num rows=0.
<p>Added to metatypes new informix types for IDS 9.30. Thx Fernando Ortiz.
<p>_maxrecordcount returned in CachePageExecute $rsreturn 
<p>Fixed sybase cacheselectlimit( ) problems
<p>MetaColumns() max_length should use precision for types X and C for ms access. Fixed.
<p>Speedup of odbc non-SELECT sql statements.
<p>Added support in MetaColumns for Wide Char types for ODBC. We halve max_length 
	if unicode/wide char. 
<p>Added 'B' to types handled by GetUpdateSQL/GetInsertSQL.
<p>Fixed warning message in oci8 driver with $persist variable when using PConnect.
<p><b>2.90 11 Dec 2002</b>
<p>Mssql and mssqlpo and oci8po now support ADODB_ASSOC_CASE. 
<p>Now MetaType() can accept a field object as the first parameter. 
<p>New $arr = $db-&gt;ServerInfo( ) function. Returns $arr['description'] which 
	is the string description, and $arr['version'].
<p>PostgreSQL and MSSQL speedups for insert/updates. 
<p> Implemented new SetFetchMode() that removes the need to use $ADODB_FETCH_MODE. 
	Each connection has independant fetchMode. 
<p>ADODB_ASSOC_CASE now defaults to 2, use native defaults. This is because we would
break backward compat for too many applications otherwise.
<p>Patched encrypted sessions to use replace()
<p>The qstr function supports quoting of nulls when escape character is \
<p>Rewrote bits and pieces of session code to check for time synch and improve reliability.
<p>Added property ADOConnection::hasTransactions = true/false;
<p>Added CreateSequence and DropSequence functions
<p>Found misplaced MoveNext() in adodb-postgres.inc.php. Fixed.
<p>Sybase SelectLimit not reliable because 'set rowcount' not cached - fixed.
<p>Moved ADOConnection to adodb-connection.inc.php and ADORecordSet to adodb-recordset.inc.php. 
This allows us to use doxygen to generate documentation. Doxygen doesn't like the classes 
in the main adodb.inc.php file for some mysterious reason.
<p><b>2.50, 14 Nov 2002</b>
<p>Added transOff and transCnt properties for disabling (transOff = true) 
and tracking transaction status (transCnt>0).
<p>Added inputarray handling into _adodb_pageexecute_all_rows - "Ross Smith" RossSmith#bnw.com.
<p>Fixed postgresql inconsistencies in date handling.
<p>Added support for mssql_fetch_assoc.
<p>Fixed $ADODB_FETCH_MODE bug in odbc MetaTables() and MetaPrimaryKeys(). 
<p>Accidentally declared UnixDate() twice, making adodb incompatible with php 4.3.0. Fixed.
<p>Fixed pager problems with some databases that returned -1 for _currentRow on MoveLast() by 
switching to MoveNext() in adodb-lib.inc.php.
<p>Also fixed uninited $discard in adodb-lib.inc.php.
<p><b>2.43, 25 Oct 2002</b></p>
Added ADODB_ASSOC_CASE constant to better support ibase and odbc field names.
<p>Added support for NConnect() for oracle OCINLogin.
<p>Fixed NumCols() bug.
<p>Changed session handler to use Replace() on write.
<p>Fixed oci8 SelectLimit aggregate function bug again.
<p>Rewrote pivoting code.
<p><b>2.42, 4 Oct 2002</b></p>
<p>Fixed ibase_fetch() problem with nulls. Also interbase now does automatic blob decoding,
and is backward compatible. Suggested by Heinz Hombergs heinz#hhombergs.de.
<p>Fixed postgresql MoveNext() problems when called repeatedly after EOF. 
Also suggested by Heinz Hombergs.
<p>PageExecute() does not rewrite queries if SELECT DISTINCT is used. Requested by hans#velum.net
<p>Added additional fixes to oci8 SelectLimit handling with aggregate functions - thx to Christian Bugge
for reporting the problem.
<p><b>2.41, 2 Oct 2002</b></p>
<p>Fixed ADODB_COUNTRECS bug in odbc. Thx to Joshua Zoshi jzoshi#hotmail.com.
<p>Increased buffers for adodb-csvlib.inc.php for extremely long sql from 8192 to 32000.
<p>Revised pivottable.inc.php code. Added better support for aggregate fields.
<p>Fixed mysql text/blob types problem in MetaTypes base class - thx to horacio degiorgi.
<p>Added SQLDate($fmt,$date) function, which allows an sql date format string to be generated - 
useful for group by's.
<p>Fixed bug in oci8 SelectLimit when offset>100.
<p><b>2.40 4 Sept 2002</b></p>
<p>Added new NLS_DATE_FORMAT property to oci8. Suggested by Laurent NAVARRO ln#altidev.com
<p>Now use bind parameters in oci8 selectlimit for better performance.
<p>Fixed interbase replaceQuote for dialect !=  1. Thx to 
"BEGUIN Pierre-Henri - INFOCOB" phb#infocob.com.
<p>Added white-space check to QA.
<p>Changed unixtimestamp to support fractional seconds (we always round down/floor the seconds).
	Thanks to beezly#beezly.org.uk.
<p>Now you can set the trigger_error type your own user-defined type in adodb-errorhandler.inc.php.
Suggested by Claudio Bustos  clbustos#entelchile.net.
<p>Added recordset filters with rsfilter.inc.php.
<p>$conn->_rs2rs does not create a new recordset when it detects it is of type array. Some
trickery there as there seems to be a bug in Zend Engine
<p>Added render_pagelinks to adodb-pager.inc.php. Code by "Pablo Costa" pablo#cbsp.com.br.
<p>MetaType() speedup in adodb.inc.php by using hashing instead of switch. Best performance
if constant arrays are supported, as they are in PHP5.
<p>adodb-session.php now updates only the expiry date if the crc32 check indicates 
	that the data has not been modified. <hr>
<p><strong>0.10 Sept 9 2000</strong> First release 
<h3><strong>Old changelog history moved to old-changelog.htm. </strong></h3>
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